Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M, R||IHC, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal antibody in buffer containing PBS with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||50 µg|
References | 19 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Posttraumatic stress disorder-like induction elevates β-amyloid levels, which directly activates corticotropin-releasing factor neurons to exacerbate stress responses. |
Justice, NJ; Huang, L; Tian, JB; Cole, A; Pruski, M; Hunt, AJ; Flores, R; Zhu, MX; Arenkiel, BR; Zheng, H
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 2612-23 2015
Recent studies have found that those who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more likely to experience dementia as they age, most often Alzheimer's disease (AD). These findings suggest that the symptoms of PTSD might have an exacerbating effect on AD progression. AD and PTSD might also share common susceptibility factors such that those who experience trauma-induced disease were already more likely to succumb to dementia with age. Here, we explored these two hypotheses using a mouse model of PTSD in wild-type and AD model animals. We found that expression of human familial AD mutations in amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 leads to sensitivity to trauma-induced PTSD-like changes in behavioral and endocrine stress responses. PTSD-like induction, in turn, chronically elevates levels of CSF β-amyloid (Aβ), exacerbating ongoing AD pathogenesis. We show that PTSD-like induction and Aβ elevation are dependent on corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor 1 signaling and an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Furthermore, we show that Aβ species can hyperexcite CRF neurons, providing a mechanism by which Aβ influences stress-related symptoms and PTSD-like phenotypes. Consistent with Aβ causing excitability of the stress circuitry, we attenuate PTSD-like phenotypes in vivo by lowering Aβ levels during PTSD-like trauma exposure. Together, these data demonstrate that exposure to PTSD-like trauma can drive AD pathogenesis, which directly perturbs CRF signaling, thereby enhancing chronic PTSD symptoms while increasing risk for AD-related dementia.
|Increased response to glutamate in small diameter dorsal root ganglion neurons after sciatic nerve injury. |
Gong, K; Kung, LH; Magni, G; Bhargava, A; Jasmin, L
PloS one 9 e95491 2014
Glutamate in the peripheral nervous system is involved in neuropathic pain, yet we know little how nerve injury alters responses to this neurotransmitter in primary sensory neurons. We recorded neuronal responses from the ex-vivo preparations of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) one week following a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in adult rats. We found that small diameter DRG neurons (less than 30 µm) exhibited increased excitability that was associated with decreased membrane threshold and rheobase, whereas responses in large diameter neurons (greater than 30 µm) were unaffected. Puff application of either glutamate, or the selective ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and kainic acid (KA), or the group I metabotropic receptor (mGluR) agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), induced larger inward currents in CCI DRGs compared to those from uninjured rats. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced currents were unchanged. In addition to larger inward currents following CCI, a greater number of neurons responded to glutamate, AMPA, NMDA, and DHPG, but not to KA. Western blot analysis of the DRGs revealed that CCI resulted in a 35% increase in GluA1 and a 60% decrease in GluA2, the AMPA receptor subunits, compared to uninjured controls. mGluR1 receptor expression increased by 60% in the membrane fraction, whereas mGluR5 receptor subunit expression remained unchanged after CCI. These results show that following nerve injury, small diameter DRG neurons, many of which are nociceptive, have increased excitability and an increased response to glutamate that is associated with changes in receptor expression at the neuronal membrane. Our findings provide further evidence that glutamatergic transmission in the periphery plays a role in nociception.
|Hippocampal metaplasticity is required for the formation of temporal associative memories. |
Xu, J; Antion, MD; Nomura, T; Kraniotis, S; Zhu, Y; Contractor, A
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 16762-73 2014
Metaplasticity regulates the threshold for modification of synaptic strength and is an important regulator of learning rules; however, it is not known whether these cellular mechanisms for homeostatic regulation of synapses contribute to particular forms of learning. Conditional ablation of mGluR5 in CA1 pyramidal neurons resulted in the inability of low-frequency trains of afferent activation to prime synapses for subsequent theta burst potentiation. Priming-induced metaplasticity requires mGluR5-mediated mobilization of endocannabinoids during the priming train to induce long-term depression of inhibition (I-LTD). Mice lacking priming-induced plasticity had no deficit in spatial reference memory tasks, but were impaired in an associative task with a temporal component. Conversely, enhancing endocannabinoid signaling facilitated temporal associative memory acquisition and, after training animals in these tasks, ex vivo I-LTD was partially occluded and theta burst LTP was enhanced. Together, these results suggest a link between metaplasticity mechanisms in the hippocampus and the formation of temporal associative memories.
