Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||WB, IH(P), FUNC||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-MMP-2 Proform Antibody, NT, clone CA-4001|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at 2-8°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months after date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|MOUSE ANTI-HUMAN MMP-2 (PROFORM) -2608478||2608478|
|MOUSE ANTI-HUMAN MMP-2 (PROFORM) -2616189||2616189|
|MOUSE ANTI-HUMAN MMP-2 (PROFORM) -2705121||2705121|
|MOUSE ANTI-HUMAN MMP-2 (PROFORM) -2739487||2739487|
|MOUSE ANTI-HUMAN MMP-2 (PROFORM) -2784239||2784239|
|MOUSE ANTI-HUMAN MMP-2 (PROFORM) -2802043||2802043|
|MOUSE ANTI-HUMAN MMP-2 (PROFORM) -2804210||2804210|
|MOUSE ANTI-HUMAN MMP-2 (PROFORM) MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY -2475621||2475621|
References | 25 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Cadherin-6B is proteolytically processed during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions of the cranial neural crest. |
Schiffmacher, AT; Padmanabhan, R; Jhingory, S; Taneyhill, LA
Molecular biology of the cell 25 41-54 2014
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly coordinated process underlying both development and disease. Premigratory neural crest cells undergo EMT, migrate away from the neural tube, and differentiate into diverse cell types during vertebrate embryogenesis. Adherens junction disassembly within premigratory neural crest cells is one component of EMT and, in chick cranial neural crest cells, involves cadherin-6B (Cad6B) down-regulation. Whereas Cad6B transcription is repressed by Snail2, the rapid loss of Cad6B protein during EMT is suggestive of posttranslational mechanisms that promote Cad6B turnover. For the first time in vivo, we demonstrate Cad6B proteolysis during neural crest cell EMT, which generates a Cad6B N-terminal fragment (NTF) and two C-terminal fragments (CTF1/2). Coexpression of relevant proteases with Cad6B in vitro shows that a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) ADAM10 and ADAM19, together with γ-secretase, cleave Cad6B to produce the NTF and CTFs previously observed in vivo. Of importance, both ADAMs and γ-secretase are expressed in the appropriate spatiotemporal pattern in vivo to proteolytically process Cad6B. Overexpression or depletion of either ADAM within premigratory neural crest cells prematurely reduces or maintains Cad6B, respectively. Collectively these results suggest a dual mechanism for Cad6B proteolysis involving two ADAMs, along with γ-secretase, during cranial neural crest cell EMT.
|Senescent cancer-associated fibroblasts secrete active MMP-2 that promotes keratinocyte dis-cohesion and invasion. |
Hassona, Y; Cirillo, N; Heesom, K; Parkinson, EK; Prime, SS
British journal of cancer 111 1230-7 2014
Previous studies have demonstrated that senescent cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) derived from genetically unstable oral squamous cell carcinomas (GU-OSCC), unlike non-senescent CAFs from genetically stable carcinomas (GS-OSCC), promoted keratinocyte invasion in vitro in a paracrine manner. The mechanism by which this occurs is unclear.Previous work to characterise the senescent-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) has used antibody arrays, technology that is limited by the availability of suitable antibodies. To extend this work in an unbiased manner, we used 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy for protein identification. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were investigated by gelatin zymography and western blotting. Neutralising antibodies were used to block key molecules in the functional assays of keratinocyte adhesion and invasion.Among a variety of proteins that were differentially expressed between CAFs from GU-OSCC and GS-OSCC, MMP-2 was a major constituent of senescent CAF-CM derived from GU-OSCC. The presence of active MMP-2 was confirmed by gelatine zymography. MMP-2 derived from senescent CAF-CM induced keratinocyte dis-cohesion and epithelial invasion into collagen gels in a TGF-β-dependent manner.Senescent CAFs from GU-OSCC promote a more aggressive oral cancer phenotype by production of active MMP-2, disruption of epithelial adhesion and induction of keratinocyte invasion.
|Matrix metalloproteinase-2 cleavage of the β1 integrin ectodomain facilitates colon cancer cell motility. |
Kryczka, J; Stasiak, M; Dziki, L; Mik, M; Dziki, A; Cierniewski, C
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 36556-66 2012
Cancer cell invasion is a key element in metastasis that requires integrins for adhesion/de-adhesion, as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) for focalized proteolysis. Herein we show that MMP-2 is up-regulated in resected colorectal tumors and degrades β1 integrins with the release of fragments containing the β1 I-domain. The β1 cleavage pattern is similar to that produced by digestion of α5β1 and α2β1 with MMP-2. Two such fragments, at 25 and 75 kDa, were identified after immunoprecipitation, with monoclonal antibody BD610468 reacting with the NH(2)-terminal I-like ectodomain followed by SDS-PAGE and microsequencing using electrospray (ISI-Q-TOF-Micromass) spectrometry. Cleavage of the β1 integrin can be abolished by inhibition of MMP-2 activity; it can be induced by up-regulation of MMP-2 expression, as exemplified by HT29 colon cancer cells transfected with pCMV6-XL5-MMP-2. Co-immunoprecipitation studies of colon cancer cells showed that the β1 integrin subunit is associated with MMP-2. The MMP-2-mediated shedding of the I-like domain from β1 integrins resulted in decreased adhesion of colon cancer cells to collagen and fibronectin, thus abolishing their receptivity. Furthermore, such cells showed enhanced motility as evaluated by a "wound healing-like" assay and time-lapse microscopy, indicating their increased invasiveness. Altogether, our data demonstrate that MMP-2 amplifies the motility of colon cancer cells, not only by digesting the extracellular matrix components in the vicinity of cancer cells but also by inactivating their major β1 integrin receptors.
