Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||ELISA, IP, WB, ICC, IH(P)||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified immunoglobulin. Liquid at 1 mg/mL in 0.02M phosphate buffer, 0.25 M sodium chloride, 0.1% sodium azide, pH 7.6.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
References | 11 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Phenotypic responses of differentiated asthmatic human airway epithelial cultures to rhinovirus. |
Bai, J; Smock, SL; Jackson, GR; MacIsaac, KD; Huang, Y; Mankus, C; Oldach, J; Roberts, B; Ma, YL; Klappenbach, JA; Crackower, MA; Alves, SE; Hayden, PJ
PloS one 10 e0118286 2015
Human airway epithelial cells are the principal target of human rhinovirus (HRV), a common cold pathogen that triggers the majority of asthma exacerbations. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate an in vitro air liquid interface cultured human airway epithelial cell model for HRV infection, and 2) to identify gene expression patterns associated with asthma intrinsically and/or after HRV infection using this model.Air-liquid interface (ALI) human airway epithelial cell cultures were prepared from 6 asthmatic and 6 non-asthmatic donors. The effects of rhinovirus RV-A16 on ALI cultures were compared. Genome-wide gene expression changes in ALI cultures following HRV infection at 24 hours post exposure were further analyzed using RNA-seq technology. Cellular gene expression and cytokine/chemokine secretion were further evaluated by qPCR and a Luminex-based protein assay, respectively.ALI cultures were readily infected by HRV. RNA-seq analysis of HRV infected ALI cultures identified sets of genes associated with asthma specific viral responses. These genes are related to inflammatory pathways, epithelial structure and remodeling and cilium assembly and function, including those described previously (e.g. CCL5, CXCL10 and CX3CL1, MUC5AC, CDHR3), and novel ones that were identified for the first time in this study (e.g. CCRL1).ALI-cultured human airway epithelial cells challenged with HRV are a useful translational model for the study of HRV-induced responses in airway epithelial cells, given that gene expression profile using this model largely recapitulates some important patterns of gene responses in patients during clinical HRV infection. Furthermore, our data emphasize that both abnormal airway epithelial structure and inflammatory signaling are two important asthma signatures, which can be further exacerbated by HRV infection.
|Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 signalling promotes goblet cell hyperplasia in airway epithelium. |
Polosukhin VV, Cates JM, Lawson WE, Milstone AP, Matafonov AG, Massion PP, Lee JW, Randell SH, Blackwell TS
The Journal of pathology 224 203-11. doi 2011
Goblet cell hyperplasia is a common feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) airways, but the mechanisms that underlie this epithelial remodelling in COPD are not understood. Based on our previous finding of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) nuclear localization in large airways from patients with COPD, we investigated whether hypoxia-inducible signalling could influence the development of goblet cell hyperplasia. We evaluated large airway samples obtained from 18 lifelong non-smokers and 13 former smokers without COPD, and 45 former smokers with COPD. In these specimens, HIF-1α nuclear staining occurred almost exclusively in COPD patients in areas of airway remodelling. In COPD patients, 93.2 ± 3.9% (range 65-100%) of goblet cells were HIF-1α positive in areas of goblet cell hyperplasia, whereas nuclear HIF-1α was not detected in individuals without COPD or in normal-appearing pseudostratified epithelium from COPD patients. To determine the direct effects of hypoxia-inducible signalling on epithelial cell differentiation in vitro, human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) were grown in air-liquid interface cultures under hypoxia (1% O(2)) or following treatment with a selective HIF-1α stabilizer, (2R)-[(4-biphenylylsulphonyl)amino]-N-hydroxy-3-phenyl-propionamide (BiPS). HBECs grown in hypoxia or with BiPS treatment were characterized by HIF-1α activation, carbonic anhydrase IX expression, mucus-producing cell hyperplasia and increased expression of MUC5AC. Analysis of signal transduction pathways in cells with HIF-1α activation showed increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation without activation of epidermal growth factor receptor, Ras, PI3K-Akt or STAT6. These data indicate an important effect of hypoxia-inducible signalling on airway epithelial cell differentiation and identify a new potential target to limit mucus production in COPD.Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