|Synaptic depression via mGluR1 positive allosteric modulation suppresses cue-induced cocaine craving. |
Loweth, JA; Scheyer, AF; Milovanovic, M; LaCrosse, AL; Flores-Barrera, E; Werner, CT; Li, X; Ford, KA; Le, T; Olive, MF; Szumlinski, KK; Tseng, KY; Wolf, ME
Nature neuroscience 17 73-80 2014
Cue-induced cocaine craving is a major cause of relapse in abstinent addicts. In rats, cue-induced craving progressively intensifies (incubates) during withdrawal from extended-access cocaine self-administration. After ~1 month of withdrawal, incubated craving is mediated by Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) that accumulate in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We found that decreased mGluR1 surface expression in the NAc preceded and enabled CP-AMPAR accumulation. Thus, restoring mGluR1 transmission by administering repeated injections of an mGluR1 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) prevented CP-AMPAR accumulation and incubation, whereas blocking mGluR1 transmission at even earlier withdrawal times accelerated CP-AMPAR accumulation. In studies conducted after prolonged withdrawal, when CP-AMPAR levels and cue-induced craving are high, we found that systemic administration of an mGluR1 PAM attenuated the expression of incubated craving by reducing CP-AMPAR transmission in the NAc to control levels. These results suggest a strategy in which recovering addicts could use a systemically active compound to protect against cue-induced relapse.
|Therapeutic molecules and endogenous ligands regulate the interaction between brain cellular prion protein (PrPC) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). |
Haas, LT; Kostylev, MA; Strittmatter, SM
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 28460-77 2014
Soluble Amyloid-β oligomers (Aβo) can trigger Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiology by binding to cell surface cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). PrP(C) interacts physically with metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), and this interaction controls the transmission of neurotoxic signals to intracellular substrates. Because the interruption of the signal transduction from PrP(C) to mGluR5 has therapeutic potential for AD, we developed assays to explore the effect of endogenous ligands, agonists/antagonists, and antibodies on the interaction between PrP(C) and mGluR5 in cell lines and mouse brain. We show that the PrP(C) segment of amino acids 91-153 mediates the interaction with mGluR5. Agonists of mGluR5 increase the mGluR5-PrP(C) interaction, whereas mGluR5 antagonists suppress protein association. Synthetic Aβo promotes the protein interaction in mouse brain and transfected HEK-293 cell membrane preparations. The interaction of PrP(C) and mGluR5 is enhanced dramatically in the brains of familial AD transgenic model mice. In brain homogenates with Aβo, the interaction of PrP(C) and mGluR5 is reversed by mGluR5-directed antagonists or antibodies directed against the PrP(C) segment of amino acids 91-153. Silent allosteric modulators of mGluR5 do not alter Glu or basal mGluR5 activity, but they disrupt the Aβo-induced interaction of mGluR5 with PrP(C). The assays described here have the potential to identify and develop new compounds that inhibit the interaction of PrP(C) and mGluR5, which plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease by transmitting the signal from extracellular Aβo into the cytosol.
|Time-dependent Gene Profiling Indicates the Presence of Different Phases for Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Retina. |
Andreeva, K; Zhang, M; Fan, W; Li, X; Chen, Y; Rebolledo-Mendez, JD; Cooper, NG
Ophthalmology and eye diseases 6 43-54 2014
Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury has been associated with several retinal pathologies, and a few genes/gene products have been linked to IR injury. However, the big picture of temporal changes, regarding the affected gene networks, pathways, and processes remains to be determined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate initial, intermediate, and later stages to characterize the etiology of IR injury in terms of the pathways affected over time. Analyses indicated that at the initial stage, 0-hour reperfusion following the ischemic period, the ischemia-associated genes were related to changes in metabolism. In contrast, at the 24-hour time point, the signature events in reperfusion injury include enhanced inflammatory and immune responses as well as cell death indicating that this would be a critical period for the development of any interventional therapeutic strategies. Genes in the signal transduction pathways, particularly transmitter receptors, are downregulated at this time. Activation of the complement system pathway clearly plays an important role in the later stages of reperfusion injury. Together, these results demonstrate that the etiology of injury related to IR is characterized by the appearance of specific patterns of gene expression at any given time point during retinal IR injury. These results indicate that evaluation of treatment strategies with respect to time is very critical.