|Involvement of S100A14 protein in cell invasion by affecting expression and function of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 via p53-dependent transcriptional regulation. |
Chen, H; Yuan, Y; Zhang, C; Luo, A; Ding, F; Ma, J; Yang, S; Tian, Y; Tong, T; Zhan, Q; Liu, Z
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 17109-19 2012
S100 proteins have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis. As a member of S100 proteins, the role of S100A14 in carcinogenesis has not been fully understood. Here, we showed that ectopic overexpression of S100A14 promotes motility and invasiveness of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells. We investigated the underlying mechanisms and found that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 is obviously increased after S100A14 gene overexpression. Inhibition of MMP2 by a specific MMP2 inhibitor at least partly reversed the invasive phenotype of cells overexpressing S100A14. By serendipity, we found that S100A14 could affect p53 transactivity and stability. Thus, we further investigated whether the effect of MMP2 by S100A14 is dependent on p53. A series of biochemical assays showed that S100A14 requires functional p53 to affect MMP2 transcription, and p53 potently transrepresses the expression of MMP2. Finally, RT-quantitative PCR analysis of human breast cancer specimens showed a significant correlation between S100A14 mRNA expression and MMP2 mRNA expression in cases with wild-type p53 but not in cases with mutant p53. Collectively, our data strongly suggest that S100A14 promotes cell motility and invasiveness by regulating the expression and function of MMP2 in a p53-dependent manner.
|Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 regulates matrix metalloproteinase-2-mediated endothelial barrier dysfunction and breast cancer cell transmigration through lung microvascular endothelial cells. |
Shen Q, Lee ES, Pitts RL, Wu MH, Yuan SY
Mol Cancer Res 8 939-51. Epub 2010 Jun 22. 2010
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have been implicated in multiple stages of cancer metastasis. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) plays an important role in regulating MMP-2 activity. By forming a ternary complex with pro-MMP-2 and its activator MMP-14 on the cell surface, TIMP-2 can either initiate or restrain the cleavage and subsequent activation of MMP-2. Our recent work has shown that breast cancer cell adhesion to vascular endothelial cells activates endothelial MMP-2, promoting tumor cell transendothelial migration (TEM(E)). However, the mechanism of MMP-2 regulation during TEM(E) remains unclear. In the current study, we present evidence that MMP-14 is expressed in both invasive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436) and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVEC-L), whereas TIMP-2 is exclusively expressed and released from the cancer cells. The tumor cell-derived TIMP-2 was further identified as a major determinant of endothelial MMP-2 activity during tumor cell transmigration in the presence of MMP-14. This response was associated with endothelial barrier dysfunction because coculture of MDA-MB-231 or MDA-MB-436 with HBMVEC-L caused a significant decrease in transendothelial electrical resistance concomitantly with endothelial cell-cell junction disruption and tumor cell transmigration. Knockdown of TIMP-2 or inhibition of TIMP-2/MMP-14 attenuated MMP-2-dependent transendothelial electrical resistance response and TEM(E). These findings suggest a novel interactive role of breast cancer cells and vascular endothelial cells in regulating the TIMP-2/MMP-14/MMP-2 pathway during tumor metastasis.
|Chromosome 7 and 19 trisomy in cultured human neural progenitor cells. |
Sareen, D; McMillan, E; Ebert, AD; Shelley, BC; Johnson, JA; Meisner, LF; Svendsen, CN
PloS one 4 e7630 2009
Stem cell expansion and differentiation is the foundation of emerging cell therapy technologies. The potential applications of human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) are wide ranging, but a normal cytogenetic profile is important to avoid the risk of tumor formation in clinical trials. FDA approved clinical trials are being planned and conducted for hNPC transplantation into the brain or spinal cord for various neurodegenerative disorders. Although human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are known to show recurrent chromosomal abnormalities involving 12 and 17, no studies have revealed chromosomal abnormalities in cultured hNPCs. Therefore, we investigated frequently occurring chromosomal abnormalities in 21 independent fetal-derived hNPC lines and the possible mechanisms triggering such aberrations.While most hNPC lines were karyotypically normal, G-band karyotyping and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses revealed the emergence of trisomy 7 (hNPC(+7)) and trisomy 19 (hNPC(+19)), in 24% and 5% of the lines, respectively. Once detected, subsequent passaging revealed emerging dominance of trisomy hNPCs. DNA microarray and immunoblotting analyses demonstrate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression in hNPC(+7) and hNPC(+19) cells. We observed greater levels of telomerase (hTERT), increased proliferation (Ki67), survival (TUNEL), and neurogenesis (beta(III)-tubulin) in hNPC(+7) and hNPC(+19), using respective immunocytochemical