|Cigarette Smoke Suppresses Bik to Cause Epithelial Cell Hyperplasia and Mucous Cell Metaplasia. |
Mebratu YA, Schwalm K, Smith KR, Schuyler M, Tesfaigzi Y
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Aberrant regulation of airway epithelial cell numbers in airways leads to increased mucous secretions in chronic lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis. Because the Bcl-2 family of proteins is crucial for airway epithelial homeostasis, identifying the players that reduce cigarette smoke-induced mucous cell metaplasia can help to develop effective therapies. Methods andRESULTS: We screened for dysregulated expression of the Bcl-2 family members and identified Bik to be significantly reduced in bronchial brushings of patients with chronic epithelial cell hyperplasia compared to non-diseased controls. Reduced Bik but increased MUC5AC mRNA levels were also detected when normal human airway epithelial cells (HAECs) were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS), or when autopsy tissues from former smokers with and without chronic bronchitis were compared. Similarly, exposure of C57Bl/6 mice to CS resulted in increased number of epithelial and mucous cells per mm basal lamina along with reduced Bik but increased Muc5ac expression and this change was sustained even when mice were allowed to recover in filtered air for 8 wks. Restoring Bik expression significantly suppressed CS-induced mucous cell metaplasia in differentiated primary human airway epithelial cell (HAEC) cultures and in airways of mice in vivo. Bik blocked nuclear translocation of phospho-ERK1/2 to induce apoptosis of HAECs. The conserved Leu61 within Bik and ERK1/2 activation were essential to induce cell death in hyperplastic mucous cells.CONCLUSIONS: These studies show that CS suppresses Bik expression to block airway epithelia cell death and thereby increases epithelial cell hyperplasia in chronic bronchitis.
|A clinically relevant in vitro model for evaluating the effects of aerosolized vesicants. |
Claudia Karacsonyi, Naga Shanmugam, Elliott Kagan, Claudia Karacsonyi, Naga Shanmugam, Elliott Kagan, Claudia Karacsonyi, Naga Shanmugam, Elliott Kagan
Toxicology letters 185 38-44 2009
The chemical warfare vesicant sulfur mustard (HD) is a known toxic agent to the human respiratory tract and the major airways are considered to be a primary target of HD-induced injury. However, there is no consensus regarding which model systems are most appropriate for studying the effects of aerosolized vesicants on human airway epithelium. In this study, we evaluated the consequences of exposure of differentiated human respiratory epithelial cells in air-liquid interface to mechlorethamine (HN2), an HD functional analog. HN2 challenge was administered via the apical (air) interface over a wide dose range (20-400 microM) to differentiated HBE1 cells. Cultures were observed over 1-48 h for evidence of HN2-induced morphologic abnormalities as well as for possible cellular cytotoxicity, apoptotic changes, and induction of cytokine secretion. HN2 at concentrations of or =200 microM caused disruption and denudation of the airway epithelial architecture within 24h of exposure. Moreover, HN2-induced cytotoxic and apoptotic changes in HBE1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. HN2 challenge also induced secretion of chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, RANTES, MCP-1, IP-10, G-CSF, GM-CSF and IL-15. These observations parallel those described in the lungs of HD-exposed victims and underscore the utility and potential applicability of this model to future mechanistic studies of vesicant-induced pulmonary injury.