|Amyloid-β and Alzheimer's disease type pathology differentially affects the calcium signalling toolkit in astrocytes from different brain regions. |
Grolla, AA; Sim, JA; Lim, D; Rodriguez, JJ; Genazzani, AA; Verkhratsky, A
Cell death & disease 4 e623 2013
The entorhinal-hippocampal circuit is severely affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we demonstrate that amyloid-β (Aβ) differentially affects primary cultured astrocytes derived from the entorhinal cortex (EC) and from the hippocampus from non-transgenic controls and 3xTg-AD transgenic mice. Exposure to 100 nM of Aβ resulted in increased expression of the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) and its downstream InsP3 receptor type 1 (InsP3R1) in hippocampal but not in EC astrocytes. Amplitudes of Ca(2+) responses to an mGluR5 agonist, DHPG, and to ATP, another metabotropic agonist coupled to InsP3Rs, were significantly increased in Aβ-treated hippocampal but not in EC astrocytes. Previously we demonstrated that senile plaque formation in 3xTg-AD mice triggers astrogliosis in hippocampal but not in EC astrocytes. The different sensitivities of the Ca(2+) signalling toolkit of EC versus hippocampal astrocytes to Aβ may account for the lack of astrogliosis in the EC, which in turn can explain the higher vulnerability of this region to AD.
|SHANK3 overexpression causes manic-like behaviour with unique pharmacogenetic properties. |
Han, K; Holder, JL; Schaaf, CP; Lu, H; Chen, H; Kang, H; Tang, J; Wu, Z; Hao, S; Cheung, SW; Yu, P; Sun, H; Breman, AM; Patel, A; Lu, HC; Zoghbi, HY
Nature 503 72-7 2013
Mutations in SHANK3 and large duplications of the region spanning SHANK3 both cause a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders, indicating that proper SHANK3 dosage is critical for normal brain function. However, SHANK3 overexpression per se has not been established as a cause of human disorders because 22q13 duplications involve several genes. Here we report that Shank3 transgenic mice modelling a human SHANK3 duplication exhibit manic-like behaviour and seizures consistent with synaptic excitatory/inhibitory imbalance. We also identified two patients with hyperkinetic disorders carrying the smallest SHANK3-spanning duplications reported so far. These findings indicate that SHANK3 overexpression causes a hyperkinetic neuropsychiatric disorder. To probe the mechanism underlying the phenotype, we generated a Shank3 in vivo interactome and found that Shank3 directly interacts with the Arp2/3 complex to increase F-actin levels in Shank3 transgenic mice. The mood-stabilizing drug valproate, but not lithium, rescues the manic-like behaviour of Shank3 transgenic mice raising the possibility that this hyperkinetic disorder has a unique pharmacogenetic profile.
|Uncoupling of the endocannabinoid signalling complex in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. |
Jung, KM; Sepers, M; Henstridge, CM; Lassalle, O; Neuhofer, D; Martin, H; Ginger, M; Frick, A; DiPatrizio, NV; Mackie, K; Katona, I; Piomelli, D; Manzoni, OJ
Nature communications 3 1080 2012
Fragile X syndrome, the most commonly known genetic cause of autism, is due to loss of the fragile X mental retardation protein, which regulates signal transduction at metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 in the brain. Fragile X mental retardation protein deletion in mice enhances metabotropic glutamate receptor-5-dependent long-term depression in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Here we show that a distinct type of metabotropic glutamate receptor-5-dependent long-term depression at excitatory synapses of the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex, which is mediated by the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol, is absent in fragile X mental retardation protein-null mice. In these mutants, the macromolecular complex that links metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 to the 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol-producing enzyme, diacylglycerol lipase-α (endocannabinoid signalosome), is disrupted and metabotropic glutamate receptor-5-dependent 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol formation is compromised. These changes are accompanied by impaired endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression. Pharmacological enhancement of 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol signalling normalizes this synaptic defect and corrects behavioural abnormalities in fragile X mental retardation protein-deficient mice. The results identify the endocannabinoid signalosome as a molecular substrate for fragile X syndrome, which might be targeted by therapy.
