Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, Ma, Mk, R||ICC, IHC, IP||R||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor m2 Antibody, clone M2-2-B3|
|Presentation||Purified immunoglobulin. Liquid in 0.02 M phosphate buffer, 0.25 M NaCl with 0.1% sodium azide, pH 7.6.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at 2-8°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 6 months.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
References | 32 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Age-Related Changes in Pre- and Postsynaptic Partners of the Cholinergic C-Boutons in Wild-Type and SOD1G93A Lumbar Motoneurons. |
Milan, L; Courtand, G; Cardoit, L; Masmejean, F; Barrière, G; Cazalets, JR; Garret, M; Bertrand, SS
PloS one 10 e0135525 2015
Large cholinergic synaptic terminals known as C-boutons densely innervate the soma and proximal dendrites of motoneurons that are prone to neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Studies using the Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mouse model of ALS have generated conflicting data regarding C-bouton alterations exhibited during ALS pathogenesis. In the present work, a longitudinal study combining immunohistochemistry, biochemical approaches and extra- and intra-cellular electrophysiological recordings revealed that the whole spinal cholinergic system is modified in the SOD1 mouse model of ALS compared to wild type (WT) mice as early as the second postnatal week. In WT motoneurons, both C-bouton terminals and associated M2 postsynaptic receptors presented a complex age-related dynamic that appeared completely disrupted in SOD1 motoneurons. Indeed, parallel to C-bouton morphological alterations, analysis of confocal images revealed a clustering process of M2 receptors during WT motoneuron development and maturation that was absent in SOD1 motoneurons. Our data demonstrated for the first time that the lamina X cholinergic interneurons, the neuronal source of C-boutons, are over-abundant in high lumbar segments in SOD1 mice and are subject to neurodegeneration in the SOD1 animal model. Finally, we showed that early C-bouton system alterations have no physiological impact on the cholinergic neuromodulation of newborn motoneurons. Altogether, these data suggest a complete reconfiguration of the spinal cholinergic system in SOD1 spinal networks that could be part of the compensatory mechanisms established during spinal development.
|Dexamethasone acts as a radiosensitizer in three astrocytoma cell lines via oxidative stress. |
Redox biology 5 388-97 2015
Glucocorticoids (GCs), which act on stress pathways, are well-established in the co-treatment of different kinds of tumors; however, the underlying mechanisms by which GCs act are not yet well elucidated. As such, this work investigates the role of glucocorticoids, specifically dexamethasone (DEXA), in the processes referred to as DNA damage and DNA damage response (DDR), establishing a new approach in three astrocytomas cell lines (CT2A, APP.PS1 L.1 and APP.PS1 L.3). The results show that DEXA administration increased the basal levels of gamma-H2AX foci, keeping them higher 4h after irradiation (IR) of the cells, compared to untreated cells. This means that DEXA might cause increased radiosensitivity in these cell lines. On the other hand, DEXA did not have an apparent effect on the formation and disappearance of the 53BP1 foci. Furthermore, it was found that DEXA administered 2h before IR led to a radical change in DNA repair kinetics, even DEXA does not affect cell cycle. It is important to highlight that DEXA produced cell death in these cell lines compared to untreated cells. Finally and most important, the high levels of gamma-H2AX could be reversed by administration of ascorbic acid, a potent blocker of reactive oxygen species, suggesting that DEXA acts by causing DNA damage via oxidative stress. These exiting findings suggest that DEXA might promote radiosensitivity in brain tumors, specifically in astrocytoma-like tumors.
|Distinct balance of excitation and inhibition in an interareal feedforward and feedback circuit of mouse visual cortex. |
Yang, W; Carrasquillo, Y; Hooks, BM; Nerbonne, JM; Burkhalter, A
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 17373-84 2013
Mouse visual cortex is subdivided into multiple distinct, hierarchically organized areas that are interconnected through feedforward (FF) and feedback (FB) pathways. The principal synaptic targets of FF and FB axons that reciprocally interconnect primary visual cortex (V1) with the higher lateromedial extrastriate area (LM) are pyramidal cells (Pyr) and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing GABAergic interneurons. Recordings in slices of mouse visual cortex have shown that layer 2/3 Pyr cells receive excitatory monosynaptic FF and FB inputs, which are opposed by disynaptic inhibition. Most notably, inhibition is stronger in the FF than FB pathway, suggesting pathway-specific organization of feedforward inhibition (FFI). To explore the hypothesis that this difference is due to diverse pathway-specific strengths of the inputs to PV neurons we have performed subcellular Channelrhodopsin-2-assisted circuit mapping in slices of mouse visual cortex. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained from retrobead-labeled FF(V1→LM)- and FB(LM→V1)-projecting Pyr cells, as well as from tdTomato-expressing PV neurons. The results show that the FF(V1→LM) pathway provides on average 3.7-fold stronger depolarizing input to layer 2/3 inhibitory PV neurons than to neighboring excitatory Pyr cells. In the FB(LM→V1) pathway, depolarizing inputs to layer 2/3 PV neurons and Pyr cells were balanced. Balanced inputs were also found in the FF(V1→LM) pathway to layer 5 PV neurons and Pyr cells, whereas FB(LM→V1) inputs to layer 5 were biased toward Pyr cells. The findings indicate that FFI in FF(V1→LM) and FB(LM→V1) circuits are organized in a pathway- and lamina-specific fashion.
|Knockouts reveal overlapping functions of M(2) and M(4) muscarinic receptors and evidence for a local glutamatergic circuit within the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. |
Kohlmeier, KA; Ishibashi, M; Wess, J; Bickford, ME; Leonard, CS
Journal of neurophysiology 108 2751-66 2012
Cholinergic neurons in the laterodorsal tegmental (LDT) and peduncolopontine tegmental (PPT) nuclei regulate reward, arousal, and sensory gating via major projections to midbrain dopamine regions, the thalamus, and pontine targets. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) on LDT neurons produce a membrane hyperpolarization and inhibit spike-evoked Ca(2+) transients. Pharmacological studies suggest M(2) mAChRs are involved, but the role of these and other localized mAChRs (M(1-)-M(4)) has not been definitively tested. To identify the underlying receptors and to circumvent the limited receptor selectivity of available mAChR ligands, we used light- and electron-immunomicroscopy and whole cell recording with Ca(2+) imaging in brain slices from knockout mice constitutively lacking either M(2), M(4), or both mAChRs. Immunomicroscopy findings support a role for M(2) mAChRs, since cholinergic and noncholinergic LDT and pedunculopontine tegmental neurons contain M(2)-specific immunoreactivity. However, whole cell recording revealed that the presence of either M(2) or M(4) mAChRs was sufficient, and that the presence of at least one of these receptors was required for these carbachol actions. Moreover, in the absence of M(2) and M(4) mAChRs, carbachol elicited both direct excitation and barrages of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic potentials (sEPSPs) in cholinergic LDT neurons mediated by M(1) and/or M(3) mAChRs. Focal carbachol application to surgically reduced slices suggest that local glutamatergic neurons are a source of these sEPSPs. Finally, neither direct nor indirect excitation were knockout artifacts, since each was detected in wild-type slices, although sEPSP barrages were delayed, suggesting M(2) and M(4) receptors normally delay excitation of glutamatergic inputs. Collectively, our findings indicate that multiple mAChRs coordinate cholinergic outflow from the LDT in an unexpectedly complex manner. An intriguing possibility is that a local circuit transforms LDT muscarinic inputs from a negative feedback signal for transient inputs into positive feedback for persistent inputs to facilitate different firing patterns across behavioral states.