|Mucin glycosylation is altered by pro-inflammatory signaling in pancreatic-cancer cells. |
Wu, YM; Nowack, DD; Omenn, GS; Haab, BB
Journal of proteome research 8 1876-86 2009
Altered glycosylation on the surfaces or secreted proteins of tumor cells is common in pancreatic cancer and is thought to promote cancer progression, but the factors leading to the changes in carbohydrate structures are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that pro-inflammatory conditions can lead to alterations in cancer-associated glycans on mucins produced by pancreatic-cancer cells. With the use of a novel antibody-glycan microarray method, we measured the effects of pro-inflammatory stimuli (oxidative stress and treatment with the cytokines IFNgamma, IL-1alpha, and TNFalpha) on the expression and glycosylation of the mucins MUC1, MUC5AC, and MUC16 in multiple pancreatic cancer cell lines. Mucin glycosylation was significantly affected in specific cell lines, particularly in structures involving terminal galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine. In addition, the responses of the cell lines grouped according to the expression of cell-surface markers that are associated with tumorigenicity, as cell lines bearing minimal surface markers, showed evidence of increased O-glycan extension and decreased presentation of terminal beta1,4-linked galactose, opposite to cell lines bearing multiple markers. These results suggest mechanisms whereby inflammation might influence tumor behavior in a cell-type specific manner through modulating the presentation of cancer-associated glycans.
|Mucin expression profile is related to biological and clinical characteristics of intraductal papillary-mucinous tumors of the pancreas. |
Hideto Ito, Takao Endo, Toshikuni Oka, Takeshi Matumoto, Tamaki Abe, Minoru Toyota, Kohzoh Imai, Masaaki Satoh, Hiroyuki Maguchi, Toshiya Shinohara
Pancreas 30 e96-102 2005
OBJECTIVES: Biologic and clinical characteristics of intraductal papillary-mucinous tumors of the pancreas (IPMTs) were studied in reference to immunohistochemical mucin (MUC1, MUC2, and MUC5AC) expression. METHODS: Histologic grade, immunohistochemical ki-67 and p53 expression, and findings in imaging tests of 21 IPMTs (9 carcinomas, 6 borderline tumors, and 6 adenomas) were examined according to the mucin expression profile. RESULTS: IPMTs were divided into groups: M1 group (MUC1+, n = 4), M2 group (MUC2 + MUC1-, n = 12), and M5 group (MUC5AC + MUC1-MUC2-, n = 5). The M2 group was subdivided into M2s (strongly positive) and M2w (weakly positive) groups. The rates of carcinoma in the M1, M2s, M2w, and M5 groups were 100%, 40%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. The Ki-67 labeling indexes were significantly higher in the M1 and M2s groups. p53 staining was positive in 50% and 40% of the IPMTs in the M1 and M2s groups, respectively, but in none of the IPMT in the M2w and M5 groups. Morphologic changes in imaging tests during the observation periods were most remarkable in the M1 group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that MUC1 is related to malignant character but MUC5AC alone is related to benign character in IPMTs and that malignant potential of IPMTs expressing MUC2 depends on the degree of MUC2 expression.
|Thioredoxin liquefies and decreases the viscoelasticity of cystic fibrosis sputum. |
Rancourt, RC; Tai, S; King, M; Heltshe, SL; Penvari, C; Accurso, FJ; White, CW
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 286 L931-8 2004
The persistent and viscous nature of airway secretions in cystic fibrosis (CF) disease leads to airway obstruction, opportunistic infection, and deterioration of lung function. Thioredoxin (Trx) is a protein disulfide reductase that catalyzes numerous thiol-dependent cellular reductive processes. To determine whether Trx can alter the rheological properties of mucus, sputum obtained from CF patients was treated with TRX and its reducing system (0.1 microM thioredoxin reductase + 2 mM NADPH), and liquid phase-gel phase ratio (percent liquid phase) was assessed by compaction assay. Exposure to low Trx concentrations (1 microM) caused significant increases in the percentage of liquid phase of sputum. Maximal increases in percent liquid phase occurred with 30 microM Trx. Additional measurements revealed that sputum liquefaction by the Trx reducing system is dependent on NADPH concentration. The relative potency of the Trx reducing system also was compared with other disulfide-reducing agents. In contrast with Trx, glutathione and N-acetylcysteine were ineffective in liquefying sputum when used at concentrations less than 1 mM. Sputum viscoelasticity, measured by magnetic microrheometry, also was diminished significantly following 20-min treatment with 3, 10, or 30 microM Trx. Similarly, this reduction in viscoelasticty also was dependent on NADPH concentration. Further investigation has indicated that Trx treatment increases the solubility of high-molecular-weight glycoproteins and causes redistribution of extracellular DNA into the liquid phase of sputum. Recognizing that mucins are the major gel-forming glycoproteins in mucus, we suggest that Trx alters sputum rheology by enzymatic reduction of glycoprotein polymers present in sputum.