|β-Estradiol unmasks metabotropic receptor-mediated metaplasticity of NMDA receptor transmission in the female rat dentate gyrus. |
Nebieridze, N; Zhang, XL; Chachua, T; Velíšek, L; Stanton, PK; Velíšková, J
Psychoneuroendocrinology 37 1845-54 2012
Loss of estrogen in women following menopause is associated with increased risk for cognitive decline, dementia and depression, all of which can be prevented by estradiol replacement. The dentate gyrus plays an important role in cognition, learning and memory. The gatekeeping function of the dentate gyrus to filter incoming activity into the hippocampus is modulated by estradiol in a frequency-dependent manner and involves activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). In the present study, we investigated whether estradiol (EB) modulates the metaplastic effect of inducing synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) on subsequent propensity for expression of LTP in the dentate gyrus. At medial perforant path-dentate granule cell synapses in hippocampal slices of ovariectomized female rats, EB replacement was critical for an initial induction of LTP to enhance the magnitude of subsequent LTP elicited by a second high-frequency stimulation, metaplasticity, which was not present in slices from oil-treated control animals. EB enhanced expression of group I mGluRs, and the metaplastic effect of EB on LTP required activation of group I mGluRs that led to Src-family tyrosine kinase-mediated phosphorylation of NR2B subunits of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) that enhanced the magnitude of NMDAR-dependent LTP. Our data show that EB effects on LTP in the hippocampal dentate gyrus require activation of group I mGluRs, which in turn leads to functional metaplastic regulation of NR2B subunit-containing NMDARs, as opposed to direct effects of EB on NMDARs.
|MeCP2 phosphorylation is required for modulating synaptic scaling through mGluR5. |
Zhong, X; Li, H; Chang, Q
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 12841-7 2012
MeCP2 (methyl CpG binding protein 2) is a key player in recognizing methylated DNA and interpreting the epigenetic information encoded in different DNA methylation patterns. The functional significance of MeCP2 to the mammalian nervous system is highlighted by the discovery that mutations in the MECP2 gene cause Rett syndrome (RTT), a devastating neurological disease that shares many features with autism. Synaptic scaling is a form of non-Hebbian homeostatic plasticity that allows neurons to regulate overall excitability in response to changes in network neuronal activity levels. While it is known that neuronal activity can induce phosphorylation of MeCP2 and that MeCP2 can regulate synaptic scaling, the molecular link between MeCP2 phosphorylation and synaptic scaling remains undefined. We show here that MeCP2 phosphorylation is specifically required for bicuculline-induced synaptic scaling down in mouse hippocampal neurons and this phenotype is mediated by mGluR5 (metabotropic glutamate receptor 5). Our results reveal an important function of MeCP2 in regulating neuronal homeostasis and may eventually help us understand how MECP2 mutations cause RTT.
|Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1): antibody specificity and receptor expression in cultured primary neurons. |
Ramses Ayala,Lauren R Kett,Tiffany L Leach,Anne B Young,Anthone W Dunah,Lianna R Orlando
Journal of neuroscience methods 204 2012
The availability of high quality, well-characterized antibodies for molecular and cellular neuroscience studies is important. However, not all available antibodies are rigorously evaluated, nor are limitations of particular antibodies often reported. We have examined a panel of currently available mGluR1 antibodies and have identified which ones are selective for use by western blots and immunocytochemistry. We have also specifically determined whether the antibodies cross-react to recognize mGluR5, by examining (1) tissue from both mGluR1 and mGluR5 knock-out mice and (2) primary cortical cultures, in which mGluR5 is widely expressed but mGluR1 is not. Together, these data provide a baseline characterization of antibodies that can and cannot be reliably used in these types of studies, and will hopefully facilitate and positively impact the research efforts of others studying mGluR1.