|Network analysis of corticocortical connections reveals ventral and dorsal processing streams in mouse visual cortex. |
Wang, Q; Sporns, O; Burkhalter, A
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 4386-99 2012
Much of the information used for visual perception and visually guided actions is processed in complex networks of connections within the cortex. To understand how this works in the normal brain and to determine the impact of disease, mice are promising models. In primate visual cortex, information is processed in a dorsal stream specialized for visuospatial processing and guided action and a ventral stream for object recognition. Here, we traced the outputs of 10 visual areas and used quantitative graph analytic tools of modern network science to determine, from the projection strengths in 39 cortical targets, the community structure of the network. We found a high density of the cortical graph that exceeded that shown previously in monkey. Each source area showed a unique distribution of projection weights across its targets (i.e., connectivity profile) that was well fit by a lognormal function. Importantly, the community structure was strongly dependent on the location of the source area: outputs from medial/anterior extrastriate areas were more strongly linked to parietal, motor, and limbic cortices, whereas lateral extrastriate areas were preferentially connected to temporal and parahippocampal cortices. These two subnetworks resemble dorsal and ventral cortical streams in primates, demonstrating that the basic layout of cortical networks is conserved across species.
|A blueprint for the spatiotemporal origins of mouse hippocampal interneuron diversity. |
Tricoire, L; Pelkey, KA; Erkkila, BE; Jeffries, BW; Yuan, X; McBain, CJ
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 10948-70 2011
Although vastly outnumbered, inhibitory interneurons critically pace and synchronize excitatory principal cell populations to coordinate cortical information processing. Precision in this control relies upon a remarkable diversity of interneurons primarily determined during embryogenesis by genetic restriction of neuronal potential at the progenitor stage. Like their neocortical counterparts, hippocampal interneurons arise from medial and caudal ganglionic eminence (MGE and CGE) precursors. However, while studies of the early specification of neocortical interneurons are rapidly advancing, similar lineage analyses of hippocampal interneurons have lagged. A "hippocampocentric" investigation is necessary as several hippocampal interneuron subtypes remain poorly represented in the neocortical literature. Thus, we investigated the spatiotemporal origins of hippocampal interneurons using transgenic mice that specifically report MGE- and CGE-derived interneurons either constitutively or inducibly. We found that hippocampal interneurons are produced in two neurogenic waves between E9-E12 and E12-E16 from MGE and CGE, respectively, and invade the hippocampus by E14. In the mature hippocampus, CGE-derived interneurons primarily localize to superficial layers in strata lacunosum moleculare and deep radiatum, while MGE-derived interneurons readily populate all layers with preference for strata pyramidale and oriens. Combined molecular, anatomical, and electrophysiological interrogation of MGE/CGE-derived interneurons revealed that MGE produces parvalbumin-, somatostatin-, and nitric oxide synthase-expressing interneurons including fast-spiking basket, bistratified, axo-axonic, oriens-lacunosum moleculare, neurogliaform, and ivy cells. In contrast, CGE-derived interneurons contain cholecystokinin, calretinin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and reelin including non-fast-spiking basket, Schaffer collateral-associated, mossy fiber-associated, trilaminar, and additional neurogliaform cells. Our findings provide a basic blueprint of the developmental origins of hippocampal interneuron diversity.
|Strain-dependent genomic factors affect allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in mice. |
Kelada, SN; Wilson, MS; Tavarez, U; Kubalanza, K; Borate, B; Whitehead, GS; Maruoka, S; Roy, MG; Olive, M; Carpenter, DE; Brass, DM; Wynn, TA; Cook, DN; Evans, CM; Schwartz, DA; Collins, FS
American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology 45 817-24 2011
Asthma is etiologically and clinically heterogeneous, making the genomic basis of asthma difficult to identify. We exploited the strain-dependence of a murine model of allergic airway disease to identify different genomic responses in the lung. BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J mice were sensitized with the immunodominant allergen from the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus species of house dust mite (Der p 1), without exogenous adjuvant, and the mice then underwent a single challenge with Der p 1. Allergic inflammation, serum antibody titers, mucous metaplasia, and airway hyperresponsiveness were evaluated 72 hours after airway challenge. Whole-lung gene expression analyses were conducted to identify genomic responses to allergen challenge. Der p 1-challenged BALB/cJ mice produced all the key features of allergic airway disease. In comparison, C57BL/6J mice produced exaggerated Th2-biased responses and inflammation, but exhibited an unexpected decrease in airway hyperresponsiveness compared with control mice. Lung gene expression analysis revealed genes that were shared by both strains and a set of down-regulated genes unique to C57BL/6J mice, including several G-protein-coupled receptors involved in airway smooth muscle contraction, most notably the M2 muscarinic receptor, which we show is expressed in airway smooth muscle and was decreased at the protein level after challenge with Der p 1. Murine strain-dependent genomic responses in the lung offer insights into the different biological pathways that develop after allergen challenge. This study of two different murine strains demonstrates that inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness can be decoupled, and suggests that the down-modulation of expression of G-protein-coupled receptors involved in regulating airway smooth muscle contraction may contribute to this dissociation.
