Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, Ht, Mk, Xn||ICC, IF, IHC, IP, WB||M||Culture Supernatant||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Lamin A/C Antibody, clone JoL2|
|Presentation||UnPurified mouse tissue culture supernatant containing 0.2M Tris/HCl pH 7.4 and 5-10% fetal calf Serum with 0.09% sodium azide as a preservative|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||1 mL|
References | 40 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Progerin reduces LAP2α-telomere association in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria. |
Chojnowski, A; Ong, PF; Wong, ES; Lim, JS; Mutalif, RA; Navasankari, R; Dutta, B; Yang, H; Liow, YY; Sze, SK; Boudier, T; Wright, GD; Colman, A; Burke, B; Stewart, CL; Dreesen, O
eLife 4 2015
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria (HGPS) is a premature ageing syndrome caused by a mutation in LMNA, resulting in a truncated form of lamin A called progerin. Progerin triggers loss of the heterochromatic marker H3K27me3, and premature senescence, which is prevented by telomerase. However, the mechanism how progerin causes disease remains unclear. Here, we describe an inducible cellular system to model HGPS and find that LAP2α (lamina-associated polypeptide-α) interacts with lamin A, while its interaction with progerin is significantly reduced. Super-resolution microscopy revealed that over 50% of telomeres localize to the lamina and that LAP2α association with telomeres is impaired in HGPS. This impaired interaction is central to HGPS since increasing LAP2α levels rescues progerin-induced proliferation defects and loss of H3K27me3, whereas lowering LAP2 levels exacerbates progerin-induced defects. These findings provide novel insights into the pathophysiology underlying HGPS, and how the nuclear lamina regulates proliferation and chromatin organization.
|Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior. |
Baek, JH; Schmidt, E; Viceconte, N; Strandgren, C; Pernold, K; Richard, TJ; Van Leeuwen, FW; Dantuma, NP; Damberg, P; Hultenby, K; Ulfhake, B; Mugnaini, E; Rozell, B; Eriksson, M
Human molecular genetics 24 1305-21 2015
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental progeroid syndrome with multiple features suggestive of premature accelerated aging. Accumulation of progerin is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of HGPS. However, despite ubiquitous expression of lamin A in all differentiated cells, the HGPS mutation results in organ-specific defects. For example, bone and skin are strongly affected by HGPS, while the brain appears to be unaffected. There are no definite explanations as to the variable sensitivity to progeria disease among different organs. In addition, low levels of progerin have also been found in several tissues from normal individuals, but it is not clear if low levels of progerin contribute to the aging of the brain. In an attempt to clarify the origin of this phenomenon, we have developed an inducible transgenic mouse model with expression of the most common HGPS mutation in brain, skin, bone and heart to investigate how the mutation affects these organs. Ultrastructural analysis of neuronal nuclei after 70 weeks of expression of the LMNA c.1824Cgreater than T mutation showed severe distortion with multiple lobulations and irregular extensions. Despite severe distortions in the nuclei of hippocampal neurons of HGPS animals, there were only negligible changes in gene expression after 63 weeks of transgenic expression. Behavioral analysis and neurogenesis assays, following long-term expression of the HGPS mutation, did not reveal significant pathology. Our results suggest that certain tissues are protected from functional deleterious effects of progerin.
|Mechanisms controlling the smooth muscle cell death in progeria via down-regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1. |
Zhang, H; Xiong, ZM; Cao, K
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 E2261-70 2014
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a severe human premature aging disorder caused by a lamin A mutant named progerin. Death occurs at a mean age of 13 y from cardiovascular problems. Previous studies revealed loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the media of large arteries in a patient with HGPS and two mouse models, suggesting a causal connection between the SMC loss and cardiovascular malfunction. However, the mechanisms of how progerin leads to massive SMC loss are unknown. In this study, using SMCs differentiated from HGPS induced pluripotent stem cells, we show that HGPS SMCs exhibit a profound proliferative defect, which is primarily caused by caspase-independent cell death. Importantly, progerin accumulation stimulates a powerful suppression of PARP1 and consequently triggers an activation of the error-prone nonhomologous end joining response. As a result, most HGPS SMCs exhibit prolonged mitosis and die of mitotic catastrophe. This study demonstrates a critical role of PARP1 in mediating SMC loss in patients with HGPS and elucidates a molecular pathway underlying the progressive SMC loss in progeria.
|Depletion of the protein kinase VRK1 disrupts nuclear envelope morphology and leads to BAF retention on mitotic chromosomes. |
Molitor, TP; Traktman, P
Molecular biology of the cell 25 891-903 2014
Barrier to autointegration factor (BAF), which is encoded by the BANF1 gene, binds with high-affinity to double-stranded DNA and LEM domain-containing proteins at the nuclear periphery. A BANF1 mutation has recently been associated with a novel human progeria syndrome, and cells from these patients have aberrant nuclear envelopes. The interactions of BAF with its DNA- and protein-binding partners are known to be regulated by phosphorylation, and previously we validated BAF as a highly efficient substrate for the VRK1 protein kinase. Here we show that depletion of VRK1 in MCF10a and MDA-MB-231 cells results in aberrant nuclear architecture. The immobile fraction of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-BAF at the nuclear envelope (NE) is elevated, suggesting that prolonged interactions of BAF with its binding partners is likely responsible for the aberrant NE architecture. Because detachment of BAF from its binding partners is associated with NE disassembly, we performed live-imaging analysis of control and VRK1-depleted cells to visualize GFP-BAF dynamics during mitosis. In the absence of VRK1, BAF does not disperse but instead remains chromosome bound from the onset of mitosis. VRK1 depletion also increases the number of anaphase bridges and multipolar spindles. Thus phosphorylation of BAF by VRK1 is essential both for normal NE architecture and proper dynamics of BAF-chromosome interactions during mitosis. These results are consistent with previous studies of the VRK/BAF signaling axis in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster and validate VRK1 as a key regulator of NE architecture and mitotic chromosome dynamics in mammalian cells.