|Reduced metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 density in major depression determined by [(11)C]ABP688 PET and postmortem study. |
Deschwanden, A; Karolewicz, B; Feyissa, AM; Treyer, V; Ametamey, SM; Johayem, A; Burger, C; Auberson, YP; Sovago, J; Stockmeier, CA; Buck, A; Hasler, G
The American journal of psychiatry 168 727-34 2011
Clinical and preclinical evidence suggests a hyperactive glutamatergic system in clinical depression. Recently, the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) has been proposed as an attractive target for novel therapeutic approaches to depression. The goal of this study was to compare mGluR5 binding (in a positron emission tomography [PET] study) and mGluR5 protein expression (in a postmortem study) between individuals with major depressive disorder and psychiatrically healthy comparison subjects.Images of mGluR5 receptor binding were acquired using PET with [(11)C]ABP688, which binds to an allosteric site with high specificity, in 11 unmedicated individuals with major depression and 11 matched healthy comparison subjects. The amount of mGluR5 protein was investigated using Western blot in postmortem brain samples of 15 depressed individuals and 15 matched comparison subjects.The PET study revealed lower levels of regional mGluR5 binding in the prefrontal cortex, the cingulate cortex, the insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus in the depression group relative to the comparison group. Severity of depression was negatively correlated with mGluR5 binding in the hippocampus. The postmortem study showed lower levels of mGluR5 protein expression in the prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10) in the depression group relative to the comparison group, while prefrontal mGluR1 protein expression did not differ between groups.The lower levels of mGluR5 binding observed in the depression group are consonant with the lower levels of protein expression in brain tissue in the postmortem depression group. Thus, both studies suggest that basal or compensatory changes in excitatory neurotransmission play roles in the pathophysiology of major depression.
|Chronic corticosterone administration down-regulates metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 protein expression in the rat hippocampus. |
Iyo, AH; Feyissa, AM; Chandran, A; Austin, MC; Regunathan, S; Karolewicz, B
Neuroscience 169 1567-74 2010
Several lines of evidence suggest a dysfunctional glutamate system in major depressive disorder (MDD). Recently, we reported reduced levels of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) in postmortem brains in MDD, however the neurobiological mechanisms that induce these abnormalities are unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of chronic corticosterone (CORT) administration on the expression of mGluR5 protein and mRNA in the rat frontal cortex and hippocampus. Rats were injected with CORT (40 mg/kg s.c.) or vehicled once daily for 21 days. The expression of mGluR5 protein and mRNA was assessed by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). In addition, mGluR1 protein was measured in the same animals. The results revealed that while there was a significant reduction (-27%, P=0.0006) in mGluR5 protein expression in the hippocampus from CORT treated rats, mRNA levels were unchanged. Also unchanged were mGluR5 mRNA and protein levels in the frontal cortex and mGluR1 protein levels in both brain regions. Our findings provide the first evidence that chronic CORT exposure regulates the expression of mGluR5 and are in line with previous postmortem and imaging studies showing reduced mGluR5 in MDD. Our findings suggest that elevated levels of glucocorticoids may contribute to impairments in glutamate neurotransmission in MDD.Full Text Article
|Assessment of the potential role of muscle spindle mechanoreceptor afferents in chronic muscle pain in the rat masseter muscle. |
Lund, JP; Sadeghi, S; Athanassiadis, T; Caram Salas, N; Auclair, F; Thivierge, B; Arsenault, I; Rompré, P; Westberg, KG; Kolta, A
PloS one 5 e11131 2010