markers. However, the trisomy lines underwent replicative senescence after 50-60 population doublings and never showed neoplastic changes. Although hNPC(+7) and hNPC(+19) survived better after xenotransplantation into the rat striatum, they did not form malignant tumors. Finally, EGF deprivation triggered a selection of trisomy 7 cells in a diploid hNPC line.We report that hNPCs are susceptible to accumulation of chromosome 7 and 19 trisomy in long-term cell culture. These results suggest that micro-environmental cues are powerful factors in the selection of specific hNPC aneuploidies, with trisomy of chromosome 7 being the most common. Given that a number of stem cell based clinical trials are being conducted or planned in USA and a recent report in PLoS Medicine showing the dangers of grafting an inordinate number of cells, these data substantiate the need for careful cytogenetic evaluation of hNPCs (fetal or hESC-derived) before their use in clinical or basic science applications.Full Text Article
|Integrin cleavage facilitates cell surface-associated proteolysis required for vascular smooth muscle cell invasion. |
Kai Kappert, Heike Meyborg, Bernadette Baumann, Vesna Furundzija, Jan Kaufmann, Kristof Graf, Dietger Stibenz, Eckart Fleck, Philipp Stawowy, Kai Kappert, Heike Meyborg, Bernadette Baumann, Vesna Furundzija, Jan Kaufmann, Kristof Graf, Dietger Stibenz, Eckart Fleck, Philipp Stawowy, Kai Kappert, Heike Meyborg, Bernadette Baumann, Vesna Furundzija, Jan Kaufmann, Kristof Graf, Dietger Stibenz, Eckart Fleck, Philipp Stawowy, Kai Kappert, Heike Meyborg, Bernadette Baumann, Vesna Furundzija, Jan Kaufmann, Kristof Graf, Dietger Stibenz, Eckart Fleck, Philipp Stawowy
The international journal of biochemistry cell biology 41 1511-7 2009
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) invasion is a key element in atherogenesis and restenosis, requiring integrins for adhesion/de-adhesion as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) for focalized proteolysis. Among the MMP family, pro-MMP-2 is unique in its activation, depending on the formation of a multiprotein complex with MT1-MMP/TIMP-2 at the cell surface, in which integrin alphavbeta3 participates. Integrin alphav and MT1-MMP are synthesized from precursors via furin-dependent cleavage of their pro-peptide. Furin is the prototypical proprotein convertase highly expressed in VSMCs and human atherosclerotic lesions. Its precise role in the tight network involving MMPs/integrins and their coordination and cooperation required for VSMC invasion is unknown. We demonstrate that furin-inhibition with decanoyl-RVKR-chloromethylketone inhibits VSMC invasion in a comparable degree to MMP inhibitors, which reduce the MT1-MMP-MMP-2 proteolytic cascade. Furin-inhibition did not prevent MT1-MMP/MMP-2 maturation. In contrast, it strongly reduced pro-alphav cleavage, but did not lessen its cell membrane expression. However, inhibition of pro-alphav processing via furin-inhibition strongly reduced pro-MMP-2 binding to the cell surface, thereby lessening its full maturation and diminishing the cell surface in situ proteolysis required for invasion. Thus, our data demonstrate a novel mechanism of furin-dependent alphav cleavage that enhances pro-MMP-2 binding and activation at the cell membrane in cooperation with MT1-MMP in primary VSMCs. Processing of alphav by furin contributes to the recruitment of enzymatic energy to the cell surface, thereby providing focalized proteolysis associated with VSMC invasion.
|MMP-14 and TIMP-2 overexpression protects against hydroquinone-induced oxidant injury in RPE: implications for extracellular matrix turnover. |
Alcazar, O; Cousins, SW; Marin-Castaño, ME
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 48 5662-70 2007
To investigate whether overexpression of MMP-14 and/or TIMP-2 would overcome the effect of nonlethal oxidant injury with hydroquinone (HQ) on MMP-2 activity.Human MMP-14 and TIMP2 cDNA were cloned into a mammalian expression vector. Transient transfections were performed on human ARPE-19 cells. The cells were incubated 48 hours after transfection with a nonlethal dose of HQ for either 6 or 18 hours and then were collected for protein determination or RNA isolation. MMP-2 protein and activity were determined by Western blot and zymography. The extracellular matrix (ECM) components type I and type IV collagen and laminin were analyzed by Western blot analysis and real-time PCR.HQ for 6 hours modestly decreased MMP-2. MMP-2 recovered only after co-overexpression of MMP-14 and TIMP-2, but activity further decreased after HQ for 18 hours. MMP-14 or TIMP-2 overexpression alone contributed as much as the co-overexpression to the recovery of MMP-2 activity. MMP-2 protein seemed not to be altered. Type I collagen and laminin transcriptional levels remained unaffected, whereas type IV collagen transcripts decreased with HQ. Transfection with MMP-14 and/or TIMP-2 contributed to the return of type IV collagen levels to normal. On the other hand, type I and IV collagens and laminin protein accumulated after HQ treatment, an effect prevented by transfection.MMP-14 and TIMP2 contribute to the maintenance of adequate levels of MMP-2 activity in ARPE-19 cells after oxidant injury. In addition, changes in ECM components may result as a consequence of MMP-2 activity and may be relevant to the progression of dry AMD.