|Neuronal localization of M2 muscarinic receptor immunoreactivity in the rat amygdala. |
A J McDonald,F Mascagni
Neuroscience 196 2011
Muscarinic cholinergic neurotransmission in the amygdala is critical for memory consolidation in emotional/motivational learning tasks, but little is known about the neuronal distribution of different receptor subtypes. Immunohistochemistry was used in the present investigation to localize the m2 receptor (M2R). Differential patterns of M2R-immunoreactivity (M2R-ir) were observed in the somata and neuropil of the various amygdalar nuclei. Neuropilar M2R-ir was strongest in rostral portions of the basolateral nuclear complex (BLC). M2R-positive (M2R+) somata were seen in low numbers in all nuclei of the amygdala. Most M2R+ neurons associated with the BLC were in the lateral nucleus and external capsule. These cells were nonpyramidal neurons that contained glutamatic acid decarboxylase (GAD), somatostatin (SOM), and neuropeptide Y (NPY), but not parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), or cholecystokinin (CCK). Little or no M2R-ir was observed in GAD+, PV+, CR+, or CCK+ axons in the BLC, but it was seen in some SOM+ axons and many NPY+ axons. M2R-ir was found in a small number of spiny and aspiny neurons of the central nucleus that were mainly located along the lateral and ventral borders of its lateral subdivision. Many of these cells contained SOM and NPY. M2R+ neurons were also seen in the medial nucleus, including a distinct subpopulation of neurons that surrounded its anteroventral subdivision. The latter neurons were negative for all neuronal markers analyzed. The intercalated nuclei (INs) were associated with two types of large M2R+ neurons, spiny and aspiny. The small principal neurons of the INs were M2R-negative. The somata and dendrites of the large spiny neurons, which were actually found in a zone located just outside of the rostral INs, expressed SOM and NPY, but not GAD. These findings indicate that acetylcholine can modulate a variety of discrete neuronal subpopulations in various amygdalar nuclei via M2Rs, especially neurons that express SOM and NPY.
|Gateways of ventral and dorsal streams in mouse visual cortex. |
Wang, Q; Gao, E; Burkhalter, A
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 1905-18 2011
It is widely held that the spatial processing functions underlying rodent navigation are similar to those encoding human episodic memory (Doeller et al., 2010). Spatial and nonspatial information are provided by all senses including vision. It has been suggested that visual inputs are fed to the navigational network in cortex and hippocampus through dorsal and ventral intracortical streams (Whitlock et al., 2008), but this has not been shown directly in rodents. We have used cytoarchitectonic and chemoarchitectonic markers, topographic mapping of receptive fields, and pathway tracing to determine in mouse visual cortex whether the lateromedial field (LM) and the anterolateral field (AL), which are the principal targets of primary visual cortex (V1) (Wang and Burkhalter, 2007) specialized for processing nonspatial and spatial visual information (Gao et al., 2006), are distinct areas with diverse connections. We have found that the LM/AL border coincides with a change in type 2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor expression in layer 4 and with the representation of the lower visual field periphery. Our quantitative analyses also show that LM strongly projects to temporal cortex as well as the lateral entorhinal cortex, which has weak spatial selectivity (Hargreaves et al., 2005). In contrast, AL has stronger connections with posterior parietal cortex, motor cortex, and the spatially selective medial entorhinal cortex (Haftig et al., 2005). These results support the notion that LM and AL are architecturally, topographically, and connectionally distinct areas of extrastriate visual cortex and that they are gateways for ventral and dorsal streams.Full Text Article
|The sigma-1 receptor is enriched in postsynaptic sites of C-terminals in mouse motoneurons. An anatomical and behavioral study. |
Mavlyutov, TA; Epstein, ML; Andersen, KA; Ziskind-Conhaim, L; Ruoho, AE
Neuroscience 167 247-55 2010
The sigma-1 receptor regulates various ion channel activity and possesses protein chaperone function. Using an antibody against the full sequence of the sigma-1 receptor we detected immunostaining in wild type but not in knockout mice. The receptor was found primarily in motoneurons localized to the brainstem and spinal cord. At the subcellular level the receptor is restricted to large cholinergic postsynaptic densities on the soma of motoneurons and is colocalized with the Kv2.1 potassium channel and the muscarinic type 2 cholinergic receptor. Ultrastructural analysis of the neurons indicates that the immunostained receptor is located close but separate from the plasma membrane, possibly in subsurface cisternae formed from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which are a prominent feature of cholinergic postsynaptic densities. Behavioral testing on a rotorod revealed that Sigma-1 receptor knockout mice remained on the rotorod for significantly less time (a shorter latency period) compared to the wild type mice. Together these data indicate that the sigma-1 receptor may play a role in the regulation of motor behavior.
|Muscarinic signaling in the cochlea: presynaptic and postsynaptic effects on efferent feedback and afferent excitability. |
Maison SF, Liu XP, Vetter DE, Eatock RA, Nathanson NM, Wess J, Liberman MC
J Neurosci 30 6751-62. 2010
Acetylcholine is the major neurotransmitter of the olivocochlear efferent system, which provides feedback to cochlear hair cells and sensory neurons. To study the role of cochlear muscarinic receptors, we studied receptor localization with immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-PCR and measured olivocochlear function, cochlear responses, and histopathology in mice with targeted deletion of each of the five receptor subtypes. M2, M4, and M5 were detected in microdissected immature (postnatal days 10-13) inner hair cells and spiral ganglion cells but not outer hair cells. In the adult (6 weeks), the same transcripts were found in microdissected organ of Corti and spiral ganglion samples. M2 protein was found, by immunohistochemistry, in olivocochlear fibers in both outer and inner hair cell areas. M3 mRNA was amplified only from whole cochleas, and M1 message was never seen in wild-type ears. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were unaffected by loss of Gq-coupled receptors (M1, M3, or M5), as were shock-evoked olivocochlear effects and vulnerability to acoustic injury. In contrast, loss of Gi-coupled receptors (M2 and/or M4) decreased neural responses without affecting DPOAEs (at low frequencies). This phenotype and the expression pattern are consistent with excitatory muscarinic signaling in cochlear sensory neurons. At high frequencies, both ABRs and DPOAEs were attenuated by loss of M2 and/or M4, and the vulnerability to acoustic injury was dramatically decreased. This aspect of the phenotype and the expression pattern are consistent with a presynaptic role for muscarinic autoreceptors in decreasing ACh release from olivocochlear terminals during high-level acoustic stimulation and suggest that muscarinic antagonists could enhance the resistance of the inner ear to noise-induced hearing loss.
|Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed by mouse bladder afferent neurons. |
R Nandigama,M Bonitz,T Papadakis,U Schwantes,T Bschleipfer,W Kummer
Neuroscience 168 2010
Cell bodies of afferent neurons located in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) provide Adelta- and C-fibres to the urinary bladder, reporting bladder wall tension, volume and noxious stimuli. Recent studies suggested an involvement of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) not only in detrusor contractility but also in modulating afferent function, and this has been linked to the beneficial effects of muscarinic antagonists in the treatment of overactive bladder. Here, we aimed to determine the inventory of mAChR subtypes expressed by bladder afferent neurons in the mouse. Bladder afferent neurons were identified by retrograde neuronal tracing using Fast Blue (FB) or 1, 1'-dioctadecyl-3, 3, 3', 3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorhydrate (DiI) injection into the detrusor muscle. DRG L6-S1 were recognized as the major location of bladder afferent perikarya with an additional smaller peak at L1/L2. Retrogradely labelled bladder afferents located in DRG L4-S2 were subjected to immunohistochemistry or to laser-assisted microdissection with subsequent RT-PCR to study expression of mAChRs subtypes M1R-M5R. Immunolabelling for mAChR subtype M2R, validated on DRG from M2R gene-deficient mice, demonstrated this subtype on 35% of FB-labelled bladder afferents. RT-PCR demonstrated expression of subtypes M2R, M3R and M4R, but not of M1R and M5R, in pooled samples (30 section profiles each) of laser microdissected DiI-labelled bladder afferent cell bodies. In conclusion, bladder afferent neurons express different subtypes of mAChRs (M2R, M3R and M4R). Thus, processing of sensory information from the bladder appears to be under direct cholinergic control.
|Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor localization and activation effects on ganglion response properties. |
Strang CE, Renna JM, Amthor FR, Keyser KT
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51 2778-89. Epub 2009 Dec 30. 2010
PURPOSE: The activation and blockade of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) affects retinal ganglion cell light responses and firing rates. This study was undertaken to identify the full complement of mAChRs expressed in the rabbit retina and to assess mAChR distribution and the functional effects of mAChR activation and blockade on retinal response properties. METHODS: RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry were used to identify the complement and distribution of mAChRs in the rabbit retina. Extracellular electrophysiology was used to determine the effects of the activation or blockade of mAChRs on ganglion cell response properties. RESULTS: RT-PCR of whole neural retina resulted in the amplification of mRNA transcripts for the m1 to m5 mAChR subtypes. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed that all five mAChR subtypes were expressed by subpopulations of bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells in the rabbit retina, including subsets of cells in cholinergic and glycinergic circuits. Nonspecific muscarinic activation and blockade resulted in the class-specific modulation of maintained ganglion cell firing rates and light responses. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of mAChR subtypes on subsets of bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells provides a substrate for both enhancement and suppression of retinal responses via activation by cholinergic agents. Thus, the muscarinic cholinergic system in the retina may contribute to the modulation of complex stimuli. Understanding the distribution and function of mAChRs in the retina has the potential to provide important insights into the visual changes that are caused by decreased ACh in the retinas of Alzheimer\'s patients and the potential visual effects of anticholinergic treatments for ocular diseases.
|The Drosophila serine protease homologue Scarface regulates JNK signalling in a negative-feedback loop during epithelial morphogenesis. |
Rousset R, Bono-Lauriol S, Gettings M, Suzanne M, Spéder P, Noselli S
Development 137 2177-86. 2010
In Drosophila melanogaster, dorsal closure is a model of tissue morphogenesis leading to the dorsal migration and sealing of the embryonic ectoderm. The activation of the JNK signal transduction pathway, specifically in the leading edge cells, is essential to this process. In a genome-wide microarray screen, we identified new JNK target genes during dorsal closure. One of them is the gene scarface (scaf), which belongs to the large family of trypsin-like serine proteases. Some proteins of this family, like Scaf, bear an inactive catalytic site, representing a subgroup of serine protease homologues (SPH) whose functions are poorly understood. Here, we show that scaf is a general transcriptional target of the JNK pathway coding for a secreted SPH. scaf loss-of-function induces defects in JNK-controlled morphogenetic events such as embryonic dorsal closure and adult male terminalia rotation. Live imaging of the latter process reveals that, like for dorsal closure, JNK directs the dorsal fusion of two epithelial layers in the pupal genital disc. Genetic data show that scaf loss-of-function mimics JNK over-activity. Moreover, scaf ectopic expression aggravates the effect of the JNK negative regulator puc on male genitalia rotation. We finally demonstrate that scaf acts as an antagonist by negatively regulating JNK activity. Overall, our results identify the SPH-encoding gene scaf as a new transcriptional target of JNK signalling and reveal the first secreted regulator of the JNK pathway acting in a negative-feedback loop during epithelial morphogenesis.
|Species-specific in vivo engraftment of the human BL melanoma cell line results in an invasive dedifferentiated phenotype not present in xenografts. |
Cedervall, J; Jamil, S; Prasmickaite, L; Cheng, Y; Eskandarpour, M; Hansson, J; Maelandsmo, GM; Ringborg, U; Gulyas, M; Zhen, HS; Kanter, L; Ahrlund-Richter, L
Cancer research 69 3746-54 2009
For clinically relevant studies on melanoma progression and invasiveness, in vivo experimental systems with a human cellular microenvironment would be advantageous. We have compared tumor formation from a human cutaneous malignant melanoma cell line (BL), after injection as conventional xenografts in the mouse, or when injected into a predominantly species-specific environment of human embryonic stem cell-derived teratoma induced in the mouse (the hEST model). The resulting melanoma histology was generally analogous, both systems showing delimited densely packed areas with pleomorphic cells of malignant appearance. A specificity of the integration process into the human embryonic teratoma tissues was indicated by the melanoma exclusively being found in areas compatible with condensed mesenchyme, similar to neural crest development. Here, also enhanced neovascularization was seen within the human mesenchymal tissues facing the BL melanoma growth. Furthermore, in the hEST model an additional melanoma cell phenotype occurred, located at the border of, or infiltrating into, the surrounding human loose mesenchymal fibrous stroma. This BL population had a desmoplastic spindle-like appearance, with markers indicative of dedifferentiation and migration. The appearance of this apparently more aggressive phenotype, as well as the induction of human angiogenesis, shows specific interactions with the human embryonic microenvironment in the hEST model. In conclusion, these data provide exciting options for using the hEST model in molecular in vivo studies on differentiation, invasiveness, and malignancy of human melanoma, while analyzing species-specific reactions in vivo.
|Targeting of acetylcholinesterase in neurons in vivo: a dual processing function for the proline-rich membrane anchor subunit and the attachment domain on the catalytic subunit. |
Alexandre Dobbertin,Anna Hrabovska,Korami Dembele,Shelley Camp,Palmer Taylor,Eric Krejci,Véronique Bernard
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 29 2009
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) accumulates on axonal varicosities and is primarily found as tetramers associated with a proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA). PRiMA is a small transmembrane protein that efficiently transforms secreted AChE to an enzyme anchored on the outer cell surface. Surprisingly, in the striatum of the PRiMA knock-out mouse, despite a normal level of AChE mRNA, we find only 2-3% of wild type AChE activity, with the residual AChE localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that PRiMA in vivo is necessary for intracellular processing of AChE in neurons. Moreover, deletion of the retention signal of the AChE catalytic subunit in mice, which is the domain of interaction with PRiMA, does not restore AChE activity in the striatum, establishing that PRiMA is necessary to target and/or to stabilize nascent AChE in neurons. These unexpected findings open new avenues to modulating AChE activity and its distribution in CNS disorders.Full Text Article
|Muscarinic receptor-mediated bronchoconstriction is coupled to caveolae in murine airways. |
H Schlenz, W Kummer, G Jositsch, J Wess, GT Krasteva
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular 2009
Cholinergic bronchoconstriction is mediated by M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors (MR). In heart and urinary bladder, MR are linked to caveolin-1 or -3, the structural proteins of caveolae. Caveolae are cholesterol rich, omega-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane. They provide a scaffold for multiple G-protein receptors and membrane-bound enzymes, thereby orchestrating signaling into the cell's interior. Hence, we hypothesized that airway MR signaling pathways are coupled to caveolae as well. To address this issue we determined the distribution of caveolin-isoforms and M2R in murine and human airways and investigated protein-protein associations by FRET-CLSM-analysis in immunolabeled murine tissue sections. Bronchoconstrictor responses of murine bronchi were recorded in lung slice preparations before and after caveolae disruption by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, efficiency of this treatment being validated by electron microscopy. KCl-induced bronchoconstriction was unaffected after treatment, demonstrating functional integrity of the smooth muscle. Caveolae disruption decreased muscarine-induced bronchoconstriction in wild-type and abolished it in M2R(-/-) and M3R(-/-) mice. Thus, M2R and M3R signaling pathways require intact caveolae. Furthermore, we identified a presumed skeletal and cardiac myocyte-specific caveolin-isoform, caveolin-3, in human and murine bronchial smooth muscle and found it to be associated with M2R in situ. In contrast, M2R was not associated with caveolin-1, despite an in situ-association of caveolin-1 and caveolin-3 was detected. Here, we demonstrated that M2R- and M3R-mediated bronchoconstriction is caveolae-dependent. Since caveolin-3 is directly associated with M2R, we suggest caveolin-3 as novel regulator of M2R-mediated signaling. Key words: airways, bronchus, caveolin, FRET.,
|Immunohistochemical localisation of pre-synaptic muscarinic receptor subtype-2 (M2r) in the enteric nervous system of guinea-pig ileum. |
A M Harrington, J M Hutson, B R Southwell
Cell and tissue research 332 37-48 2008
The cholinergic muscarinic 2 receptor (M2r) is known to be present on smooth muscle cells in the intestine. Pharmacological studies also suggest that M2rs regulate transmitter release from nerves in the enteric nervous system. This study localised M2rs in the guinea-pig ileum using different antibodies and fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Double labelling with antibodies against neurochemical markers was used to identify the type of nerves bearing M2r. Guinea-pig ileum were fixed, prepared for sections and wholemounts and incubated with antisera against the M2r sequence. Tissue was double labelled with antibodies against neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), common choline acetyltransferase (cChAT), substance P (SP), synaptophysin and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Immunofluorescence was viewed using confocal microscopy. Abundant M2r-immunoreactivity (IR) was present on the surface of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle cells. M2r-IR was present in many but not all nerve fibres in the circular muscle and ganglia. M2r-IR was present in VAChT-IR and cChAT-IR cholinergic nerve fibres and SP-IR nerve fibres in the myenteric ganglia and submucosal ganglia. M2r-IR was present on a few nNOS-IR nerve fibres and around nNOS-IR neurons in the myenteric ganglia. In the circular muscle and deep muscular plexus, M2r-IR was present in many VAChT-IR and SP-IR nerve fibres and in few nNOS-IR nerves. M2rs are not only present on muscle cells in the intestine, but also on nerve fibres. M2rs may mediate cholinergic reflexes via their location on muscle and also via neural transmission. The pre-synaptic location supports pharmacological studies suggesting M2rs mediate neurotransmitter release from nerve fibres. The presence of M2rs on VAChT-IR, SP-IR and nNOS-IR-containing nerve fibres suggests M2rs may regulate ACh, SP and nitric oxide release.
|M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors are involved in enteric nerve-mediated contraction of the mouse ileum: Findings obtained with muscarinic-receptor knockout mouse. |
Takeuchi, T; Tanaka, K; Nakajima, H; Matsui, M; Azuma, YT
American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 292 G154-64 2007
The involvement of muscarinic receptors in neurogenic responses of the ileum was studied in wild-type and muscarinic-receptor (M-receptor) knockout (KO) mice. Electrical field stimulation to the wild-type mouse ileum induced a biphasic response, a phasic and sustained contraction that was abolished by tetrodotoxin. The sustained contraction was prolonged for an extended period after the termination of electrical field stimulation. The phasic contraction was completely inhibited by atropine. In contrast, the sustained contraction was enhanced by atropine. Ileal strips prepared from M2-receptor KO mice exhibited a phasic contraction similar to that seen in wild-type mice and a sustained contraction that was larger than that in wild-type mice. In M3-receptor KO mice, the phasic contraction was smaller than that observed in wild-type mice. Acetylcholine exogenously administrated induced concentration-dependent contractions in strips isolated from wild-type, M2- and M3-receptor KO mice. However, contractions in M3-receptor KO mice shifted to the right. The sustained contraction was inhibited by capsaicin and neurokinin NK2 receptor antagonist, suggesting that it is mediated by substance P (SP). SP-induced contraction of M2-receptor KO mice did not differ from that of wild-type mice. SP immunoreactivity was located in enteric neurons, colocalized with M2 receptor immunoreactivity. These results suggest that atropine-sensitive phasic contraction is mainly mediated via the M3 receptor, and SP-mediated sustained contraction is negatively regulated by the M2 receptor at a presynaptic level.
