Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||ELISA, IHC, IP, WB||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Laminin β1 Antibody, clone 4E10|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|The osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow MSCs on HUVEC-derived ECM and β-TCP scaffold. |
Kang, Y; Kim, S; Bishop, J; Khademhosseini, A; Yang, Y
Biomaterials 33 6998-7007 2012
Extracellular matrix (ECM) serves a key role in cell migration, attachment, and cell development. Here we report that ECM derived from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) promoted osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). We first produced an HUVEC-derived ECM on a three-dimensional (3D) beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold by HUVEC seeding, incubation, and decellularization. The HUVEC-derived ECM was then characterized by SEM, FTIR, XPS, and immunofluorescence staining. The effect of HUVEC-derived ECM-containing β-TCP scaffold on hMSC osteogenic differentiation was subsequently examined. SEM images indicate a dense matrix layer deposited on the surface of struts and pore walls. FTIR and XPS measurements show the presence of new functional groups (amide and hydroxyl groups) and elements (C and N) in the ECM/β-TCP scaffold when compared to the β-TCP scaffold alone. Immunofluorescence images indicate that high levels of fibronectin and collagen IV and low level of laminin were present on the scaffold. ECM-containing β-TCP scaffolds significantly increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) specific activity and up-regulated expression of osteogenesis-related genes such as runx2, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin in hMSC, compared to β-TCP scaffolds alone. This increased effect was due to the activation of MAPK/ERK signaling pathway since disruption of this pathway using an ERK inhibitor PD98059 results in down-regulation of these osteogenic genes. Cell-derived ECM-containing calcium phosphate scaffolds is a promising osteogenic-promoting bone void filler in bone tissue regeneration.
|Laminin alpha2 chain-positive vessels and epidermal growth factor in lung neuroendocrine carcinoma: a model of a novel cooperative role of laminin-2 and epidermal growth factor in vessel neoplastic invasion and metastasis. |
Vitolo, D; Ciocci, L; Deriu, G; Spinelli, S; Cortese, S; Masuelli, L; Morrone, S; Filice, MJ; Coloni, GF; Natali, PG; Baroni, CD
The American journal of pathology 168 991-1003 2006
Capillaries expressing the laminin alpha2 chain in basement membranes may be considered early developing vessels in normal and neoplastic human tissues. Therefore, we investigated whether up-regulation of this extracellular matrix protein favors transendothelial migration of neoplastic cells and then metastasis. In lung small and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, which exhibit a stronger metastatic tendency among carcinomas, laminin alpha2 chain-positive vessels were more numerous than in carcinoid tumors and supraglottis, breast, and lung non-small cell carcinomas, suggesting a direct relationship between these vessels and metastasis. In vitro studies showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced a more efficient migration of the AE-2 lung neuroendocrine carcinoma cell line through the purified laminin alpha2 chain rather than through the laminin beta1 chain and fibronectin. AE-2 cells constitutively expressed all EGF receptors and the alpha6beta1 integrin, which is one of the laminin alpha2 chain receptors. EGF up-regulated alpha6beta1 expression in several tumors. In this regard, we show that EGF increased the chemo-kinetic migration of AE-2 cells through EAHY endothelial monolayers, which was inhibited by the anti-alpha6 integrin chain monoclonal antibody. These data indicate that laminin alpha2 chain and alpha6beta1 may be mutually involved in EGF-dependent migration of AE-2 cells and that laminin alpha2 chain-positive vessels may favor metastasis of EGF-dependent tumors.