|Vascular matrix metalloproteinase-9 mediates the inhibition of myogenic reactivity in small arteries isolated from rats after short-term administration of relaxin. |
Jeyabalan, A; Novak, J; Doty, KD; Matthews, J; Fisher, MC; Kerchner, LJ; Conrad, KP
Endocrinology 148 189-97 2007
During pregnancy and chronic relaxin administration to nonpregnant rats (for days), vascular MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-2 is increased and mediates renal vasodilation, hyperfiltration, and inhibition of myogenic reactivity of small renal arteries. However, the renal vasodilatory actions of relaxin also occur after only several hours of hormone administration to nonpregnant rats, and we hypothesized a pivotal role for vascular MMP-2. Accordingly, we used gelatin zymography, which reveals not only vascular MMP-2, but also MMP-9 activity in small renal arteries isolated from rats administered recombinant human relaxin (rhRLX) or vehicle for 4-6 h. Furthermore, we tested whether myogenic reactivity is inhibited, and if so, whether the inhibition is mediated by increased vascular MMP-2. Surprisingly, we detected no significant difference in either pro or active MMP-2 in small renal arteries isolated from rhRLX and vehicle control treatment groups. In contrast, vascular MMP-9 was up-regulated by 70% (P less than 0.0005 vs. vehicle). These results were completely unexpected and novel. MMP-9 protein expression was confined to the vascular smooth muscle. MMP-9, but not MMP-2 activity, was also increased in mesenteric arteries after short-term rhRLX administration (P less than 0.005 and greater than 0.05 vs. vehicle, respectively). Myogenic reactivity was inhibited in small renal arteries isolated from nonpregnant rats treated with rhRLX for 4-6 h (P less than 0.01 vs. vehicle) and was completely restored by incubation with MMP-9, but not MMP-2 neutralizing antibodies in vitro.In contrast to chronic rhRLX administration, MMP-9 rather than MMP-2 plays a central role in the vasodilatory effect of short-term relaxin administration.
|Hypoxia stimulates breast carcinoma cell invasion through MT1-MMP and MMP-2 activation. |
Muñoz-Nájar, UM; Neurath, KM; Vumbaca, F; Claffey, KP
Oncogene 25 2379-92 2006
The process of cancer cell invasion involves degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by proteases, integrin adhesion and cell motility. The role of ECM degrading proteases on the hypoxia-induced invasion of breast carcinoma cells was investigated. Hypoxia markedly increased the invasion capacity of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 breast carcinoma cell lines. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors blocked the hypoxia-induced invasion, whereas other protease inhibitors had no effect. Antibodies or siRNAs blocking either membrane type-1 MMP (MT1-MMP) or MMP-2 were effective in reducing the hypoxia-induced invasion. Serum-free reconstitution experiments confirmed the involvement of the MT1-MMP/MMP-2/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 complex in this hypoxia-induced response. Overexpression of MT1-MMP in a poorly invasive breast cancer cell line, T47-D, promoted hypoxia-induced invasion and MMP-2 activation. Cell surface accumulation and activation of MT1-MMP without apparent regulation at the mRNA or protein levels indicated a post-translational adaptive response to hypoxia. Inhibition of the small GTPase RhoA eliminated the hypoxia-induced invasion and blocked the localization of MT1-MMP to the plasma membrane. Zymographic and molecular analysis of human breast tumors showed a strong correlation between hypoxic microenvironments and MMP-2 activation without changes in MT1-MMP expression. Our studies suggest that hypoxic tumor microenvironments promote breast cancer invasion through an MT1-MMP-dependent mechanism.
|Chitooligosaccharides inhibit activation and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in human dermal fibroblasts. |
Moon-Moo Kim, Se-Kwon Kim
FEBS letters 580 2661-6 2006
Recently, much attention has been given to chitosan and its hydrolyzed products due to their diverse biological activities. For the first time here we report the inhibitory effect of chitooligosaccharides (COS) on activation and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). COS with 3-5 kDa exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on MMP-2 activity in HDFs assessed by gelatin zymography. Interestingly, protein expression of MMP-2 was also inhibited by COS with same molecular weight. This inhibition was caused by the decrease of the gene expression and transcriptional activity of MMP-2. Furthermore, it was found that COS repressed the gene expression of c-fos, a part of AP-1 transcription factor. These results suggest that COS may play an important role in the prevention and treatment of MMP-2 mediated several health problems such as metastasis and wrinkle formation.
|Loss of dipeptidyl peptidase IV immunostaining discriminates malignant melanomas from deep penetrating nevi. |
Roesch, A; Wittschier, S; Becker, B; Landthaler, M; Vogt, T
Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc 19 1378-85 2006
The deep penetrating nevus is a rare variant of benign melanocytic nevus with histologic features mimicking vertical growth phase, nodular malignant melanoma. In this study, we expand on the search for new complementary discriminating markers by analyzing a selection of both cell cycle-related factors, such as retinoblastoma protein and phospho-retinoblastoma protein Ser795 as indicators for retinoblastoma protein activation/inactivation status, and invasion-related factors, such as matrix metalloproteinase-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1 and integrin beta3. MIB-1/Ki-67 was analyzed as an example for a common proliferation marker. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV/CD26 was analyzed as a marker affecting both proliferation and invasion of malignant melanocytic tumors. Semiquantitative assessment of both immunolocalization and immunoreactivity of retinoblastoma protein and phospho-retinoblastoma protein Ser795, MIB-1/Ki-67, matrix metalloproteinase-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1 and integrin beta3 revealed no consistent differences between deep penetrating nevi (n=14) and matched cases of nodular malignant melanomas (n=10). Matrix metalloproteinase-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 immunostaining of some deep penetrating nevi even exceeded that of nodular malignant melanomas. Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression scores of nodular malignant melanomas were higher than those of deep penetrating nevi, which was, however, not significantly discriminative. In contrast, immunostaining of dipeptidyl peptidase IV was significantly discriminative due to a consistent lack of dipeptidyl peptidase IV-expression in nodular malignant melanomas. These results add evidence that among the selected markers supposed to be relevant for melanoma progression the presence of dipeptidyl peptidase IV can be used to support diagnosis of deep penetrating nevi in doubtful cases. As loss of dipeptidyl peptidase IV may also be causally linked to the transition of invasive to metastatic phenotypes, the molecular mechanisms downstream of dipeptidyl peptidase IV deserve to be studied in more detail in future investigations.