|Distribution of RET immunoreactivity in the rodent spinal cord and changes after nerve injury. |
Joost L M Jongen,Dick Jaarsma,Mehdi Hossaini,Dipa Natarajan,Elize D Haasdijk,Jan C Holstege
The Journal of comparative neurology 500 2007
RET (for rearranged during transfection) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase signaling receptor for members of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family of ligands. We used RET immunohistochemistry (IHC), double-labeling immunofluorescence (IF), and in situ hybridization (ISH) in adult naïve and nerve-injured rats to study the distribution of RET in the spinal cord. In the dorsal horn, strong RET-immunoreactive (-ir) fibers were abundant in lamina II-inner (II(i)), although this labeling was preferentially observed after an antigen-unmasking procedure. After dorsal rhizotomy, RET-ir fibers in lamina II(i) completely disappeared from the dorsal horn, indicating that they were all primary afferents. After peripheral axotomy, RET-ir in primary afferents decreased in lamina II(i) and appeared to increase slightly in laminae III and IV. RET-ir was also observed in neurons and dendrites throughout the dorsal horn. Some RET-ir neurons in lamina I had the morphological appearance of nociceptive projection neurons, which was confirmed by the finding that 53% of RET-ir neurons in lamina I colocalized with neurokinin-1. GDNF-ir terminals were in close proximity to RET-ir neurons in the superficial dorsal horn. In the ventral horn, RET-ir was strongly expressed by motoneurons, with the strongest staining in small, presumably gamma-motoneurons. Increased RET expression following peripheral axotomy was most pronounced in alpha-motoneurons. The expression and regulation pattern of RET in the spinal cord are in line with its involvement in regenerative processes following nerve injury. The presence of RET in dorsal horn neurons, including nociceptive projection neurons, suggests that RET also has a role in signal transduction at the spinal level. This role may include mediating the effects of GDNF released from nociceptive afferent fibers.
|Cytoarchitectonic and chemoarchitectonic subdivisions of the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices in macaque monkeys. |
Kadharbatcha S Saleem,Joseph L Price,Tsutomu Hashikawa
The Journal of comparative neurology 500 2007
Although the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices have been shown to be critically involved in memory processing, the boundaries and extent of these areas have been controversial. To produce a more objective and reproducible description, the architectonic boundaries and structure of the perirhinal (areas 35 and 36) and parahippocampal (areas TF and TH) cortices were analyzed in three macaque species, with four different staining methods [Nissl and immunohistochemistry for parvalbumin, nonphosphorylated neurofilaments (with SMI-32), and the m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor]. We further correlated the architectonic boundary of the parahippocampal cortex with connections to and from different subregions of anterior area TE and with previously published connections with the prefrontal cortex and temporal pole (Kondo et al.  J. Comp. Neurol. 493:479-509). Together, these data provided a clear delineation of the perirhinal and parahippocampal areas, although it differs from previous descriptions. In particular, we did not extend the perirhinal cortex into the temporal pole, and the lateral boundaries of areas 36 and TF with area TE were placed more medially than in other studies. The lateral boundary of area TF in Macaca fuscata was located more laterally than in Macaca fascicularis or Macaca mulatta, although there was no difference in architectonic structure. We recognized a caudal, granular part of the parahippocampal cortex that we termed area TFO. This area closely resembles the laterally adjacent area TE and the caudally adjacent area V4 but is clearly different from the more rostral area TF. These areas are likely to have distinct functions.
|Muscarinic M2 and M1 receptors reduce GABA release by Ca2+ channel modulation through activation of PI3K/Ca2+ -independent and PLC/Ca2+ -dependent PKC. |
Salgado, H; Bellay, T; Nichols, JA; Bose, M; Martinolich, L; Perrotti, L; Atzori, M
Journal of neurophysiology 98 952-65 2007
We measured pharmacologically isolated GABAergic currents from layer II/III neurons of the rat auditory cortex using patch-clamp recording. Activation of muscarinic receptors by muscarine (1 microM) or oxotremorine (10 microM) decreased the amplitude of electrically evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents to about one third of their control value. Neither miniature nor exogenously evoked GABAergic currents were altered by the presence of muscarinic agonists, indicating that the effect was spike-dependent and not mediated postsynaptically. The presence of the N- or P/Q-type Ca(2+) channel blockers omega-conotoxin GVIA (1 microM) or omega-AgaTx TK (200 nM) greatly blocked the muscarinic effect, suggesting that Ca(2+)-channels were target of the muscarinic modulation. The presence of the muscarinic M(2) receptor (M(2)R) antagonists methoctramine (5 muM) or AF-DX 116 (1 microM) blocked most of the muscarinic evoked inhibitory postsynaptic current (eIPSC) reduction, indicating that M(2)Rs were responsible for the effect, whereas the remaining component of the depression displayed M(1)R-like sensitivity. Tissue preincubation with the specific blockers of phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI(3)K) wortmannin (200 nM), LY294002 (1 microM), or with the Ca(2+)-dependent PKC inhibitor Gö 6976 (200 nM) greatly impaired the muscarinic decrease of the eIPSC amplitude, whereas the remaining component was sensitive to preincubation in the phospholipase C blocker U73122 (10 microM). We conclude that acetylcholine release enhances the excitability of the auditory cortex by decreasing the release of GABA by inhibiting axonal V-dependent Ca(2+) channels, mostly through activation of presynaptic M(2)Rs/PI(3)K/Ca(2+)-independent PKC pathway and-to a smaller extent-by the activation of M(1)/PLC/Ca(2+)-dependent PKC.
|Immunolocalization of muscarinic receptor subtypes in the reticular thalamic nucleus of rats. |
Satoko Oda, Fumi Sato, Akiko Okada, Satomi Akahane, Hiroaki Igarashi, Junko Yokofujita, Junli Yang, Masaru Kuroda
Brain research bulletin 74 376-84 2007
In this study, to identify the precise localization of the muscarinic receptor subtypes m2, m3 and m4 in the rostral part of the rat reticular thalamic nucleus (rRt), namely, the limbic sector, we used receptor-subtype-specific antibodies and characterized the immunolabeled structures by light, confocal laser scanning, and electron microscopies. The m2-immunolabeling was preferentially distributed in the distal dendrite region where cholinergic afferent fibers tend to terminate and in the peripheral region of somata, whereas the m3-immunolabeling was more preferentially distributed in a large part of somata and in proximal dendrite shafts than in the distal dendrite region. Dual-immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated that majority of rRt neurons with parvalbumin immunoreactivity contain both m2 and m3. Neither m2 nor m3 was detected in presynaptic terminals or axonal elements. No m4-immunolabeling was detected in the rostral part of the thalamus including rRt. These results show the different distributions of m2 and m3 in rRt neurons, and strongly suggest that m2 is more closely associated with cholinergic afferents than m3.
|Involvement of M(2) muscarinic receptors in relaxant response of circular muscle of mouse gastric antrum. |
T Takeuchi, M Toyoshima, K Mukai, K Hagi, M Matsui, H Nakajima, Y-T Azuma, F Hata
Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society 18 226-33 2006
Our previous study showed that atropine significantly inhibited the sustained relaxation induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the circular muscle strips prepared from the mouse antrum, and that pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) partially mediated the sustained relaxation. The muscarinic receptor subtype associated with the sustained relaxation was examined in the present study by using each muscarinic receptor subtype of knockout (KO) mice. EFS-induced sustained relaxation in the antrum prepared from M(2) receptor KO mice was significantly less than that of wild-type mice. Atropine failed to inhibit this relaxation. On the other hand, similar sustained relaxation and inhibitory effects of atropine to those of wild-type mice were observed in M(1), M(3) and M(4) receptor KO mice. Exogenously added PACAP-27 relaxed the antral strips of wild-type and M(2) receptor KO mice to a similar extent. Immunohistochemical study revealed that M(2) receptor immunoreactivity was localized with PACAP-immunoreactivity in enteric neurons within the antrum of wild-type mice. In contrast, atropine did not affect the EFS-induced sustained relaxation in the gastric fundus. These results suggest that M(2) receptors modulate the sustained relaxation, probably through the regulation of PACAP release, in the mouse antrum.
|Roles of M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors in regulating acetylcholine release from myenteric neurons of mouse ileum. |
Takeuchi, T; Fujinami, K; Goto, H; Fujita, A; Taketo, MM; Manabe, T; Matsui, M; Hata, F
Journal of neurophysiology 93 2841-8 2005
We investigated the subtype of presynaptic muscarinic receptors associated with inhibition of acetylcholine (ACh) release in the mouse small intestine. We measured endogenous ACh released from longitudinal muscle with myenteric plexus (LMMP) preparations obtained from M1-M5 receptor knockout (KO) mice. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) increased ACh release in all LMMP preparations obtained from M1-M5 receptor single KO mice. The amounts of ACh released in all preparations were equal to that in the wild-type mice. Atropine further increased EFS-induced ACh release in the wild-type mice. Unexpectedly, atropine also increased, to a similar extent, EFS-induced ACh release to the wild-type mice in all M1-M5 receptor single KO mice. In M2 and M4 receptor double KO mice, the amount of EFS-induced ACh release was equivalent to an atropine-evoked level in the wild-type mouse, and further addition of atropine had no effect. M2 receptor immunoreactivity was located in both smooth muscle cells and enteric neurons. M4 receptor immunoreactivity was located in the enteric neurons, being in co-localization with M2 receptor immunoreactivity. These results indicate that both M2 and M4 receptors mediate the muscarinic autoinhibition in ACh release in the LMMP preparation of the mouse ileum, and loss of one of these subtypes can be compensated functionally by a receptor that remained. M1, M3, and M5 receptors do not seem to be involved in this mechanism.
|Compartmental localization of gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptors in the cholinergic circuitry of the rabbit retina. |
Charles L Zucker, James E Nilson, Berndt Ehinger, Norberto M Grzywacz
The Journal of comparative neurology 493 448-59 2005
Although many effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on retinal function have been attributed to GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptors, specific retinal functions have also been shown to be mediated by GABA(B) receptors, including facilitation of light-evoked acetylcholine release from the rabbit retina (Neal and Cunningham  J. Physiol. 482:363-372). To explain the results of a rich set of experiments, Neal and Cunningham proposed a model for this facilitation. In this model, GABA(B) receptor-mediated inhibition of glycinergic cells would reduce their own inhibition of cholinergic cells. In turn, muscarinic input from the latter to the glycinergic cells would complete a negative-feedback circuitry. In this study, we have used immunohistochemical techniques to test elements of this model. We report that glycinergic amacrine cells are GABA(B) receptor negative. In contrast, our data reveal the localization of GABA(B) receptors on cholinergic/GABAergic starburst amacrine cells. High-resolution localization of GABA(B) receptors on starburst amacrine cells shows that they are discretely localized to a limited population of its varicosities, the majority of likely synaptic-release sites being devoid of detectable levels of GABA(B) receptors. Finally, we identify a glycinergic cell that is a potential muscarinic receptor-bearing target of GABA(B)-modulated acetylcholine release. This target is the DAPI-3 cell. We propose, based on these data, a modification of the Neal and Cunningham model in which GABA(B) receptors are on starburst, not glycinergic amacrine cells.
|Localization of M2 muscarinic receptor protein in parvalbumin and calretinin containing cells of the adult rat entorhinal cortex using two complementary methods. |
J D Chaudhuri, M Hiltunen, M Nykänen, S Ylä-Herttuala, H Soininen, R Miettinen
Neuroscience 131 557-66 2005
We investigated parvalbumin (PV) and calretinin (CR) containing interneurons in the rat entorhinal cortex. RNA amplification following single cell dissection of immunohistochemically labeled cells from layers II to VI revealed that PV cells, in contrast to CR cells, express the m2 muscarinic receptor (M2AchR) protein. Double immunostaining to confirm the results of RNA amplification indicated that the majority of PV cells contain M2AchR protein, whereas only a small proportion of CR cells do. In contrast, a large number of layer I CR cells, which are mostly Cajal-Retzius cells, were positive for M2AchR. RNA amplification following dissection of these cells also revealed that they contain the M2AchR protein. These findings emphasize that there are significant differences in the expression of different proteins, even among similar neuronal types in the same brain region. This highlights the importance of accurately collecting single cells, and knowledge of anatomical details in molecular biological studies.
|Synaptic connections of starburst amacrine cells and localization of acetylcholine receptors in primate retinas. |
Elizabeth S Yamada, Nina Dmitrieva, Kent T Keyser, Jon M Lindstrom, Louis B Hersh, David W Marshak
The Journal of comparative neurology 461 76-90 2003
Starburst amacrine cells in the macaque retina were studied by electron microscopic immunohistochemistry. We found that these amacrine cells make a type of synapse not described previously; they are presynaptic to axon terminals of bipolar cells. We also confirmed that starburst amacrine cells are presynaptic to ganglion cell dendrites and amacrine cell processes. In order to determine the functions of these synapses, we localized acetylcholine receptors using a monoclonal antibody (mAb210) that recognizes human alpha3- and alpha5-containing nicotinic receptors and also antisera against the five known subtypes of muscarinic receptors. The majority of the mAb210-immunoreactive perikarya were amacrine cells and ganglion cells, but a subpopulation of bipolar cells was also labeled. A subset of bipolar cells and a subset of horizontal cells were labeled with antibodies to M3 muscarinic receptors. A subset of amacrine cells, including those that contain cholecystokinin, were labeled with antibodies to M2 receptors. Taken together, these results suggest that acetylcholine can modulate the activity of retinal ganglion cells by multiple pathways.
|Location of muscarinic type 2 receptors within the synaptic circuitry of the cat visual thalamus. |
Carden, W B and Bickford, M E
J. Comp. Neurol., 410: 431-43 (1999) 1999
A cholinergic projection from the parabrachial region (PBR) of the brainstem to the visual thalamus has been studied in great detail during the past 20 years. A number of physiological studies have demonstrated that this projection causes a dramatic change in thalamic activity during the transition from sleep to wakefulness. Additionally, the PBR may mediate more subtle changes in thalamic activity as attentional levels fluctuate during the waking state. The synaptic circuitry underlying these events has been identified in the cat thalamus. However, there is currently no anatomical information regarding the distribution of cholinergic receptors in relation to this circuitry. To begin to understand how the PBR projection modulates thalamic activity, we used immunocytochemical techniques to examine the distribution of muscarinic type 2 (M2) receptors in the visual thalamus of the cat. The distribution of M2 receptors correlates well with previous reports of the distribution of cholinergic terminals in the visual thalamus. At the light microscopic level, dense M2 staining was seen in the neuropil of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and pulvinar nucleus and in somata and proximal dendrites of cells in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN). In the dLGN and pulvinar nucleus, we quantitatively analyzed the distribution of M2 receptors using electron microscopy. Postembedding immunocytochemistry for gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) was used to determine whether M2 receptors are present on interneurons or thalamocortical cells. In particular, we examined the distribution of M2 receptors with respect to the known sites of PBR terminations. The dendrites of both thalamocortical cells and interneurons were stained for the M2 receptors in both the glomerular and extraglomerular neuropil. However, the densest staining was found in glomerular GABAergic profiles that displayed the morphology associated with interneuron dendritic terminals (F2 profiles). Our data suggest that M2 receptors play an important role both in blocking thalamic spindle oscillations and in increasing the efficacy of signal transmission during increased attentional states.
|Immunocytochemical localization of muscarinic m2 receptor in the rat spinal cord. |
Yung, K K and Lo, Y L
Neurosci. Lett., 229: 81-4 (1997) 1997
Muscarinic receptors have been implied in the regulation of spinal cord functions. The m2 subtype has been found to be one of the major muscarinic receptors expressed in the spinal cord. In order to determine the precise cellular localization of m2 receptor in the rat spinal cord, immunocytochemistry was performed using a commercially available specific antibody. In the dorsal horn, strong m2 immunoreactivity was detected in the substantia gelatinosa. In the ventral horn, m2 immunoreactivity was detected in patches that were associated with cell groups of motor neurons. At higher magnification, m2 immunoreactivity was detected in neuronal processes and many of them were seen in close apposition to m2-negative perikarya and proximal dendrites of motor neurons. These results indicate that m2 receptor immunoreactivity is localized in different neuronal elements of the spinal cord.
|Cellular localization of GluR1, GluR2/3 and GluR4 glutamate receptor subunits in neurons of the rat neostriatum. |
Kwok, K H, et al.
Brain Res., 778: 43-55 (1997) 1997
Glutamate excitocytotoxicity is implied in the cause of neuronal degeneration in the neostriatum, in which the toxicity may be mediated by different families of glutamate receptors. The precise cellular localization of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor subunits (GluR1-4), one of the major family that involves in the mechanisms of glutamate excitocytotoxicity, in different populations of striatal neurons is therefore of special interest. Immunoreactivity for GluR2/3 subunits was detected in the medium-sized spiny neurons. By double labelling experiments, immunoreactivity for GluR1 and GluR4 was detected only in aspiny striatal neurons that display parvalbumin immunoreactivity, but not in the other neuron populations that display choline acetyltransferase or muscarinic m2 receptor immunoreactivity, nor neurons that display nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase activity. These results indicate that GluR1 and GluR4 immunoreactivity is displayed only in the GABAergic interneurons in the neostriatum. In addition, almost all of the GluR1-immunoreactive neurons were found to display GluR4 immunoreactivity. This finding indicates for the first time that the striatal GABAergic interneurons co-express GluR1 and GluR4 subunits. The results of the present study indicate that there is a differential localization of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits in different populations of striatal neurons and they may have a different susceptibility to glutamate excitocytotoxicity.
|Light and electron microscopic study of m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in the basal forebrain of the rat. |
Levey, A I, et al.
J. Comp. Neurol., 351: 339-56 (1995) 1995
The m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor gene is expressed at high levels in basal forebrain, but the paucity of information about localization of the encoded receptor protein has limited the understanding of cellular and subcellular mechanisms involved in cholinergic actions in this region. The present study sought to determine the cellular localization of m2 protein, its relationship to cholinergic neurons, and its pre- and postsynaptic distribution in the rat medial septum-diagonal band complex using immunocytochemistry with polyclonal rabbit antibodies and a newly developed rat monoclonal antibody specific to the m2 receptor. Light microscopic colocalization studies demonstrated that m2 was present in a subset of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive neurons, in choline acetyltransferase-negative neurons, and in more neuropil elements than was choline acetyltransferase. Intraventricular injections of 192 IgG-saporin, an immunotoxin directed to the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor, resulted in depletion of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band complex, whereas m2 immunoreactivity in neurons and in the neuropil was unchanged. By electron microscopy, m2 receptor in medial septum-diagonal band complex was localized to the plasmalemma of a small population of small to medium-sized neurons, and it was also found in dendrites, axons, and axon terminals in the neuropil. Neurons expressing m2 immunoreactivity received synaptic contacts from unlabelled axon terminals. A small distinct subpopulation of large neurons, unlabelled by m2 immunoreactivity, received synaptic contacts from m2-immunoreactive terminals. Thus, m2 receptor is situated to mediate the local effects of acetylcholine on basal forebrain cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons and, also, at both pre- and postsynaptic sites.
|Anti-Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor m2, clone M2-2-B3 - Data Sheet|