The phenotype of large diameter sensory afferent neurons changes in several models of neuropathic pain. We asked if similar changes also occur in "functional" pain syndromes.Acidic saline (AS, pH 4.0) injections into the masseter muscle were used to induce persistent myalgia. Controls received saline at pH 7.2. Nocifensive responses of Experimental rats to applications of Von Frey Filaments to the masseters were above control levels 1-38 days post-injection. This effect was bilateral. Expression of c-Fos in the Trigeminal Mesencephalic Nucleus (NVmes), which contains the somata of masseter muscle spindle afferents (MSA), was above baseline levels 1 and 4 days after AS. The resting membrane potentials of neurons exposed to AS (n = 167) were hyperpolarized when compared to their control counterparts (n = 141), as were their thresholds for firing, high frequency membrane oscillations (HFMO), bursting, inward and outward rectification. The amplitude of HFMO was increased and spontaneous ectopic firing occurred in 10% of acid-exposed neurons, but never in Controls. These changes appeared within the same time frame as the observed nocifensive behaviour. Ectopic action potentials can travel centrally, but also antidromically to the peripheral terminals of MSA where they could cause neurotransmitter release and activation of adjacent fibre terminals. Using immunohistochemistry, we confirmed that annulospiral endings of masseter MSA express the glutamate vesicular transporter VGLUT1, indicating that they can release glutamate. Many capsules also contained fine fibers that were labelled by markers associated with nociceptors (calcitonin gene-related peptide, Substance P, P2X3 receptors and TRPV1 receptors) and that expressed the metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR5. Antagonists of glutamatergic receptors given together with the 2(nd) injection of AS prevented the hypersensitivity observed bilaterally but were ineffective if given contralaterally.Low pH leads to changes in several electrical properties of MSA, including initiation of ectopic action potentials which could propagate centrally but could also invade the peripheral endings causing glutamate release and activation of nearby nociceptors within the spindle capsule. This peripheral drive could contribute both to the transition to, and maintenance of, persistent muscle pain as seen in some "functional" pain syndromes.
|Differential role for synaptojanin 1 in rod and cone photoreceptors. |
Lars C Holzhausen,Alaron A Lewis,Kimberly K Cheong,Susan E Brockerhoff
The Journal of comparative neurology 517 2009
Synaptojanin 1 (SynJ1) is a polyphosphoinositide phosphatase involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis in conventional synapses. Studies with the zebrafish mutant nrc have revealed that loss of SynJ1 also affects cone photoreceptor ribbon synapses, causing pronounced morphological and functional abnormalities. In this study we continue to examine the role of SynJ1 in photoreceptors. Using a newly generated antibody specific for zebrafish SynJ1, we localized this protein predominantly to cone photoreceptors. We then used blastula stage transplantation experiments to demonstrate that rods from nrc mutants lacking SynJ1 develop normally and do not have the pronounced morphological defects detected in cones. Given the known involvement of SynJ1 in synaptic vesicle endocytosis, we hypothesize that rods and cones use distinct mechanisms for vesicle recycling.Full Text Article
|Effect of chronic gestational treatment with the adenosine A1 receptor agonist R-phenylisopropyladenosine on metabotropic glutamate receptors/phospholipase C pathway in maternal and fetal brain. |
David A León,José L Albasanz,Carlos A Castillo,Inmaculada Iglesias,Mairena Martín
Journal of neuroscience research 86 2008
Pregnant Wistar rats were orally treated with the adenosine receptor agonist R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) throughout the gestational period, and the status of the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor/phospholipase C transduction pathway from maternal and fetal brain was analyzed. In mothers' brains, radioligand binding assays revealed a significant decrease in the Bmax value, without any significant alteration in Kd value. Similar results were observed in the steady-state level of mGlu(1) and mGlu(5) receptors assayed by Western blot, suggesting that both receptor subtypes were modulated by chronic R-PIA treatment. mRNA coding mGlu(1) or mGlu(5) receptors was not altered, suggesting a posttranscriptional modulation as a possible mechanism of the loss of mGlu(1) and mGlu(5) receptors at the membrane surface. Moreover, phospholipase C stimulated by (R,S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), a selective agonist of group I mGlu receptors, was also significantly decreased after R-PIA treatment, suggesting a heterologous desensitization of group I mGlu/PLC pathway in maternal brain. Western blot and RT-PCR assays showed that neither alphaG(q/11) nor PLCbeta(1) was affected by R-PIA treatment. In fetal brain, no significant differences in mGlu receptors/PLC transduction pathway were observed after R-PIA treatment. These results suggest that chronic R-PIA intake during pregnancy modulates group I mGlu receptor signalling pathway in maternal brain, promoting a down-regulation of mGlu(1) and mGlu(5) receptors and a heterologous desensitization of the mGlu/PLC system.