|Matrix metalloproteinase expression in basal cell carcinoma: relationship between enzyme profile and collagen fragmentation pattern. |
Taskin Yucel, Amar Mutnal, Kevin Fay, Suzanne E G Fligiel, Timothy Wang, Timothy Johnson, Shan R Baker, James Varani
Experimental and molecular pathology 79 151-60 2005
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) with collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activities are up-regulated in basal cell carcinoma. In the present study we demonstrate that the major collagenolytic enzyme detected is MMP-1 (interstitial collagenase) while gelatinolytic enzymes include both MMP-2 (72-kDa gelatinase A) and MMP-9 (92-kDa gelatinase B). Significant fractions of all three enzymes are present as active forms. In spite of the fact that high levels of gelatinolytic enzymes are present, the major fragmentation products resulting from digestion of intact type I collagen are the 1/4 and 3/4 fragments (products of MMP-1-mediated digestion). Thus, it appears that the gelatinolytic enzymes are not capable of degrading the collagen fragments as rapidly as they are produced. Since previous studies have demonstrated that interaction of interstitial fibroblasts with high molecular weight fragments of type I collagen leads to increased MMP production, the present results suggest a mechanism underlying altered function of stromal elements in the connective tissue adjacent to the growing neoplasm.
|Ischaemia-reperfusion injury activates matrix metalloproteinases in the human heart. |
Lalu, MM; Pasini, E; Schulze, CJ; Ferrari-Vivaldi, M; Ferrari-Vivaldi, G; Bachetti, T; Schulz, R
European heart journal 26 27-35 2005
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) regulate matrix remodelling in the heart and play a pivotal role in myocardial dysfunction immediately following ischaemia-reperfusion injury ex vivo in rats. We investigated the changes in MMPs and TIMPs in acute myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury in humans.Fifteen patients with stable angina undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled. Left ventricular stroke work index was monitored prior to bypass and for 24 h following reperfusion. Left atrial biopsy samples were obtained at the start of bypass before cardioplegia and within 10 min after removal of the aortic cross-clamp. Plasma samples were collected from the radial artery and coronary sinus 1, 5, and 10 min following removal of the cross-clamp. In cardiac biopsies there was a marked increase in 72 kDa MMP-2 and 92 kDa MMP-9 activities, and a decrease in TIMP-1 upon reperfusion. Increased MMP activity correlated positively with cross-clamp duration and inversely with cardiac mechanical function 3 h following reperfusion. TIMP-1 correlated inversely with cross-clamp time and positively with cardiac mechanical function. Plasma samples revealed a significant increase in both 92 kDa MMP-9 and 64 kDa MMP-2 activities 1 min following removal of cross-clamp.Reperfusion following cardioplegia activates MMPs in the myocardium and plasma of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. This is the first correlation of MMP myocardial activity with cardiac function in humans. The early increase in MMP activity produces a proteolytic environment that may contribute to myocardial stunning injury in humans.
|Transplanted neural stem cells promote axonal regeneration through chronically denervated peripheral nerves. |
Walter Heine, Katherine Conant, John W Griffin, Ahmet Höke
Experimental neurology 189 231-40 2004
Regeneration in the peripheral nervous system is impaired after prolonged periods of denervation. Currently, no interventions exist to alter the outcome after prolonged denervation. To examine the role of transplanted neural stem cells (NSC), we prepared chronically denervated distal tibial nerve segments. After 6 months of chronic denervation, we transplanted vehicle, C17.2 mouse NSCs, or C17.2 mouse NSCs engineered to overexpress GDNF to the distal tibial nerve and performed a peroneal nerve cross-suture. In animals transplanted with the NSCs, there was better regeneration of the peroneal axons into the tibial nerve as measured by counting the number of axons and by the emergence of compound motor action potentials in the tibial innervated foot muscles. Improved regeneration correlated with a reduction of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG) immunoreactivity in the extracellular matrix (ECM). In vitro, supernatant from C17.2 NSCs contained large quantities of secreted matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2), degraded the CSPGs on chronically denervated tibial nerve sections, and reversed the CSPG-induced inhibition of neuritic outgrowth of DRG neurons. This reversal was inhibited by selective MMP-2 inhibitors. This is the first successful demonstration of regeneration through a chronically denervated nerve. These findings suggest that improved regeneration in the PNS can be accomplished by combining neurotrophic factor support and removal of axon growth inhibitory components in the extracellular matrix.
|The membrane form of the DNA repair protein Ku interacts at the cell surface with metalloproteinase 9. |
Sylvie Monferran, Jenny Paupert, Stéphanie Dauvillier, Bernard Salles, Catherine Muller
The EMBO journal 23 3758-68 2004
The Ku heterodimer (Ku70/Ku80) plays a central role in DNA double-strand breaks repair. Ku is also expressed on the cell surface of different types of cells where its function remains poorly understood. From a yeast two-hybrid screen, we have identified a specific interaction between the core region of Ku80 and the hemopexin domain of metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a key enzyme involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Ku associates with MMP-9 on the surface of leukemic cells as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation experiments in membrane extracts and double-label immunofluorescence studies. In normal and tumoral migratory cells, Ku80 and MMP-9 colocalize at the periphery of leading edge of cells and cellular invasion of collagen IV matrices was blocked by antibodies directed against Ku70 or Ku80 subunits as well as by Ku80-specific antisense oligonucleotides. Our results indicate that Ku and MMP-9 interact at the cell membrane of highly invasive hematopoietic cells of normal and tumoral origin and document the unexpected importance of the membrane-associated form of Ku in the regulation of ECM remodelling.Full Text Article
|Urinary matrix metalloproteinases and their endogenous inhibitors predict hepatic regeneration after murine partial hepatectomy. |
Arin K Greene, Mark Puder, Roopali Roy, Susan Kilroy, Gwendolyn Louis, Judah Folkman, Marsha A Moses
Transplantation 78 1139-44 2004
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a key role in extracellular matrix remodeling events associated with hepatic regeneration after partial hepatectomy. We therefore hypothesized that urinary MMPs and their endogenous tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) might also provide important information regarding initiation and progression of liver regeneration. METHODS: Groups of 20 mice underwent sham operations, two-thirds hepatectomy, or treatment with the angiogenesis inhibitor, AGM-1470,O-chloroacetyl-carbamoyl-fumagillol (TNP-470), after two-thirds hepatectomy to prevent hepatic regeneration. Urine was collected preoperatively and for 24 days after surgery and tested for MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 using substrate gel electrophoresis (zymography) and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: During hepatic regeneration, MMP-9 was detected in the urine at significantly lower levels on postoperative day 8 when the liver returned to its preoperative mass. In contrast, urine from mice whose livers were inhibited from regenerating (TNP-treated groups) contained increased levels of the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9. The MMP inhibitors, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, were significantly reduced in the urine of mice with normally regenerating livers but were increased in the urine of mice treated with TNP-470 on day 8. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that (1) urinary MMPs and their cognate inhibitors, the TIMPs, can be detected in the urine of mice undergoing partial hepatectomy, (2) the presence of these remodeling proteins in the urine may predict the progressive return of the partially resected liver to its preoperative mass, and (3) analysis of urinary MMPs and TIMPs may someday provide a noninvasive means of monitoring the status of patients undergoing hepatic resection and transplantation.
|Analysis of VEGF-responsive genes involved in the activation of endothelial cells. |
Wary, KK; Thakker, GD; Humtsoe, JO; Yang, J
Molecular cancer 2 25 2003
Identification of the genes and pathways associated with the activation of endothelial cells (ECs) could help uncover the role of ECs in wound healing, vascular permeability, blood brain barrier function, angiogenesis, diabetic retinopathy, atherosclerosis, psoriasis, and growth of solid tumors.Herein, we embedded ECs in 3D type I collagen gel, left unstimulated or stimulated with VEGF165, and subjected to suppression subtractive hybridization followed by differential display (SSHDD). Gene fragments obtained from SSHDD were subjected to DNA sequence analysis. Database search with nucleotide sequence were performed using the BLAST algorithm and expression of candidate genes determined by northern blot analysis.A total of approximately 32 cDNA fragments, including known regulators of angiogenesis, and a set of genes that were not reported to be associated with activation of ECs and angiogenesis previously were identified. We confirmed the mRNA expression of KDR, alpha2 integrin, Stanniocalcin, including a set of 11 candidate genes. Western immunoblotting results indicated that KDR, alpha2 integrin, MMP-1, MMP-2, and VE-cadherin genes were indeed active genes.We have identified a set of 11 VEGF-responsive endothelial cell candidate genes. Their expression in endothelial cell is confirmed by northern blot analyses. This preliminary report forms as a foundation for functional studies to be performed to reveal their roles in EC activation and pathophysiological events associated with the vasculature including tumor growth.