|FHL2 prevents cardiac hypertrophy in mice with cardiac-specific deletion of ROCK2. |
Okamoto, R; Li, Y; Noma, K; Hiroi, Y; Liu, PY; Taniguchi, M; Ito, M; Liao, JK
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 27 1439-49 2013
The Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases, ROCK1 and ROCK2, are important regulators of cell shape, migration, and proliferation through effects on the actin cytoskeleton. However, it is not known whether ROCK2 plays an important role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. To determine whether the loss of ROCK2 could prevent cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte-specific ROCK2-null (c-ROCK2(-/-)) were generated using conditional ROCK2(flox/flox) mice and α-myosin heavy-chain promoter-driven Cre recombinase transgenic mice. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by Ang II infusion (400 ng/kg/min, 28 d) or transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Under basal conditions, hemodynamic parameters, cardiac anatomy, and function of c-ROCK2(-/-) mice were comparable to wild-type (WT) mice. However, following Ang II infusion or TAC, c-ROCK2(-/-) mice exhibited a substantially smaller increase in heart-to-body weight ratio, left ventricular mass, myocyte cross-sectional area, hypertrophy-related fetal gene expression, intraventricular fibrosis, cardiac apoptosis, and oxidative stress compared to control mice. Deletion of ROCK2 in cardiomyocytes leads to increased expression of four-and-a-half LIM-only protein-2 (FHL2) and FHL2-mediated inhibition of serum response factor (SRF) and extracellular signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK). Knockdown of FHL2 expression in ROCK2-deficient cardiomyocytes or placing ROCK2-haploinsufficient (ROCK2(+/-)) mice on FHL2(+/-)-haploinsufficient background restored the hypertrophic response to Ang II. These results indicate that cardiomyocyte ROCK2 is essential for the development of cardiac hypertrophy and that up-regulation of FHL2 may contribute to the antihypertrophic phenotype that is observed in cardiac-specific ROCK2-deficient mice.
|Lamin B1 fluctuations have differential effects on cellular proliferation and senescence. |
Dreesen, O; Chojnowski, A; Ong, PF; Zhao, TY; Common, JE; Lunny, D; Lane, EB; Lee, SJ; Vardy, LA; Stewart, CL; Colman, A
The Journal of cell biology 200 605-17 2013
The nuclear lamina consists of A- and B-type lamins. Mutations in LMNA cause many human diseases, including progeria, a premature aging syndrome, whereas LMNB1 duplication causes adult-onset autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD). LMNB1 is reduced in cells from progeria patients, but the significance of this reduction is unclear. In this paper, we show that LMNB1 protein levels decline in senescent human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, mediated by reduced transcription and inhibition of LMNB1 messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA) translation by miRNA-23a. This reduction is also observed in chronologically aged human skin tissue. To determine whether altered LMNB1 levels cause senescence, we either increased or reduced LMNB1. Both LMNB1 depletion and overexpression inhibited proliferation, but only LMNB1 overexpression induced senescence, which was prevented by telomerase expression or inactivation of p53. This phenotype was exacerbated by a simultaneous reduction of LMNA/C. Our results demonstrate that altering LMNB1 levels inhibits proliferation and are relevant to understanding the molecular pathology of ADLD.
|LMNA-associated cardiocutaneous progeria: an inherited autosomal dominant premature aging syndrome with late onset. |
Kane, MS; Lindsay, ME; Judge, DP; Barrowman, J; Ap Rhys, C; Simonson, L; Dietz, HC; Michaelis, S
American journal of medical genetics. Part A 161A 1599-611 2013
Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disorder caused by mutations in LMNA, which encodes the nuclear scaffold proteins lamin A and C. In HGPS and related progerias, processing of prelamin A is blocked at a critical step mediated by the zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24. LMNA-linked progerias can be grouped into two classes: (1) the processing-deficient, early onset "typical" progerias (e.g., HGPS), and (2) the processing-proficient "atypical" progeria syndromes (APS) that are later in onset. Here we describe a previously unrecognized progeria syndrome with prominent cutaneous and cardiovascular manifestations belonging to the second class. We suggest the name LMNA-associated cardiocutaneous progeria syndrome (LCPS) for this disorder. Affected patients are normal at birth but undergo progressive cutaneous changes in childhood and die in middle age of cardiovascular complications, including accelerated atherosclerosis, calcific valve disease, and cardiomyopathy. In addition, the proband demonstrated cancer susceptibility, a phenotype rarely described for LMNA-based progeria disorders. The LMNA mutation that caused LCPS in this family is a heterozygous c.899Agreater than G (p.D300G) mutation predicted to alter the coiled-coil domain of lamin A/C. In skin fibroblasts isolated from the proband, the processing and levels of lamin A and C are normal. However, nuclear morphology is aberrant and rescued by treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitors, as is also the case for HGPS and other laminopathies. Our findings advance knowledge of human LMNA progeria syndromes, and raise the possibility that typical and atypical progerias may converge upon a common mechanism to cause premature aging disease.
|Partial lipodystrophy with severe insulin resistance and adult progeria Werner syndrome. |
Donadille, B; D'Anella, P; Auclair, M; Uhrhammer, N; Sorel, M; Grigorescu, R; Ouzounian, S; Cambonie, G; Boulot, P; Laforêt, P; Carbonne, B; Christin-Maitre, S; Bignon, YJ; Vigouroux, C
Orphanet journal of rare diseases 8 106 2013
Laminopathies, due to mutations in LMNA, encoding A type-lamins, can lead to premature ageing and/or lipodystrophic syndromes, showing that these diseases could have close physiopathological relationships. We show here that lipodystrophy and extreme insulin resistance can also reveal the adult progeria Werner syndrome linked to mutations in WRN, encoding a RecQ DNA helicase.We analysed the clinical and biological features of two women, aged 32 and 36, referred for partial lipodystrophic syndrome which led to the molecular diagnosis of Werner syndrome. Cultured skin fibroblasts from one patient were studied.Two normal-weighted women presented with a partial lipodystrophic syndrome with hypertriglyceridemia and liver steatosis. One of them had also diabetes. Both patients showed a peculiar, striking lipodystrophic phenotype with subcutaneous lipoatrophy of the four limbs contrasting with truncal and abdominal fat accumulation. Their oral glucose tolerance tests showed extremely high levels of insulinemia, revealing major insulin resistance. Low serum levels of sex-hormone binding globulin and adiponectin suggested a post-receptor insulin signalling defect. Other clinical features included bilateral cataracts, greying hair and distal skin atrophy. We observed biallelic WRN null mutations in both women (p.Q748X homozygous, and compound heterozygous p.Q1257X/p.M1329fs). Their fertility was decreased, with preserved menstrual cycles and normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels ruling out premature ovarian failure. However undetectable anti-müllerian hormone and inhibin B indicated diminished follicular ovarian reserve. Insulin-resistance linked ovarian hyperandrogenism could also contribute to decreased fertility, and the two patients became pregnant after initiation of insulin-sensitizers (metformin). Both pregnancies were complicated by severe cervical incompetence, leading to the preterm birth of a healthy newborn in one case, but to a second trimester-abortion in the other. WRN-mutated fibroblasts showed oxidative stress, increased lamin B1 expression, nuclear dysmorphies and premature senescence.We show here for the first time that partial lipodystrophy with severe insulin resistance can reveal WRN-linked premature aging syndrome. Increased expression of lamin B1 with altered lamina architecture observed in WRN-mutated fibroblasts could contribute to premature cellular senescence. Primary alterations in DNA replication and/or repair should be considered as possible causes of lipodystrophic syndromes.