|A comprehensive characterization of pancreatic ductal carcinoma cell lines: towards the establishment of an in vitro research platform. |
Bence Sipos, Simone Möser, Holger Kalthoff, Virag Török, Matthias Löhr, Günter Klöppel, Bence Sipos, Simone Möser, Holger Kalthoff, Virag Török, Matthias Löhr, Günter Klöppel
Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology 442 444-52 2003
There are a large number of stable pancreatic ductal carcinoma cell lines that are used by researchers worldwide. Detailed data about their differentiation status and growth features are, however, often lacking. We therefore attempted to classify commonly used pancreatic carcinoma cell lines according to defined cell biological criteria. Twelve pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines were cultured as monolayers and spheroids and graded according to their ultrastructural features. The grading system was based on the integrity of membrane structures and on the presence of mucin granules, cell organelles, nuclear and cellular polymorphism, cell polarity, and lumen formation. On the basis of the resulting scores the cell lines were classified as well, moderately, or poorly differentiated. In addition, immunocytochemistry was performed for the markers cytokeratin 7, 8, 18, 19, carcinoembryonic antigen, MUC1 MUC2, MUC5, and MUC6. The population doubling time of monolayer cultures, determined by a tetrazolium salt based proliferation assay was correlated with the ultrastructural grade. The grading of the ultrastructural features of the monolayers, and particularly of the spheroids, revealed that Capan-1 and Capan-2 cells were well differentiated; Colo357, HPAF-2, Aspc-1, A818-4, BxPc3, and Panc89 cells were moderately differentiated and PancTu-I, Panc1, Pt45P1, and MiaPaCa-2 cells poorly differentiated. Membrane-bound MUC1 staining was a characteristic of well differentiated cell lines. The population doubling time of the monolayer cultures was related to the differentiation grade. No relationship was found between the p53, K-ras, DPC4/Smad4, or p16(INK4a) mutation status and the grade of differentiation. We conclude that the proposed ultrastructural grading system combined with the proliferative activity provides a basis for further comparative studies of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines.
|Clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of the histologic activity of noncancerous liver tissue in hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. |
Irene O L Ng, Ronnie T P Poon, Tony W H Shek, Sheung T Fan
American journal of clinical pathology 117 411-8 2002
We prospectively studied 66 patients infected with the hepatitis B virus who underwent liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to evaluate the influence of the histologic activity of noncancerous liver tissue on clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Based on the histologic activity index (HAI) score of nontumorous liver tissue, patients were classified into 3 groups: mild, moderate, or severe hepatitis. Overall, higher HAI scores were more frequent in patients with poorer liver function: lower serum albumin levels and higher indocyanine green retention at 15 minutes. Moreover, patients with moderate hepatitis had more frequent venous invasion, and the tumor size decreased with increasing HAI scores. Similar results were observed when the fibrosis category was excluded in the calculation of HAI scores. The overall or disease-free survival rates did not differ significantly among the 3 groups of patients. However, higher fibrosis scores were associated significantly with shorter disease-free survival rates. HAI scores correlated significantly with certain clinicopathologic features. In patients with hepatitis B-related HCC, a higher fibrosis score in the nontumorous liver tissue, but not histologic hepatitic activity, seems to be a significant factor predisposing to shorter survival.
|Immunohistochemical study of the expression of MUC6 mucin and co-expression of other secreted mucins (MUC5AC and MUC2) in human gastric carcinomas. |
C A Reis, L David, F Carvalho, U Mandel, C de Bolós, E Mirgorodskaya, H Clausen, M Sobrinho-Simões
The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 48 377-88 2000
To investigate the expression of MUC6 mucin in gastric carcinomas, we generated a novel monoclonal antibody (MAb CLH5) using an MUC6 synthetic peptide. MAb CLH5 reacted exclusively with the MUC6 peptide and with native and deglycosylated mucin extracts from gastric tissues. MAb CLH5 immunoreactivity was observed in normal gastric mucosa restricted to pyloric glands of the antrum and mucopeptic cells of the neck zone of the body region. In a series of 104 gastric carcinomas, 31 (29.8%) were immunoreactive for MUC6. The expression of MUC6 was not associated with histomorphological type or with clinicopathological features of the carcinomas. Analysis of the co-expression of MUC6 with other secreted mucins (MUC5AC and MUC2) in 20 gastric carcinomas revealed that different mucin core proteins are co-expressed in 55% of the cases. MUC6 was co-expressed and co-localized with MUC5AC in 45% and with MUC2 in 5% of the cases. Expression of MUC2 alone was observed in 25% of the cases. All carcinomas expressing MUC2 mucin in more than 50% of the cells were of the mucinous type according to the WHO classification. The co-expression of mucins was independent of the histomorphological type and stage of the tumors. In conclusion, we observed, using a novel well-characterized MAb, that MUC6 is a good marker of mucopeptic cell differentiation and is expressed in 30% of gastric carcinomas, independent of the clinicopathological features of the cases. Furthermore, we found that co-expression and co-localization of mucins in gastric carcinomas is independent of histomorphology and staging. Finally, we observed that intestinal mucin MUC2 is expressed as the most prominent mucin of the mucins tested in mucinous-type gastric carcinomas.
|Intestinal metaplasia of human stomach displays distinct patterns of mucin (MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6) expression. |
C A Reis, L David, P Correa, F Carneiro, C de Bolós, E Garcia, U Mandel, H Clausen, M Sobrinho-Simões
Cancer research 59 1003-7 1999
Intestinal metaplasia is a well-established premalignant condition of the stomach that is characterized by mucin carbohydrate modifications defined by histochemical methods. The purpose of the present study was to see whether the expression of mucin core proteins was modified in the different types of intestinal metaplasia and to evaluate the putative usefulness of mucins as molecular markers in this setting. We used a panel of monoclonal antibodies with well-defined specificities to MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 to characterize the expression pattern of mucins. In contrast to normal gastric mucosa, the complete form or type I intestinal metaplasia (n = 20) displayed little or no expression of MUC1, MUC5AC, or MUC6 in the metaplastic cells and strong expression of the intestinal mucin MUC2 in the goblet cells of all cases. The incomplete forms of intestinal metaplasia, type II (n = 25) and type III (n = 16), expressed MUC1 and MUC5AC in every case, both in goblet and in columnar cells. MUC6 was also expressed in 16 cases of type II intestinal metaplasia and in 11 cases of type III intestinal metaplasia. The intestinal mucin MUC2 was expressed in every case of incomplete intestinal metaplasia, mostly in goblet cells. The mucin expression profile in the different types of intestinal metaplasia allows the identification of two patterns: one defined by decreased levels of expression of gastric mucins (MUC1, MUC5AC, and MUC6) and expression of MUC2 intestinal mucin, which corresponds to type I intestinal metaplasia, and the other defined by coexpression of gastric mucins (MUC1, MUC5AC, and MUC6) together with the MUC2 mucin, encompassing types II and III intestinal metaplasia. Our results challenge the classical sequential pathway of intestinal metaplasia (from type I to type III via a type II intermediate step).
|Anti-Mucin MUC5AC, clone CLH2 - Data Sheet|