|Role of matrix metalloproteinase 2 in the ovulatory folliculo-luteal transition of ewes. |
M L Gottsch, E A Van Kirk, W J Murdoch, M L Gottsch, E A Van Kirk, W J Murdoch
Reproduction (Cambridge, England) 124 347-52 2002
Tissue dissolution and remodelling are associated with the processes of rupture of the ovulatory follicle and formation of the corpus luteum. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) belongs to a family of endopeptidases that cleave extracellular proteins; its primary substrate is the lattice network of basement membranes that support epithelial cells and endothelium. The aim of this study was to ascertain a putative regulatory role of MMP-2 relevant to the folliculo-luteal transformation in ewes. Luteal regression and the preovulatory surge of gonadotrophins were synchronized by administration of PGF(2alpha) and GnRH on days 14.0 and 15.5 of the oestrous cycle, respectively. Dominant antral follicles present during pro-oestrus consistently ovulate approximately 24 h after GnRH administration. Normal IgG or a bioactivity-neutralizing MMP-2 monoclonal antibody was injected into the antral cavity of preovulatory follicles at 8 h after GnRH administration. Jugular blood samples were obtained for serum progesterone analysis and ovaries were removed for light microscopic morphometry on day 8. A definitive ovulation stigma was evident in control ewes. The antra of ruptured follicles had largely been supplanted with luteal tissue. In contrast, the ovarian surface contiguous with follicles injected with anti-MMP-2 was smooth and undisturbed, which is indicative of a failure of ovulation. Luteinized unruptured follicles were filled with (entrapped) fluid. Corpora lutea of control animals contained numerous connective tissue projections that provided a framework for cellular migration and angiogenesis. Luteal tissues that surrounded the cavity of antibody-treated follicles lacked trabeculae and were deficient in blood vessels. Systemic venous progesterone concentrations were lower in ewes with a luteinized unruptured follicle compared with those with a corpus luteum. It is proposed that MMP-2 is a mediator of ovulation and luteal development.
|Macrophages contain 92-kd gelatinase (MMP-9) at the site of degenerated internal elastic lamina in temporal arteritis. |
Nikkari, S T, et al.
Am. J. Pathol., 149: 1427-33 (1996) 1996
Inflammation precedes erosion and rupture of atherosclerotic atheromas and aneurysms. Inflammatory infiltrates of macrophages have been shown to secrete proteolytic enzymes, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), that weaken the arterial wall. The effect of inflammation on arterial structure and remodeling can be studied in primary vascular inflammatory diseases such as in temporal arteritis. We examined the 72-kd gelatinase (MMP-2) and the 92-kd gelatinase (MMP-9) in inflamed and uninvolved temporal arteries from 10 patients with temporal arteritis and 5 controls by immunohistochemistry. The substrates of these enzymes, type IV collagen and elastin, were detected by immunohistochemistry and histochemical staining, respectively. Both diseased and normal artery specimens had moderate staining for immunoreactive MMP-2. Temporal arteritis specimens had clearly enhanced immunostaining for MMP-9 compared with normal arteries. MMP-9 was specifically localized to macrophages in regions of internal elastic lamina disruption, which may thus be of pathological significance.
|72 KD and 92 KD type IV collagenase, type IV collagen, and laminin mRNAs in breast cancer: a study by in situ hybridization. |
Soini, Y, et al.
J. Histochem. Cytochem., 42: 945-51 (1994) 1994
It is widely accepted that basement membrane (BM) components are synthesized by epithelial cells and that production of BM-degrading proteases by cancer cells is necessary for invasive growth. In this study we used nucleic acid in situ hybridization (ISH) to investigate the presence of mRNAs for 72 KD and 92 KD Type IV collagenase, alpha 1 (IV) chain of Type IV collagen, and laminin B1 chain in 20 breast carcinomas of various histological types. The mRNA signals for 72 KD Type IV collagenase, Type IV collagen, and laminin were much more abundant in stromal fibroblasts and endothelial cells than in carcinoma cells. The signal for 92 KD Type IV collagenase mRNA was strong in carcinoma cells and considerably weaker in stromal fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Labeling for 72 KD and 92 KD Type IV collagenase mRNA was also found in benign fibroadenomas and for 92 KD Type IV collagenase in non-neoplastic ducts and acini. The results indicate that stromal cells have a more important role in the synthesis and degradation of BMs in breast carcinomas than previously thought and that production of these enzymes is not restricted to malignancy.
|Type IV collagenase(s) and TIMPs modulate endothelial cell morphogenesis in vitro. |
Schnaper, H W, et al.
J. Cell. Physiol., 156: 235-46 (1993) 1993
It has been proposed that proteases are important in endothelial cell behavior. We examined the contribution of the gelatinase/type IV collagenase system in an in vitro model of endothelial differentiation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells rapidly align and form networks of tubes when cultured on a basement membrane preparation, Matrigel. Zymograms of culture supernates demonstrate a 72-kD and a 92-kD gelatinase activity; the cells produce most of the 72-kD gelatinase, whereas the 92-kD activity is derived entirely from the Matrigel. Addition of antibodies against type IV gelatinase/collagenase decreases the area of the tube network. Both tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, similarly decrease tube formation when added to cultures. Conversely, exogenous recombinant 72-kD gelatinase increases tube-forming activity. The effects of the anti-gelatinase antibodies and the TIMPs are not additive. Inhibition by either antibodies or TIMPs is greatest when they are added at culture initiation, suggesting that the protease activity is important in the early steps of morphogenesis. However, culture of the cells on Matrigel does not increase early expression of mRNA for the 72-kD gelatinase. Expression of message for the enzyme actually decreases during the course of the assay, while transcription of mRNAs for TIMPs increases, further supporting the concept that collagenases facilitate an early event in tube formation. These data demonstrate that gelatinase/type IV collagenase activity is important in endothelial cell morphogenesis on Matrigel, and suggest a role for collagenases in formation of new capillaries in vivo.
|Expression of 72 kilodalton type IV collagenase (gelatinase A) in benign and malignant ovarian tumors. |
Autio-Harmainen, H, et al.
Lab. Invest., 69: 312-21 (1993) 1993
BACKGROUND: 72 Kilodalton (kd) type IV collagenase is a matrix metalloproteinase that specifically cleaves type IV collagen molecules. The enzyme has been postulated to have an important role in the invasion and spread of malignant tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In situ hybridization was used to study the expression of the 72 kd type IV collagenase mRNA in 24 benign, 2 semimalignant, and 15 malignant ovarian tumors and in 5 metastases of ovarian serous adenocarcinomas. The results were correlated with the expression of the mRNA for the alpha 1(IV) chain of type IV collagen and with the corresponding immunohistochemical distribution of the enzyme. RESULTS: The results showed that the more malignant an ovarian tumor was, the more clearly mRNA expressions for both 72 kd type IV collagenase and the alpha 1(IV) chain could be detected in tumor cells. The expression of both types of mRNAs was localized within the cells of tumor stroma and occurred mainly in fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells. Epithelial tumor cells only rarely expressed these mRNAs. Immunohistochemical stainings localized the 72 kd collagenase as well to the stromal cells as to the epithelial cells of both benign and malignant tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that genes for the 72 kd type IV collagenase and for its substrate are simultaneously active in the same cells of the tumor stroma. The difference in the in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical findings could be explained by a possible variation in the metabolic balance between synthesis and accumulation of the protein in different cell types. It can also be proposed that the activity of the 72 kd type IV collagenase would be mediated through a receptor-like mechanism present on epithelial cells which could bind the 72 kd type IV collagenase synthesized elsewhere. There is also a possibility that the gelatinolytic activity of the mesenchymally synthesized 72 kd type IV collagenase would be consumed to degrade extracellular matrix proteins other than basement membranes.
|Urinary type IV collagenase: elevated levels are associated with bladder transitional cell carcinoma. |
Margulies, I M, et al.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 1: 467-74 (1992) 1992
Accumulating experimental evidence has linked the overproduction of extracellular matrix-degrading metalloproteinases with tumor cell invasion. In the present study one member of the metalloproteinase family, type IV collagenase (M(r) 72,000 gelatinase), is shown to be elevated in the urine of patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. The form of the enzyme in the urine was studied by three independent methods: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western immunoblotting; and gelatin zymography. Immunoblotting revealed that the enzyme was present as a series of fragments, each retaining the amino terminus of the mature proenzyme. A prominent M(r) 43,000 fragment was associated with the transitional cell carcinoma cases. Zymography demonstrated that multiple enzyme species with gelatinase activity were present in urine and that high-molecular-weight bands of substrate lysis corresponded to complexes between type IV collagenase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2. The total amount of type IV collagenase antigen was significantly elevated in the urine of 37 transitional cell carcinoma patients (range, 0-1081 ng/ml; mean, 318.4 +/- 147.3) compared to 19 normal controls (P < or = 0.004) and 17 inflammatory disease controls (P < or = 0.011). Immunohistochemical staining of bladder tumor biopsies verified that the transitional cell carcinoma cells were producing the M(r) 72,000 enzyme. Thus, M(r) 72,000 type IV collagenase, which is present in the urine in many forms including fragments and complexes with inhibitors, may be a useful marker for bladder cancer diagnosis or prognosis.
|Domain structure of human 72-kDa gelatinase/type IV collagenase. Characterization of proteolytic activity and identification of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) binding regions. |
Fridman, R, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 267: 15398-405 (1992) 1992
The 72-kDa gelatinase/type IV collagenase, a metalloproteinase thought to play a role in metastasis and in angiogenesis, forms a noncovalent stoichiometric complex with the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), a potent inhibitor of enzyme activity. To define the regions of the 72-kDa gelatinase responsible for TIMP-2 binding, a series of NH2- and COOH-terminal deletions of the enzyme were constructed using the polymerase chain reaction technique. The full-length and the truncated enzymes were expressed in a recombinant vaccinia virus mammalian cell expression system (Vac/T7). Two truncated enzymes ending at residues 425 (delta 426-631) and 454 (delta 455-631) were purified. Like the full-length recombinant 72-kDa gelatinase, both COOH-terminally truncated enzymes were activated with organomercurial and digested gelatin and native collagen type IV. In contrast to the full-length enzyme, delta 426-631 and delta 455-631 enzymes were less sensitive to TIMP-2 inhibition requiring 10 mol of TIMP-2/mol of enzyme to achieve maximal inhibition of enzymatic activity. The activated but not the latent forms of the delta 426-631 and delta 455-631 proteins formed a complex with TIMP-2 only when excess molar concentrations of inhibitor were used. We also expressed the 205-amino acid COOH-terminal fragment, delta 1-426, and found that it binds TIMP-2. In addition, a truncated version of the 72-kDa gelatinase lacking the NH2-terminal 78 amino acids (delta 1-78) of the proenzyme retained the ability to bind TIMP-2. These studies demonstrate that 72-kDa gelatinases lacking the COOH-terminal domain retain full enzymatic activity but acquire a reduced sensitivity to TIMP-2 inhibition. These data suggest that both the active site and the COOH-terminal tail of the 72-kDa gelatinase independently and cooperatively participate in TIMP-2 binding.
|An Introduction to Antibodies and Their Applications|
|Anti-MMP-2 Proform, N-terminus, clone CA-4001 - Data Sheet|