|Correlated alterations in genome organization, histone methylation, and DNA-lamin A/C interactions in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. |
McCord, RP; Nazario-Toole, A; Zhang, H; Chines, PS; Zhan, Y; Erdos, MR; Collins, FS; Dekker, J; Cao, K
Genome research 23 260-9 2013
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disease that is frequently caused by a de novo point mutation at position 1824 in LMNA. This mutation activates a cryptic splice donor site in exon 11, and leads to an in-frame deletion within the prelamin A mRNA and the production of a dominant-negative lamin A protein, known as progerin. Here we show that primary HGPS skin fibroblasts experience genome-wide correlated alterations in patterns of H3K27me3 deposition, DNA-lamin A/C associations, and, at late passages, genome-wide loss of spatial compartmentalization of active and inactive chromatin domains. We further demonstrate that the H3K27me3 changes associate with gene expression alterations in HGPS cells. Our results support a model that the accumulation of progerin in the nuclear lamina leads to altered H3K27me3 marks in heterochromatin, possibly through the down-regulation of EZH2, and disrupts heterochromatin-lamina interactions. These changes may result in transcriptional misregulation and eventually trigger the global loss of spatial chromatin compartmentalization in late passage HGPS fibroblasts.
|Expression of the Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Mutation during Osteoblast Development Results in Loss of Osteocytes, Irregular Mineralization, and Poor Biomechanical Properties. |
Eva Schmidt,Ola Nilsson,Antti Koskela,Juha Tuukkanen,Claes Ohlsson,Bj Rozell,Maria Eriksson,Björn Rozell
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 2012
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a very rare genetic disorder that is characterized by multiple features of premature aging and largely affects tissues of mesenchymal origin. In this study, we describe the development of a tissue-specific mouse model that overexpresses the most common HGPS mutation (LMNA, c.1824C>T, p.G608G) in osteoblasts. Already at the age of 5 weeks, HGPS mutant mice show growth retardation, imbalanced gait and spontaneous fractures. Histopathological examination revealed an irregular bone structure, characterized by widespread loss of osteocytes, defects in mineralization, and a hypocellular red bone marrow. Computerized tomography analysis demonstrated impaired skeletal geometry and altered bone structure. The skeletal defects, which resemble the clinical features reported for bone disease in HGPS patients, was associated with an abnormal osteoblast differentiation. The osteoblast-specific expression of the HGPS mutation increased DNA damage and affected Wnt signaling. In the teeth, irregular dentin formation, as was previously demonstrated in human progeria cases, caused severe dental abnormalities affecting the incisors. The observed phenotype also shows similarities to reported bone abnormalities in aging mice and may therefore help to uncover general principles of the aging process.
|HIV protease inhibitors do not cause the accumulation of prelamin A in PBMCs from patients receiving first line therapy: the ANRS EP45 "aging" study. |
Perrin, S; Cremer, J; Faucher, O; Reynes, J; Dellamonica, P; Micallef, J; Solas, C; Lacarelle, B; Stretti, C; Kaspi, E; Robaglia-Schlupp, A; Nicolino-Brunet, C; Tamalet, CN; Tamalet, C; Lévy, N; Poizot-Martin, I; Cau, P; Roll, P
PloS one 7 e53035 2012
The ANRS EP45 "Aging" study investigates the cellular mechanisms involved in the accelerated aging of HIV-1 infected and treated patients. The present report focuses on lamin A processing, a pathway known to be altered in systemic genetic progeroid syndromes.35 HIV-1 infected patients being treated with first line antiretroviral therapy (ART, mean duration at inclusion: 2.7±1.3 years) containing boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r) (comprising lopinavir/ritonavir in 65% of patients) were recruited together with 49 seronegative age- and sex-matched control subjects (http://clinicaltrials.gov/, NCT01038999). In more than 88% of patients, the viral load was less than 40 copies/ml and the CD4+ cell count was greater than 500/mm³. Prelamin A processing in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients and controls was analysed by western blotting at inclusion. PBMCs from patients were also investigated at 12 and 24 months after enrolment in the study. PBMCs from healthy controls were also incubated with boosted lopinavir in culture medium containing various concentrations of proteins (4 to 80 g/L).Lamin A precursor was not observed in cohort patient PBMC regardless of the PI/r used, the dose and the plasma concentration. Prelamin A was detected in PBMC incubated in culture medium containing a low protein concentration (4 g/L) but not in plasma (60-80 g/L) or in medium supplemented with BSA (40 g/L), both of which contain a high protein concentration.Prelamin A processing abnormalities were not observed in PBMCs from patients under the PI/r first line regimen. Therefore, PI/r do not appear to contribute to lamin A-related aging in PBMCs. In cultured PBMCs from healthy donors, prelamin A processing abnormalities were only observed when the protein concentration in the culture medium was low, thus increasing the amount of PI available to enter cells. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01038999 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01038999.
|Automated image analysis of nuclear shape: what can we learn from a prematurely aged cell? |
Meghan K Driscoll,Jason L Albanese,Zheng-Mei Xiong,Mitch Mailman,Wolfgang Losert,Kan Cao
Aging 4 2012
The premature aging disorder, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), is caused by mutant lamin A, which affects the nuclear scaffolding. The phenotypic hallmark of HGPS is nuclear blebbing. Interestingly, similar nuclear blebbing has also been observed in aged cells from healthy individuals. Recent work has shown that treatment with rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mTOR pathway, reduced nuclear blebbing in HGPS fibroblasts. However, the extent of blebbing varies considerably within each cell population, which makes manual blind counting challenging and subjective. Here, we show a novel, automated and high throughput nuclear shape analysis that quantitatively measures curvature, area, perimeter, eccentricity and additional metrics of nuclear morphology for large populations of cells. We examined HGPS fibroblast cells treated with rapamycin and RAD001 (an analog to rapamycin). Our analysis shows that treatment with RAD001 and rapamycin reduces nuclear blebbing, consistent with blind counting controls. In addition, we find that rapamycin treatment reduces the area of the nucleus, but leaves the eccentricity unchanged. Our nuclear shape analysis provides an unbiased, multidimensional fingerprint for a population of cells, which can be used to quantify treatment efficacy and analyze cellular aging.