|Molecular components and functions of the endocannabinoid system in mouse prefrontal cortex. |
Lafourcade, M; Elezgarai, I; Mato, S; Bakiri, Y; Grandes, P; Manzoni, OJ
PloS one 2 e709 2007
Cannabinoids have deleterious effects on prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated functions and multiple evidences link the endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) system, cannabis use and schizophrenia, a disease in which PFC functions are altered. Nonetheless, the molecular composition and the physiological functions of the endocannabinoid system in the PFC are unknown.Here, using electron microscopy we found that key proteins involved in endocannabinoid signaling are expressed in layers v/vi of the mouse prelimbic area of the PFC: presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) faced postsynaptic mGluR5 while diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DGL-alpha), the enzyme generating the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) was expressed in the same dendritic processes as mGluR5. Activation of presynaptic CB1R strongly inhibited evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents. Prolonged synaptic stimulation at 10Hz induced a profound long-term depression (LTD) of layers V/VI excitatory inputs. The endocannabinoid -LTD was presynaptically expressed and depended on the activation of postsynaptic mGluR5, phospholipase C and a rise in postsynaptic Ca(2+) as predicted from the localization of the different components of the endocannabinoid system. Blocking the degradation of 2-AG (with URB 602) but not of anandamide (with URB 597) converted subthreshold tetanus to LTD-inducing ones. Moreover, inhibiting the synthesis of 2-AG with Tetrahydrolipstatin, blocked endocannabinoid-mediated LTD. All together, our data show that 2-AG mediates LTD at these synapses.Our data show that the endocannabinoid -retrograde signaling plays a prominent role in long-term synaptic plasticity at the excitatory synapses of the PFC. Alterations of endocannabinoid -mediated synaptic plasticity may participate to the etiology of PFC-related pathologies.Full Text Article
|Effects of inflammation on the ultrastructural localization of spinal cord dorsal horn group I metabotropic glutamate receptors. |
Mark H Pitcher, Alfredo Ribeiro-da-Silva, Terence J Coderre
The Journal of comparative neurology 505 412-23 2007
Inflammatory pain is thought to induce functional plasticity of spinal dorsal horn neurons and may produce changes in glutamate receptor expression. Plasticity of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR5) is important in various neuronal systems, and these receptors are also known to modulate nociceptive neurotransmission in the spinal dorsal horn. The present study aimed at determining whether persistent inflammatory pain produces alterations in intracellular and plasma membrane-associated mGluR1alpha and mGluR5 in spinal cord dorsal horn. Persistent inflammation was induced in male Long Evans rats by a unilateral intraplantar injection of 100 muL of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Three days after the CFA injection thermal withdrawal latencies were obtained prior to processing of transverse spinal cord sections for preembedding immunogold labeling after incubation in primary antibody for mGluR1alpha or mGluR5. Using electron microscopy, we quantified immunogold-labeled mGluR1alpha and mGluR5 profiles, located in lamina V and I-II, respectively, of both CFA-treated rats and untreated control rats. Compared to untreated rats, CFA-treated rats had a significant increase in the number of plasma membrane-associated mGluR5 immunogold-labeled particles in lamina I-II neurons of the spinal cord. Although no changes to mGluR1alpha expression were found in CFA-treated rats, plasma membrane-associated mGluR1alpha was significantly closer to the synapse. Therefore, in CFA-treated rats there was a specific increase in the ratio of plasma membrane-associated versus intracellular immunogold-labeled particles for mGluR5, and lateral movement of mGluR1alpha toward the synapse, indicating that peripheral inflammation-induced trafficking of group I mGluRs in spinal dorsal horn neurons may be an important factor in the development of plastic changes associated with inflammation-induced chronic pain.
|RABBIT ANTI- METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR 5 (mGluR5) AFFINITY PURIFIED POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY|