|Lamin B1 fluctuations have differential effects on cellular proliferation and senescence. |
Dreesen, O; Chojnowski, A; Ong, PF; Zhao, TY; Common, JE; Lunny, D; Lane, EB; Lee, SJ; Vardy, LA; Stewart, CL; Colman, A
The Journal of cell biology
The nuclear lamina consists of A- and B-type lamins. Mutations in LMNA cause many human diseases, including progeria, a premature aging syndrome, whereas LMNB1 duplication causes adult-onset autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD). LMNB1 is reduced in cells from progeria patients, but the significance of this reduction is unclear. In this paper, we show that LMNB1 protein levels decline in senescent human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, mediated by reduced transcription and inhibition of LMNB1 messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA) translation by miRNA-23a. This reduction is also observed in chronologically aged human skin tissue. To determine whether altered LMNB1 levels cause senescence, we either increased or reduced LMNB1. Both LMNB1 depletion and overexpression inhibited proliferation, but only LMNB1 overexpression induced senescence, which was prevented by telomerase expression or inactivation of p53. This phenotype was exacerbated by a simultaneous reduction of LMNA/C. Our results demonstrate that altering LMNB1 levels inhibits proliferation and are relevant to understanding the molecular pathology of ADLD.
|A proteomic approach to identify candidate substrates of human adenovirus E4orf6-E1B55K and other viral cullin-based E3 ubiquitin ligases. |
Dallaire, F; Blanchette, P; Branton, PE
Journal of virology
It has been known for some time that the human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins work in concert to degrade p53 and to regulate selective export of late viral mRNAs during productive infection. Both of these functions rely on the formation by the Ad5 E4orf6 protein of a cullin 5-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex containing elongins B and C. E1B55K is believed to function as the substrate recognition module for the complex and, in addition to p53, Mre11 and DNA ligase IV have also been identified as substrates. To discover additional substrates we have taken a proteomic approach by using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis to detect cellular proteins that decrease significantly in amount in p53-null H1299 human lung carcinoma cells after expression of E1B55K and E4orf6 using adenovirus vectors. Several species were detected and identified by mass spectroscopy, and for one of these, integrin alpha3, we went on in a parallel study to confirm it as a bone fide substrate of the complex (F. Dallaire et al., J. Virol. 83:5329-5338, 2009). Although the system has some limitations, it may still be of some general use in identifying candidate substrates of any viral cullin-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, and we suggest a series of criteria for substrate validation.Full Text Article
|Coordinated regulation of cell cycle transcripts by p53-Inducible microRNAs, miR-192 and miR-215. |
Georges, SA; Biery, MC; Kim, SY; Schelter, JM; Guo, J; Chang, AN; Jackson, AL; Carleton, MO; Linsley, PS; Cleary, MA; Chau, BN
Cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage is an important antitumorigenic mechanism. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) were recently shown to play key regulatory roles in cell cycle progression. For example, miR-34a is induced in response to p53 activation and mediates G(1) arrest by down-regulating multiple cell cycle-related transcripts. Here we show that genotoxic stress promotes the p53-dependent up-regulation of the homologous miRNAs miR-192 and miR-215. Like miR-34a, activation of miR-192/215 induces cell cycle arrest, suggesting that multiple miRNA families operate in the p53 network. Furthermore, we define a downstream gene expression signature for miR-192/215 expression, which includes a number of transcripts that regulate G(1) and G(2) checkpoints. Of these transcripts, 18 transcripts are direct targets of miR-192/215, and the observed cell cycle arrest likely results from a cooperative effect among the modulations of these genes by the miRNAs. Our results showing a role for miR-192/215 in cell proliferation combined with recent observations that these miRNAs are underexpressed in primary cancers support the idea that miR-192 and miR-215 function as tumor suppressors.
|Lamin proteins form an internal nucleoskeleton as well as a peripheral lamina in human cells. |
Hozák, P, et al.
J. Cell. Sci., 108 ( Pt 2): 635-44 (1995)
The nuclear lamina forms a protein mesh that underlies the nuclear membrane. In most mammalian cells it contains the intermediate filament proteins, lamins A, B and C. As their name indicates, lamins are generally thought to be confined to the nuclear periphery. We now show that they also form part of a diffuse skeleton that ramifies throughout the interior of the nucleus. Unlike their peripheral counterparts, these internal lamins are buried in dense chromatin and so are inaccessible to antibodies, but accessibility can be increased by removing chromatin. Knobs and nodes on an internal skeleton can then be immunolabelled using fluorescein- or gold-conjugated anti-lamin A antibodies. These results suggest that the lamins are misnamed as they are also found internally.