|A previously functional tetracycline-regulated transactivator fails to target gene expression to the bone. |
Schmidt, E; Eriksson, M
BMC research notes 4 282 2011
The tetracycline-controlled transactivator system is a powerful tool to control gene expression in vitro and to generate consistent and conditional transgenic in vivo model organisms. It has been widely used to study gene function and to explore pathological mechanisms involved in human diseases. The system permits the regulation of the expression of a target gene, both temporally and quantitatively, by the application of tetracycline or its derivative, doxycycline. In addition, it offers the possibility to restrict gene expression in a spatial fashion by utilizing tissue-specific promoters to drive the transactivator.In this study, we report our problems using a reverse tetracycline-regulated transactivator (rtTA) in a transgenic mouse model system for the bone-specific expression of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome mutation. Even though prior studies have been successful utilizing the same rtTA, expression analysis of the transactivator revealed insufficient activity for regulating the transgene expression in our system. The absence of transactivator could not be ascribed to differences in genetic background because mice in a mixed genetic background and in congenic mouse lines showed similar results.The purpose of this study is to report our negative experience with previously functional transactivator mice, to raise caution in the use of tet-based transgenic mouse lines and to reinforce the need for controls to ensure the stable functionality of generated tetracycline-controlled transactivators over time.
|Progerin and telomere dysfunction collaborate to trigger cellular senescence in normal human fibroblasts. |
Cao, K; Blair, CD; Faddah, DA; Kieckhaefer, JE; Olive, M; Erdos, MR; Nabel, EG; Collins, FS
The Journal of clinical investigation 121 2833-44 2011
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a devastating premature aging disease, is caused by a point mutation in the lamin A gene (LMNA). This mutation constitutively activates a cryptic splice donor site, resulting in a mutant lamin A protein known as progerin. Recent studies have demonstrated that progerin is also produced at low levels in normal human cells and tissues. However, the cause-and-effect relationship between normal aging and progerin production in normal individuals has not yet been determined. In this study, we have shown in normal human fibroblasts that progressive telomere damage during cellular senescence plays a causative role in activating progerin production. Progressive telomere damage was also found to lead to extensive changes in alternative splicing in multiple other genes. Interestingly, elevated progerin production was not seen during cellular senescence that does not entail telomere shortening. Taken together, our results suggest a synergistic relationship between telomere dysfunction and progerin production during the induction of cell senescence, providing mechanistic insight into how progerin may participate in the normal aging process.
|Rapamycin reverses cellular phenotypes and enhances mutant protein clearance in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome cells. |
Cao K, Graziotto JJ, Blair CD, Mazzulli JR, Erdos MR, Krainc D, Collins FS
Science translational medicine 3 89ra58. 2011
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a lethal genetic disorder characterized by premature aging. HGPS is most commonly caused by a de novo single-nucleotide substitution in the lamin A/C gene (LMNA) that partially activates a cryptic splice donor site in exon 11, producing an abnormal lamin A protein termed progerin. Accumulation of progerin in dividing cells adversely affects the integrity of the nuclear scaffold and leads to nuclear blebbing in cultured cells. Progerin is also produced in normal cells, increasing in abundance as senescence approaches. Here, we report the effect of rapamycin, a macrolide antibiotic that has been implicated in slowing cellular and organismal aging, on the cellular phenotypes of HGPS fibroblasts. Treatment with rapamycin abolished nuclear blebbing, delayed the onset of cellular senescence, and enhanced the degradation of progerin in HGPS cells. Rapamycin also decreased the formation of insoluble progerin aggregates and induced clearance through autophagic mechanisms in normal fibroblasts. Our findings suggest an additional mechanism for the beneficial effects of rapamycin on longevity and encourage the hypothesis that rapamycin treatment could provide clinical benefit for children with HGPS.
|Nuclear protein accumulation in cellular senescence and organismal aging revealed with a novel single-cell resolution fluorescence microscopy assay. |
De Cecco M, Jeyapalan J, Zhao X, Tamamori-Adachi M, Sedivy JM
Aging 3 955-67. 2011
Replicative cellular senescence was discovered some 50 years ago. The phenotypes of senescent cells have been investigated extensively in cell culture, and found to affect essentially all aspects of cellular physiology. The relevance of cellular senescence in the context of age-associated pathologies as well as normal aging is a topic of active and ongoing interest. Considerable effort has been devoted to biomarker discovery to enable the microscopic detection of single senescent cells in tissues. One characteristic of senescent cells documented very early in cell culture studies was an increase in cell size and total protein content, but whether this occurs in vivo is not known. A limiting factor for studies of protein content and localization has been the lack of suitable fluorescence microscopy tools. We have developed an easy and flexible method, based on the merocyanine dye known as NanoOrange, to visualize and quantitatively measure total protein levels by high resolution fluorescence microscopy. NanoOrange staining can be combined with antibody-based immunofluorescence, thus providing both specific target and total protein information in the same specimen. These methods are optimally combined with automated image analysis platforms for high throughput analysis. We document here increasing protein content and density in nuclei of senescent human and mouse fibroblasts in vitro, and in liver nuclei of aged mice in vivo. Additionally, in aged liver nuclei NanoOrange revealed protein-dense foci that colocalize with centromeric heterochromatin.
|Role of progerin-induced telomere dysfunction in HGPS premature cellular senescence. |
Benson, EK; Lee, SW; Aaronson, SA
Journal of cell science 123 2605-12 2010
Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a premature-aging syndrome caused by a dominant mutation in the gene encoding lamin A, which leads to an aberrantly spliced and processed protein termed progerin. Previous studies have shown that progerin induces early senescence associated with increased DNA-damage signaling and that telomerase extends HGPS cellular lifespan. We demonstrate that telomerase extends HGPS cellular lifespan by decreasing progerin-induced DNA-damage signaling and activation of p53 and Rb pathways that otherwise mediate the onset of premature senescence. We show further that progerin-induced DNA-damage signaling is localized to telomeres and is associated with telomere aggregates and chromosomal aberrations. Telomerase amelioration of DNA-damage signaling is relatively rapid, requires both its catalytic and DNA-binding functions, and correlates in time with the acquisition by HGPS cells of the ability to proliferate. All of these findings establish that HGPS premature cellular senescence results from progerin-induced telomere dysfunction.Full Text Article
|Retinal protection from acute glaucoma-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury through pharmacological induction of Heme oxygenase-1 by Cobalt protoporphyrin. |
Sun MH, Su Pang JH, Chen SL, Han WH, Ho TC, Chen KJ, Kao LY, Lin KK, Tsao YP
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010
PURPOSE. To investigate the protective effects of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), a potent heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inducer, in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion injury, and to document the possible anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms underlying the protection. METHODS. Rats pretreated with intraperitoneal injection of CoPP (5mg/kg) were subjected to retinal ischemia by increasing intraocular pressure to 130 mmHg for 60 minutes. The protective effects of CoPP were evaluated by determining the morphology of the retina, and counting the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) as well as measuring apoptosis in retinal layers. In addition, expressions of HO-1, caspase 3, p53, Bcl-xL, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were documented by Western blot analysis. Detection of HO-1, NF-kappaB, or CD68 protein in retinas was performed by immmunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence. RESULTS. Pharmacological induction of HO-1 by CoPP led to HO-1 expression in full retinal layer. HO-1 overexpression alleviated the apoptosis in retina, preserved retinal ganglion cells, and attenuated reduction of inner retina thickness after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Concurrently, overexpression of HO-1 was associated with inhibition of caspase 3, p53, NF-kappaB, iNOS, and increased expression of Bcl-xL. Meanwhile, the anti-inflammatory effect of HO-1 was related with reduction of the recruitment of macrophages infiltration in retina through suppression of MCP-1. Moreover, these beneficial effects of HO-1 induced by CoPP were diminished by HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP. CONCLUSIONS. Overexpression of HO-1 by pharmacological induction protected retina from subsequent cellular damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury through anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects.
|A G1 checkpoint mediated by the retinoblastoma protein that is dispensable in terminal differentiation but essential for senescence. |
Srikanth Talluri,Christian E Isaac,Mohammad Ahmad,Shauna A Henley,Sarah M Francis,Alison L Martens,Rod Bremner,Frederick A Dick
Molecular and cellular biology 30 2010
Terminally differentiated cell types are needed to live and function in a postmitotic state for a lifetime. Cellular senescence is another type of permanent arrest that blocks the proliferation of cells in response to genotoxic stress. Here we show that the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) uses a mechanism to block DNA replication in senescence that is distinct from its role in permanent cell cycle exit associated with terminal differentiation. Our work demonstrates that a subtle mutation in pRB that cripples its ability to interact with chromatin regulators impairs heterochromatinization and repression of E2F-responsive promoters during senescence. In contrast, terminally differentiated nerve and muscle cells bearing the same mutation fully exit the cell cycle and block E2F-responsive gene expression by a different mechanism. Remarkably, this reveals that pRB recruits chromatin regulators primarily to engage a stress-responsive G(1) arrest program.Full Text Article
|Cardiovascular pathology in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria: correlation with the vascular pathology of aging. |
Olive, M; Harten, I; Mitchell, R; Beers, JK; Djabali, K; Cao, K; Erdos, MR; Blair, C; Funke, B; Smoot, L; Gerhard-Herman, M; Machan, JT; Kutys, R; Virmani, R; Collins, FS; Wight, TN; Nabel, EG; Gordon, LB
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 30 2301-9 2010
Children with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) exhibit dramatically accelerated cardiovascular disease (CVD), causing death from myocardial infarction or stroke between the ages of 7 and 20 years. We undertook the first histological comparative evaluation between genetically confirmed HGPS and the CVD of aging.We present structural and immunohistological analysis of cardiovascular tissues from 2 children with HGPS who died of myocardial infarction. Both had features classically associated with the atherosclerosis of aging, as well as arteriolosclerosis of small vessels. In addition, vessels exhibited prominent adventitial fibrosis, a previously undescribed feature of HGPS. Importantly, although progerin was detected at higher rates in the HGPS coronary arteries, it was also present in non-HGPS individuals. Between the ages of 1 month and 97 years, progerin staining increased an average of 3.34% per year (Pless than 0.0001) in coronary arteries.We find concordance among many aspects of cardiovascular pathology in both HGPS and geriatric patients. HGPS generates a more prominent adventitial fibrosis than typical CVD. Vascular progerin generation in young non-HGPS individuals, which significantly increases throughout life, strongly suggests that progerin has a role in cardiovascular aging of the general population.Full Text Article
|MT1-MMP- and Cdc42-dependent signaling co-regulate cell invasion and tunnel formation in 3D collagen matrices. |
Kevin E Fisher,Anastasia Sacharidou,Amber N Stratman,Anne M Mayo,Sarah B Fisher,Rachel D Mahan,Michael J Davis,George E Davis
Journal of cell science 122 2009
Complex signaling events control tumor invasion in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices. Recent evidence suggests that cells utilize both matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-dependent and MMP-independent means to traverse 3D matrices. Herein, we demonstrate that lysophosphatidic-acid-induced HT1080 cell invasion requires membrane-type-1 (MT1)-MMP-mediated collagenolysis to generate matrix conduits the width of a cellular nucleus. We define these spaces as single-cell invasion tunnels (SCITs). Once established, cells can migrate within SCITs in an MMP-independent manner. Endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts also generate SCITs during invasive events, suggesting that SCIT formation represents a fundamental mechanism of cellular motility within 3D matrices. Coordinated cellular signaling events are required during SCIT formation. MT1-MMP, Cdc42 and its associated downstream effectors such as MRCK (myotonic dystrophy kinase-related Cdc42-binding kinase) and Pak4 (p21 protein-activated kinase 4), protein kinase Calpha and the Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinases (ROCK-1 and ROCK-2) coordinate signaling necessary for SCIT formation. Finally, we show that MT1-MMP and Cdc42 are fundamental components of a co-associated invasion-signaling complex that controls directed single-cell invasion of 3D collagen matrices.Full Text Article
|Increased expression of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome truncated lamin A transcript during cell aging. |
Sofia Rodriguez, Fabio Coppedè, Hanna Sagelius, Maria Eriksson
European journal of human genetics : EJHG 17 928-37 2009
Most cases of the segmental progeroid syndrome, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), are caused by a de novo dominant mutation within a single codon of the LMNA gene. This mutation leads to the increased usage of an internal splice site that generates an alternative lamin A transcript with an internal deletion of 150 nucleotides, called lamin A Delta 150. The LMNA gene encodes two major proteins of the inner nuclear lamina, lamins A and C, but not much is known about their expression levels. Determination of the overall expression levels of the LMNA gene transcripts is an important step to further the understanding of the HGPS. In this study, we have performed absolute quantification of the lamins A, C and A Delta 150 transcripts in primary dermal fibroblasts from HGPS patients and unaffected age-matched and parent controls. We show that the lamin A Delta 150 transcript is present in unaffected controls but its expression is 160-fold lower than that in samples from HGPS patients. Analysis of transcript expression during in vitro aging shows that although the levels of lamin A and lamin C transcripts remain unchanged, the lamin A Delta 150 transcript increases in late passage cells from HGPS patients and parental controls. This study provides a new method for LMNA transcript analysis and insights into the expression of the LMNA gene in HGPS and normal cells.
|A farnesyltransferase inhibitor prevents both the onset and late progression of cardiovascular disease in a progeria mouse model. |
Capell, BC; Olive, M; Erdos, MR; Cao, K; Faddah, DA; Tavarez, UL; Conneely, KN; Qu, X; San, H; Ganesh, SK; Chen, X; Avallone, H; Kolodgie, FD; Virmani, R; Nabel, EG; Collins, FS
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 15902-7 2008
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is the most dramatic form of human premature aging. Death occurs at a mean age of 13 years, usually from heart attack or stroke. Almost all cases of HGPS are caused by a de novo point mutation in the lamin A (LMNA) gene that results in production of a mutant lamin A protein termed progerin. This protein is permanently modified by a lipid farnesyl group, and acts as a dominant negative, disrupting nuclear structure. Treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) has been shown to prevent and even reverse this nuclear abnormality in cultured HGPS fibroblasts. We have previously created a mouse model of HGPS that shows progressive loss of vascular smooth muscle cells in the media of the large arteries, in a pattern that is strikingly similar to the cardiovascular disease seen in patients with HGPS. Here we show that the dose-dependent administration of the FTI tipifarnib (R115777, Zarnestra) to this HGPS mouse model can significantly prevent both the onset of the cardiovascular phenotype as well as the late progression of existing cardiovascular disease. These observations provide encouraging evidence for the current clinical trial of FTIs for this rare and devastating disease.Full Text Article
|Targeted transgenic expression of the mutation causing Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome leads to proliferative and degenerative epidermal disease. |
Sagelius, H; Rosengardten, Y; Hanif, M; Erdos, MR; Rozell, B; Collins, FS; Eriksson, M
Journal of cell science 121 969-78 2008
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare human genetic disorder characterized by striking progeroid features. Clinical findings in the skin include scleroderma, alopecia and loss of subcutaneous fat. HGPS is usually caused by a dominant-negative mutation in LMNA, a gene that encodes two major proteins of the inner nuclear lamina: lamin A and lamin C. We have generated tetracycline-inducible transgenic lines that carry a minigene of human LMNA under the control of a tet-operon. Two mouse lines were created: one carrying the wild-type sequence of LMNA and the other carrying the most common HGPS mutation. Targeted expression of the HGPS mutation in keratin-5-expressing tissues led to abnormalities in the skin and teeth, including fibrosis, loss of hypodermal adipocytes, structural defects in the hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and abnormal incisors. The severity of the defects was related to the level of expression of the transgene in different mouse lines. These transgenic mice appear to be good models for studies of the molecular mechanisms of skin abnormalities in HGPS and other related disorders.
|Reversible phenotype in a mouse model of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. |
H Sagelius, Y Rosengardten, E Schmidt, C Sonnabend, B Rozell, M Eriksson, H Sagelius, Y Rosengardten, E Schmidt, C Sonnabend, B Rozell, M Eriksson
Journal of medical genetics 45 794-801 2008
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare progeroid syndrome caused by mutations in the LMNA gene. Currently there is no treatment available for HGPS, but promising results from several studies using farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTIs) on cells and animal models of HGPS have been published and a clinical trial using FTIs has been started in patients with HGPS. However, the published data from animal models treated with FTIs come from studies where the treatment was started before pronounced disease development. This study used an inducible transgenic animal model of HGPS with abnormalities of the skin and teeth. After phenotype development, the transgenic expression was turned off and a rapid improvement of the phenotype was noted, within 4 weeks of transgenic suppression. After 13 weeks, the skin was almost indistinguishable from wild-type skin. This study shows that in these tissues, expression of the progeria mutation does not cause irreversible damage and that reversal of disease phenotype is possible, which gives promise for a treatment for this disease.
|Increased progerin expression associated with unusual LMNA mutations causes severe progeroid syndromes. |
Casey L Moulson, Loren G Fong, Jennifer M Gardner, Emily A Farber, Gloriosa Go, Annalisa Passariello, Dorothy K Grange, Stephen G Young, Jeffrey H Miner, Casey L Moulson, Loren G Fong, Jennifer M Gardner, Emily A Farber, Gloriosa Go, Annalisa Passariello, Dorothy K Grange, Stephen G Young, Jeffrey H Miner
Human mutation 28 882-9 2007
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare precocious aging syndrome caused by mutations in LMNA that lead to synthesis of a mutant form of prelamin A, generally called progerin, that cannot be processed to mature lamin A. Most HGPS patients have a recurrent heterozygous de novo mutation in exon 11 of LMNA, c.1824CT/p.G608G; this synonymous mutation activates a nearby cryptic splice donor site, resulting in synthesis of the mutant prelamin A, progerin, which lacks 50 amino acids within the carboxyl-terminal domain. Abnormal splicing is incomplete, so the mutant allele produces some normally-spliced transcripts. Nevertheless, the synthesis of progerin is sufficient to cause misshapen nuclei in cultured cells and severe disease phenotypes in affected patients. Here we present two patients with extraordinarily severe forms of progeria caused by unusual mutations in LMNA. One had a splice site mutation (c.1968+1GA; or IVS11+1GA), and the other had a novel synonymous coding region mutation (c.1821GA/p.V607V). Both mutations caused very frequent use of the same exon 11 splice donor site that is activated in typical HGPS patients. As a consequence, the ratios of progerin mRNA and protein to wild-type were higher than in typical HGPS patients. Fibroblasts from both patients exhibited nuclear shape abnormalities typical of HGPS, and cells treated with a protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor exhibited fewer misshapen nuclei. Thus, farnesyltransferase inhibitors may prove to be useful even when progerin expression levels are higher than those in typical HGPS patients.
|Mutant nuclear lamin A leads to progressive alterations of epigenetic control in premature aging |
Shumaker, Dale K, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 103:8703-8708 (2006) 2006
|Tumor cell invasion of collagen matrices requires coordinate lipid agonist-induced G-protein and membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1-dependent signaling. |
Fisher, KE; Pop, A; Koh, W; Anthis, NJ; Saunders, WB; Davis, GE
Molecular cancer 5 69 2006
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are bioactive lipid signaling molecules implicated in tumor dissemination. Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) is a membrane-tethered collagenase thought to be involved in tumor invasion via extracellular matrix degradation. In this study, we investigated the molecular requirements for LPA- and S1P-regulated tumor cell migration in two dimensions (2D) and invasion of three-dimensional (3D) collagen matrices and, in particular, evaluated the role of MT1-MMP in this process.LPA stimulated while S1P inhibited migration of most tumor lines in Boyden chamber assays. Conversely, HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells migrated in response to both lipids. HT1080 cells also markedly invaded 3D collagen matrices (approximatly 700 microm over 48 hours) in response to either lipid. siRNA targeting of LPA1 and Rac1, or S1P1, Rac1, and Cdc42 specifically inhibited LPA- or S1P-induced HT1080 invasion, respectively. Analysis of LPA-induced HT1080 motility on 2D substrates vs. 3D matrices revealed that synthetic MMP inhibitors markedly reduced the distance (approximately 125 microm vs. approximately 45 microm) and velocity of invasion (approximately 0.09 microm/min vs. approximately 0.03 microm/min) only when cells navigated 3D matrices signifying a role for MMPs exclusively in invasion. Additionally, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs)-2, -3, and -4, but not TIMP-1, blocked lipid agonist-induced invasion indicating a role for membrane-type (MT)-MMPs. Furthermore, MT1-MMP expression in several tumor lines directly correlated with LPA-induced invasion. HEK293s, which neither express MT1-MMP nor invade in the presence of LPA, were transfected with MT1-MMP cDNA, and subsequently invaded in response to LPA. When HT1080 cells were seeded on top of or within collagen matrices, siRNA targeting of MT1-MMP, but not other MMPs, inhibited lipid agonist-induced invasion establishing a requisite role for MT1-MMP in this process.LPA is a fundamental regulator of MT1-MMP-dependent tumor cell invasion of 3D collagen matrices. In contrast, S1P appears to act as an inhibitory stimulus in most cases, while stimulating only select tumor lines. MT1-MMP is required only when tumor cells navigate 3D barriers and not when cells migrate on 2D substrata. We demonstrate that tumor cells require coordinate regulation of LPA/S1P receptors and Rho GTPases to migrate, and additionally, require MT1-MMP in order to invade collagen matrices during neoplastic progression.Full Text Article
|Progressive vascular smooth muscle cell defects in a mouse model of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. |
Varga, R; Eriksson, M; Erdos, MR; Olive, M; Harten, I; Kolodgie, F; Capell, BC; Cheng, J; Faddah, D; Perkins, S; Avallone, H; San, H; Qu, X; Ganesh, S; Gordon, LB; Virmani, R; Wight, TN; Nabel, EG; Collins, FS
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 3250-5 2006
Children with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) suffer from dramatic acceleration of some symptoms associated with normal aging, most notably cardiovascular disease that eventually leads to death from myocardial infarction and/or stroke usually in their second decade of life. For the vast majority of cases, a de novo point mutation in the lamin A (LMNA) gene is the cause of HGPS. This missense mutation creates a cryptic splice donor site that produces a mutant lamin A protein, termed "progerin," which carries a 50-aa deletion near its C terminus. We have created a mouse model for progeria by generating transgenics carrying a human bacterial artificial chromosome that harbors the common HGPS mutation. These mice develop progressive loss of vascular smooth muscle cells in the medial layer of large arteries, in a pattern very similar to that seen in children with HGPS. This mouse model should prove valuable for testing experimental therapies for this devastating disorder and for exploring cardiovascular disease in general.Full Text Article
|Lamin A/C-dependent localization of Nesprin-2, a giant scaffolder at the nuclear envelope. |
Libotte, Thorsten, et al.
Mol. Biol. Cell, 16: 3411-24 (2005) 2005
The vertebrate proteins Nesprin-1 and Nesprin-2 (also referred to as Enaptin and NUANCE) together with ANC-1 of Caenorhabditis elegans and MSP-300 of Drosophila melanogaster belong to a novel family of alpha-actinin type actin-binding proteins residing at the nuclear membrane. Using biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that Nesprin-2 binds directly to emerin and the C-terminal common region of lamin A/C. Selective disruption of the lamin A/C network in COS7 cells, using a dominant negative lamin B mutant, resulted in the redistribution of Nesprin-2. Furthermore, using lamin A/C knockout fibroblasts we show that lamin A/C is necessary for the nuclear envelope localization of Nesprin-2. In normal skin where lamin A/C is differentially expressed, strong Nesprin-2 expression was found in all epidermal layers, including the basal layer where only lamin C is present. This indicates that lamin C is sufficient for proper Nesprin-2 localization at the nuclear envelope. Expression of dominant negative Nesprin-2 constructs and knockdown studies in COS7 cells revealed that the presence of Nesprin-2 at the nuclear envelope is necessary for the proper localization of emerin. Our data imply a scaffolding function of Nesprin-2 at the nuclear membrane and suggest a potential involvement of this multi-isomeric protein in human disease.
|Immunofluorescence, Immunoblotting (Western)||Monkey, Human||15843432|
|Compound heterozygous ZMPSTE24 mutations reduce prelamin A processing and result in a severe progeroid phenotype |
Shackleton, S, et al.
J. Med. Genet., 42:e36 (2005) 2005
|The inner nuclear membrane protein Sun1 mediates the anchorage of Nesprin-2 to the nuclear envelope |
Padmakumar, V C, et al.
J. Cell Sci., 118:3419-3430 (2005) 2005
|Requirement of km23 for TGFbeta-mediated growth inhibition and induction of fibronectin expression. |
Qunyan Jin, Wei Ding, Cory M Staub, Guofeng Gao, Qian Tang, Kathleen M Mulder
Cellular signalling 17 1363-72 2005
We previously identified km23 as a novel TGFbeta receptor-interacting protein. Here we show that km23 is ubiquitously expressed in human tissues and that cell-type specific differences in endogenous km23 protein expression exist. In addition, we demonstrate that the phosphorylation of km23 is TGFbeta-dependent, in that EGF was unable to phosphorylate km23. Further, the kinase activity of both TGFbeta receptors appears to play a role in the TGFbeta-mediated phosphorylation of km23, although TGFbeta RII kinase activity is absolutely required for km23 phosphorylation. Blockade of km23 using small interfering RNAs significantly decreased key TGFbeta responses, including induction of fibronectin expression and inhibition of cell growth. Thus, our results demonstrate that km23 is required for TGFbeta induction of fibronectin expression and is necessary, but not sufficient, for TGFbeta-mediated growth inhibition.
|Incomplete processing of mutant lamin A in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria leads to nuclear abnormalities, which are reversed by farnesyltransferase inhibition. |
Glynn, MW; Glover, TW
Human molecular genetics 14 2959-69 2005
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is typically caused by mutations in codon 608 (G608G) of the LMNA gene, which activates a cryptic splice site resulting in the in-frame loss of 150 nucleotides from the lamin A message. The deleted region includes a protein cleavage site that normally removes 15 amino acids, including a CAAX box farnesylation site, from the lamin A protein. We investigated the processing of the C-terminus of the mutant protein, 'progerin', and found that it does not undergo cleavage and, indeed, remains farnesylated. The retention of the farnesyl group may have numerous consequences, as farnesyl groups increase lipophilicity and are involved in membrane association and in protein interactions, and is likely to be an important factor in the HGPS phenotype. To further investigate this, we studied the effects of farnesylation inhibition on nuclear phenotypes in cells expressing normal and mutant lamin A. Expression of a GFP-progerin fusion protein in normal fibroblasts caused a high incidence of nuclear abnormalities, as was also seen in HGPS fibroblasts, and resulted in abnormal nuclear localization of GFP-progerin in comparison with the localization pattern of GFP-lamin A. Expression of a GFP-lamin A fusion containing a mutation preventing the final cleavage step, causing the protein to remain farnesylated, displayed identical localization patterns and nuclear abnormalities as in HGPS cells and in cells expressing GFP-progerin. Exposure to a farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI), PD169541, caused a significant improvement in the nuclear morphology of cells expressing GFP-progerin and in HGPS cells. These results implicate the abnormal farnesylation of progerin in the cellular phenotype in HGPS cells and suggest that FTIs may represent a therapeutic option for patients with HGPS.
|LMNA mutation in a 45 year old Japanese subject with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. |
Fukuchi, K, et al.
J. Med. Genet., 41: e67 (2004) 2004
|Disruption of STAT3 signaling leads to tumor cell invasion through alterations of homotypic cell-cell adhesion complexes. |
Rivat, C; De Wever, O; Bruyneel, E; Mareel, M; Gespach, C; Attoub, S
Oncogene 23 3317-27 2004
STAT3 is frequently overexpressed and constitutively activated by tyrosine phosphorylation during malignant transformation. Despite the clear importance of STAT3 in cell proliferation and survival in diverse human cancers, its possible contribution to tumor cell adhesion, motility and invasion remains hypothetical. We therefore compared the transforming properties of STAT3wt, its constitutively activated dimeric form STAT3C, and the dominant negative mutant STAT3-Y705F in human colorectal HCT8/S11 cancer cells. Both STAT3wt and STAT3C exert a permissive action to the proinvasive activity of the scatter factor HGF in HCT8/S11 cells. In contrast, the monomeric and cytoplasmic mutant Y705F induces a constitutive invasive phenotype through Wnt/Rho-independent and EGFR/PI3-kinase-dependent pathways. Accordingly, Y705F decreases cell-cell homotypic adhesions, and increases cell motility and scattering, as well as lamellipodia-type cellular extensions. STAT3-Y705F-transfected HCT8/S11 cells display an increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the cell-cell adhesion regulator beta-catenin and its dissociation from the invasion suppressor E-cadherin at cell-cell contacts. Our data imply that both invasion promoter and repressor genes are controlled by the canonical STAT3 transcription pathways. Disruption of this cascade by Y705F reveals the proinvasive potential of altered forms of STAT3 as a persistent signaling adaptor in cytokine/transforming growth factor receptor scaffolds and oncogenic pathways.
|A lamin A/C beta-strand containing the site of lipodystrophy mutations is a major surface epitope for a new panel of monoclonal antibodies. |
Sushila Manilal, K Natalie Randles, Christelle Aunac, Man thi Nguyen, Glenn E Morris
Biochimica et biophysica acta 1671 87-92 2004
Using a phage-displayed peptide library, we have identified the epitope recognized by a new panel of five monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against full-length recombinant human lamin A. The mAbs were found to recognize both lamin A and C by Western blotting and immunolocalization at the nuclear rim. A nine-amino acid consensus sequence PLLTYRFPP in the common immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain of lamin A/C contains the binding site for all five mAbs. Three-dimensional structure of the Ig-like domain of lamin A/C shows this sequence is a complete beta-strand. This sequence includes arginine-482 (R482) which is mutated in most cases of Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD). R482 may be part of an interaction site on the surface of lamin A/C for lamin-binding proteins associated with lipodystrophy.
|Expanding the phenotype of LMNA mutations in dilated cardiomyopathy and functional consequences of these mutations |
Sébillon, P, et al.
J. Med. Genet., 40:560-567 (2003) 2003
|Barrier-to-Autointegration Factor influences specific histone modifications. |
Montes de Oca, R; Andreassen, PR; Wilson, KL
Nucleus (Austin, Tex.) 2 580-90 2001
Defects in the nuclear envelope or nuclear 'lamina' networks cause disease and can perturb histone posttranslational (epigenetic) regulation. Barrier-to-Autointegration Factor (BAF) is an essential but enigmatic lamina component that binds lamins, LEM-domain proteins, DNA and histone H3 directly. We report that BAF copurified with nuclease-digested mononucleosomes and associated with modified histones in vivo. BAF overexpression significantly reduced global histone H3 acetylation by 18%. In cells that stably overexpressed BAF 3-fold, silencing mark H3-K27-Me1/3 and active marks H4-K16-Ac and H4-Ac5 decreased significantly. Significant increases were also seen for silencing mark H3-K9-Me3, active marks H3-K4-Me2, H3-K9/K14-Ac and H4-K5-Ac and a mark (H3-K79-Me2) associated with both active and silent chromatin. Other increases (H3-S10-P, H3-S28-P and silencing mark H3-K9-Me2) did not reach statistical significance. BAF overexpression also significantly influenced cell cycle distribution. Moreover, BAF associated in vivo with SET/I2PP2A (protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor; blocks H3 dephosphorylation) and G9a (H3-K9 methyltransferase), but showed no detectable association with HDAC1 or HATs. These findings reveal BAF as a novel epigenetic regulator and are discussed in relation to BAF deficiency phenotypes, which include a hereditary progeria syndrome and loss of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells.
|Head and/or CaaX domain deletions of lamin proteins disrupt preformed lamin A and C but not lamin B structure in mammalian cells. |
Izumi, M, et al.
Mol. Biol. Cell, 11: 4323-37 (2000) 2000
The nuclear lamina is an important determinant of nuclear architecture. Mutations in A-type but not B-type lamins cause a range of human genetic disorders, including muscular dystrophy. Dominant mutations in nuclear lamin proteins have been shown to disrupt a preformed lamina structure in Xenopus egg extracts. Here, a series of deletion mutations in lamins A and B1 were evaluated for their ability to disrupt lamina structure in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Deletions of either the lamin A "head" domain or the C-terminal CaaX domain formed intranuclear aggregates and resulted in the disruption of endogenous lamins A/C but not lamins B1/B2. By contrast, "head-less" lamin B1 localized to the nuclear rim with no detectable effect on endogenous lamins, whereas lamin B1 CaaX domain deletions formed intranuclear aggregates, disrupting endogenous lamins A/C but not lamins B1/B2. Filter binding assays revealed that a head/CaaX domain lamin B1 mutant interacted much more strongly with lamins A/C than with lamins B1/B2. Regulated induction of this mutant in stable cell lines resulted in the rapid elimination of all detectable lamin A protein, whereas lamin C was trapped in a soluble form within the intranuclear aggregates. In contrast to results in Xenopus egg extracts, dominant negative lamin B1 (but not lamin A) mutants trapped replication proteins involved in both the initiation and elongation phases of replication but did not effect cellular growth rates or the assembly of active replication centers. We conclude that elimination of the CaaX domain in lamin B1 and elimination of either the CaaX or head domain in lamin A constitute dominant mutations that can disrupt A-type but not B-type lamins, highlighting important differences in the way that A- and B-type lamins are integrated into the lamina.
|MOUSE ANTI-HUMAN LAMIN A+C|