|A sarcoglycan-dystroglycan complex anchors Dp116 and utrophin in the peripheral nervous system. |
M Imamura, K Araishi, S Noguchi, E Ozawa
Human molecular genetics 9 3091-100 2000
The dystrophin-associated membrane-integrated protein complex anchors dystrophin in the sarcolemma of striated muscles and is composed of two glycoprotein subcomplexes, the dystroglycan and the sarcoglycan (SG) complexes, and a small membrane protein termed sarcospan (SPN). The SG complex consists of four transmembrane glycoproteins, alpha-SG, beta-SG, gamma-SG and delta-SG. We found that beta-SG and delta-SG were co-expressed with epsilon-SG, a alpha-SG homolog, in the peripheral nerve, but not with alpha-SG or gamma-SG. SPN, which tightly links to the SG complex in the muscle cell membrane, was absent in the peripheral nerve. These peripheral nerve SGs were colocalized at the outermost layer of the myelin sheath of nerve fibers together with the dystroglycan complex, utrophin, and a short dystrophin isoform (Dp116). Immunocytochemical analysis using SG-deficient animals showed that a defect in beta- or delta-SG led to a great reduction of all residual SGs, but not of the other proteins, i.e., dystroglycans, Dp116 and utrophin, in the peripheral nerve. This observation suggests that the epsilon-, beta- and delta-SG molecules form a complex behaving as a single unit similar to the SG complex in muscle cells. An immunoprecipitation study indicated that the SG complex is associated with the dystroglycan complex and Dp116 or utrophin. These results demonstrated that Dp116 and utrophin are anchored to a novel membrane protein architecture, which consists of the SG and dystroglycan complexes, but not SPN, in the Schwann cell membrane.
|Abnormal expression of laminin beta 1 chain in skeletal muscle of adult-onset limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. |
M Li, D W Dickson, A J Spiro, M Li, D W Dickson, A J Spiro
Archives of neurology 54 1457-61 1997
BACKGROUND: Laminin 2 is a major component of the basal lamina of skeletal muscle cells. It is a heterotrimer composed of 3 chains: merosin (laminin alpha 2 chain), beta 1, and gamma 1. Deficiency of merosin, with or without laminin beta 1 chain reduction, is associated with some forms of congenital muscular dystrophy. Deficient expression of laminin beta 1 chain is also associated with some cases of merosin-positive congenital muscular dystrophy. The expression of laminin 2 subunits has not been well studied in the skeletal muscle of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD), nor has much attention been given to the significance of reduction of individual laminin 2 subunits, such as beta 1. OBJECTIVES: To examine the expression of laminin 2 subunits in skeletal muscle in patients with LGMD and to define the clinical features of patients with LGMD who have abnormal expression of laminin 2 subunits. METHODS: We studied muscle biopsy specimens from 18 patients with LGMD using immunofluorescence with antibodies against dystrophin C-terminus, beta-dystroglycan, alpha-sarcoglycan, gamma-sarcoglycan, and the laminin subunits merosin, beta 1, and gamma 1. Of the 18 biopsy specimens, 9 were available for electron microscopic examination of the muscle basement membrane. The clinical features associated with abnormal laminin beta 1 chain immunoreactivity were further described. RESULTS: Laminin beta 1 chain was either barely detectable or severely reduced in 3 cases of patients with LGMD in which the biopsy specimens showed normal staining with the other antibodies. Patients in all 3 cases had common clinical features consistent with a slowly progressive, adult-onset LGMD. Specimens from 2 of the 3 cases that were available for ultrastructural examination showed significant abnormalities of the muscle fiber basement membrane. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal expression of laminin beta 1 chain without concomitant deficiency of alpha-sarcoglycan in skeletal muscle has not been previously described in LGMD. Reduced laminin beta 1 chain immunoreactivity may potentially serve as a marker for defining subsets of individuals with LGMD, in particular those with slowly progressive, adult-onset pelvifemoral presentation. The abnormality of muscle fiber basement membranes in specimens from cases that were available for ultrastructural study suggests that defects in the extracellular matrix may play a role in the pathogenesis of this subset of LGMD.
|Increased laminin A expression in regenerating myofibers in neuromuscular disorders. |
Mundegar, R R, et al.
Muscle Nerve, 18: 992-9 (1995) 1995
Laminin is a basement membrane (BM) glycoprotein composed of three of five subunits, the A, M, B1, B2, and the S chain. Four forms of laminin, A-B1-B2, A-S-B2, M-B1-B2, and M-S-B2, have been identified. Laminin is implicated in various biological processes such as cell adhesion and differentiation. We studied immunohistochemically the expression of the four laminin subunits A, M, B1, B2 as well as of neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM, CD56), a marker of regenerating myofibers, in various neuromuscular disorders. In normal muscle, the predominant subunits of myofiber laminin were M, B1, and B2. The A chain was only faintly expressed in myofiber BM. In inflammatory myopathies and dystrophinopathies myofiber laminin A expression was greatly increased. An average of 80% and 63% of laminin A-positive myofibers in inflammatory myopathies and dystrophinopathies, respectively, were additionally CD56 positive. Laminin A and CD56 expression in denervating diseases and mitochondrial myopathies were negligible. Expression of M, B1, and B2 subunits did not seem to be altered in the diseased conditions examined above. The data suggest that laminin A is upregulated in inflammatory myopathies and dystrophinopathies and, most markedly in regenerating myofibers.
|Appearance and distribution of laminin A chain isoforms and integrin alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 6, beta 1, and beta 4 subunits in the developing human small intestinal mucosa. |
N Perreault, P H Vachon, J F Beaulieu, N Perreault, P H Vachon, J F Beaulieu
The Anatomical record 242 242-50 1995
BACKGROUND: Laminin, a major component of basement membranes, is well known in its classical heterotrimeric form (B1-A-B2) to regulate diverse biological functions, including cell polarization and differentiation. However, the role of merosin, a laminin-like molecule in which an M chain is substituted for its homologous A chain, remains largely unknown. METHODS: In the present study, we analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence the expression and distribution of these four laminin chains as well as the integrins alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 3 beta 1, alpha 6 beta 1, and alpha 6 beta 4, four potential receptors, at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface of the developing human small intestine, with a panel of specific monoclonal antibodies. RESULTS: Beginning at 7 weeks of gestation and throughout mucosal organogenesis, the B1 and B2 chains were uniformly detected at the epithelial basement membrane. The A chain also was detected beginning at 7 weeks, and its distribution at the basement membrane remained uniform throughout villus (9+ weeks) and crypt (16+ weeks) formation. In contrast, M chain expression was not observed until 16 weeks; between 16 and 20 weeks, it was exclusively associated with the base of epithelial cells that comprised the forming crypts. Integrins alpha 6 beta 1 and alpha 6 beta 4, as determined by their subunit immunolocalization, appeared to be expressed by all enterocytes from 7 to 20 weeks. In contrast, the expression of the alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 3 beta 1 integrins was found time- and site-restricted. The alpha 2 subunit was predominantly detected in the epithelial cells of the intervillous area and its derivative, the crypt, whereas the alpha 3 subunit was strongly expressed by all epithelial cells except those located at the bottom of 19-20-week-old crypts. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these observations demonstrate that both compositional changes in the basement membrane and differential expression of receptors occur during human intestinal organogenesis, suggesting that epithelial cell-matrix interactions play a role during development.
|Human laminin isolated in a nearly intact, biologically active form from placenta by limited proteolysis. |
Wewer, U, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 258: 12654-60 (1983) 1983
A protein with properties of laminin has been isolated from human placental extracts by using monoclonal antibodies. Placental tissue was extracted with 0.5 M NaCl and high molecular weight proteins were isolated from the extract by salt precipitation and gel filtration on Sepharose 6B. The resulting protein fraction which contained material cross-reactive with anti-sera to rat laminin was used as immunogen to prepare hybridomas. Thirteen hybrids produced antibodies which reacted with basement membrane-associated antigens in indirect immunofluorescence of tissues. One of these, 4E10, was characterized in detail. This monoclonal antibody reacted with human laminin as shown by several lines of evidence. Immunoprecipitation from metabolically labeled culture media of a human amniotic epithelial cell line with the 4E10 antibody followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed polypeptides with Mr similar to those of rat laminin. Immunochromatography of placental extracts obtained by limited pepsin digestion yielded material with main polypeptides at 160 and 130 kilodaltons in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after reduction. These peptic fragments cross-reacted with rat laminin in immunodiffusion and enzyme immunoassay, and a polyclonal antiserum against the fragments reacted with basement membranes in tissues in a manner identical with the 4E10 antibody. Electron microscopic images of the human peptic fragments showed structures similar to the cross-shaped images of murine laminins, although the short arms were truncated to various degrees or even absent. The isolated peptic fragments also displayed biological activity similar to that of murine laminins in that the outgrowth of neurites by neuronal cells was promoted on plates coated with the fragments.
|Enzyme immunoassay ELISA and EMIT. |
Meth. Enzymol., 70: 419-39 (1980) 1980
|Anti-Laminin beta1, clone 4E10 - Data Sheet|