|Embryonic rat vascular smooth muscle cells revisited - a model for neonatal, neointimal SMC or differentiated vascular stem cells? |
Kennedy, E; Hakimjavadi, R; Greene, C; Mooney, CJ; Fitzpatrick, E; Collins, LE; Loscher, CE; Guha, S; Morrow, D; Redmond, EM; Cahill, PA
The A10 and A7r5 cell lines derived from the thoracic aorta of embryonic rat are widely used as models of non-differentiated, neonatal and neointimal vascular smooth muscle cells in culture. The recent discovery of resident multipotent vascular stem cells within the vessel wall has necessitated the identity and origin of these vascular cells be revisited. In this context, we examined A10 and A7r5 cell lines to establish the similarities and differences between these cell lines and multipotent vascular stem cells isolated from adult rat aortas by determining their differentiation state, stem cell marker expression and their multipotency potential in vitro.Vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation markers (alpha-actin, myosin heavy chain, calponin) and stem cell marker expression (Sox10, Sox17 and S100β) were assessed using immunocytochemistry, confocal microscopy, FACS analysis and real-time quantitative PCR.Both A10 and A7r5 expressed vascular smooth muscle differentiation, markers, smooth muscle alpha - actin, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain and calponin. In parallel analysis, multipotent vascular stem cells isolated from rat aortic explants were immunocytochemically myosin heavy chain negative but positive for the neural stem cell markers Sox10+, a neural crest marker, Sox17+ the endoderm marker, and the glia marker, S100β+. This multipotent vascular stem cell marker profile was detected in both embryonic vascular cell lines in addition to the adventitial progenitor stem cell marker, stem cell antigen-1, Sca1+. Serum deprivation resulted in a significant increase in stem cell and smooth muscle cell differentiation marker expression, when compared to serum treated cells. Both cell types exhibited weak multipotency following adipocyte inductive stimulation. Moreover, Notch signaling blockade following γ-secretase inhibition with DAPT enhanced the expression of both vascular smooth muscle and stem cell markers.We conclude that A10 and A7r5 cells share similar neural stem cell markers to both multipotent vascular stem cells and adventitial progenitors that are indicative of neointimal stem-derived smooth muscle cells. This may have important implications for their use in examining vascular contractile and proliferative phenotypes in vitro.
|The role of endothelial cells in myofiber differentiation and the vascularization and innervation of bioengineered muscle tissue in vivo. |
Criswell, TL; Corona, BT; Wang, Z; Zhou, Y; Niu, G; Xu, Y; Christ, GJ; Soker, S
Musculoskeletal disorders are a major cause of disability and effective treatments are currently lacking. Tissue engineering affords the possibility of new therapies utilizing cells and biomaterials for the recovery of muscle volume and function. A major consideration in skeletal muscle engineering is the integration of a functional vasculature within the regenerating tissue. In this study we employed fluorescent cell labels to track the location and differentiation of co-cultured cells in vivo and in vitro. We first utilized a co-culture of fluorescently labeled endothelial cells (ECs) and muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) to investigate the ability of ECs to enhance muscle tissue formation and vascularization in an in vivo model of bioengineered muscle. Scaffolds that had been seeded with both MPCs and ECs showed significantly greater vascularization, tissue formation and enhanced innervation as compared to scaffolds seeded with MPCs alone. Subsequently, we performed in vitro experiments using a 3-cell type system (ECs, MPCs, and pericytes (PCs)) to demonstrate the utility of fluorescent cell labeling for monitoring cell growth and differentiation. The growth and differentiation of individual cell types was determined using live cell fluorescent microscopy demonstrating the utility of fluorescent labels to monitor tissue organization in real time.