Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||IP, WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Protein A Purified immunoglobulin in 0.1M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.15M NaCl, and 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Application||Anti-LAT Antibody detects level of LAT & has been published & validated for use in IP & WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt. For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the original vial after thawing and prior to removing the cap.|
|Material Size||400 µg|
|Anti-LAT (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2189948||2189948|
|Anti-LAT (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2227257||2227257|
|Anti-LAT (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2243497||2243497|
|Anti-LAT (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2322513||2322513|
|Anti-LAT - 16842||16842|
|Anti-LAT - 18080||18080|
|Anti-LAT - 19158||19158|
|Anti-LAT - 2043523||2043523|
|Anti-LAT - 22622||22622|
|Anti-LAT - DAM1522874||DAM1522874|
References | 26 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Quantitative proteomics analysis of signalosome dynamics in primary T cells identifies the surface receptor CD6 as a Lat adaptor-independent TCR signaling hub. |
Roncagalli, R; Hauri, S; Fiore, F; Liang, Y; Chen, Z; Sansoni, A; Kanduri, K; Joly, R; Malzac, A; Lähdesmäki, H; Lahesmaa, R; Yamasaki, S; Saito, T; Malissen, M; Aebersold, R; Gstaiger, M; Malissen, B
Nature immunology 15 384-92 2014
T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of T cells requires the interaction of dozens of proteins. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry and activated primary CD4(+) T cells from mice in which a tag for affinity purification was knocked into several genes to determine the composition and dynamics of multiprotein complexes that formed around the kinase Zap70 and the adaptors Lat and SLP-76. Most of the 112 high-confidence time-resolved protein interactions we observed were previously unknown. The surface receptor CD6 was able to initiate its own signaling pathway by recruiting SLP-76 and the guanine nucleotide-exchange factor Vav1 regardless of the presence of Lat. Our findings provide a more complete model of TCR signaling in which CD6 constitutes a signaling hub that contributes to the diversification of TCR signaling.
|Assessment of caspase mediated degradation of linker for activation of T cells (LAT) at a single cell level. |
Kłossowicz, Mikołaj, et al.
J. Immunol. Methods, 389: 9-17 (2013) 2013
Caspase/Granzyme B mediated protein degradation is involved in elimination of activated T cell receptor (TCR) signaling molecules during processes of thymocyte selection and maintenance of peripheral homeostasis of T cells. Key components of TCR signaling cassette including LAT undergo biological inactivation in response to pro-apoptotic or anergy inducing environmental stimuli. Although available Western immunoblotting-based techniques are appropriate for detection of protein degradation in bulk populations of target cells, quantitative assessment of this process at a single cell level requires a different approach. Here we report on a novel, flow cytometry-based method for assessment of LAT integrity. This method exploits a loss of an anti-LAT antibody epitope recognition following proteolytic degradation of C-terminal domain of the LAT. We show that the LAT degradation precedes phosphatidylserine translocation to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane and thus may constitute an early marker of T cell apoptosis. When used in conjunction with multi-parameter flow cytometry, our method revealed that FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD8(low) thymocytes i.e. precursors of thymus derived CD4(+) regulatory T cells, in contrast to Foxp3(-)CD4(+)CD8(low) thymocytes are resistant to LAT degradation in response to CD3ε crosslinking. This finding can be used as an additional marker for T regulatory cell lineage.
|Complementary phosphorylation sites in the adaptor protein SLP-76 promote synergistic activation of natural killer cells. |
Kim, HS; Long, EO
Science signaling 5 ra49 2012
The cytotoxic effects of natural killer (NK) cells and their ability to secrete cytokines require synergistic signals from specific pairs of co-activation receptors, such as CD314 (also known as NKG2D) and CD244 (2B4), which bind to distinct ligands present on target cells. These signals are required to overcome inhibition mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav1, which promotes activation of NK cells. Here, we showed that the adaptor protein SLP-76 (Src homology 2 domain-containing leukocyte phosphoprotein of 76 kilodaltons) was required for this synergy and that distinct tyrosine residues in SLP-76 were phosphorylated by each member of a pair of synergistic receptors. Selective phosphorylation of tyrosine 113 or tyrosine 128 in SLP-76 enabled binding of SLP-76 to Vav1. Selective phosphorylation of SLP-76 at these residues was restricted to receptors that stimulated ligand-dependent target cell killing; antibody-dependent stimulation of the Fc receptor CD16 promoted phosphorylation at both sites. Knockdown and reconstitution experiments with SLP-76 mutant proteins showed the distinct role of each tyrosine in the synergistic mobilization of Ca2+, revealing an unexpected degree of selectivity in the phosphorylation of SLP-76 by NK cell co-activation receptors. Together, these data suggest that combined phosphorylation of separate tyrosine residues in SLP-76 forms the basis of synergistic NK cell activation.
|Phospholipase Cγ2 plays a role in TCR signal transduction and T cell selection. |
Fu, G; Chen, Y; Schuman, J; Wang, D; Wen, R
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 189 2326-32 2012
One of the important signaling events following TCR engagement is activation of phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ). PLCγ has two isoforms, PLCγ1 and PLCγ2. It is known that PLCγ1 is important for TCR signaling and TCR-mediated T cell selection and functions, whereas PLCγ2 is critical for BCR signal transduction and BCR-mediated B cell maturation and functions. In this study, we report that PLCγ2 was expressed in primary T cells, and became associated with linker for activated T cells and Src homology 2-domain containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa and activated upon TCR stimulation. PLCγ1/PLCγ2 double-deficient T cells displayed further block from CD4 and CD8 double-positive to single-positive transition compared with PLCγ1 single-deficient T cells. TCR-mediated proliferation was further impaired in PLCγ1/PLCγ2 double-deficient T cells compared with PLCγ1 single-deficient T cells. TCR-mediated signal transduction, including Ca²⁺ mobilization and Erk activation, was further impaired in PLCγ1/PLCγ2 double-deficient relative to PLCγ1 single-deficient T cells. In addition, in HY TCR transgenic mouse model, thymic positive and negative selections were reduced in PLCγ1 heterozygous- and PLCγ2 homozygous-deficient (PLCγ1⁺/⁻PLCγ2⁻/⁻) relative to wild-type, PLCγ2 single-deficient (PLCγ2⁻/⁻), or PLCγ1 heterozygous-deficient (PLCγ1⁺/⁻) mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that PLCγ2 participates in TCR signal transduction and plays a role in T cell selection.
|OX40 complexes with phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase B (PKB) to augment TCR-dependent PKB signaling. |
So, T; Choi, H; Croft, M
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 186 3547-55 2011
T lymphocyte activation requires signal 1 from the TCR and signal 2 from costimulatory receptors. For long-lasting immunity, growth and survival signals imparted through the Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) pathway in activated or effector T cells are important, and these can be strongly influenced by signaling from OX40 (CD134), a member of the TNFR superfamily. In the absence of OX40, T cells do not expand efficiently to Ag, and memory formation is impaired. How most costimulatory receptors integrate their signals with those from Ag through the TCR is not clear, including whether OX40 directly recruits PKB or molecules that regulate PKB. We show that OX40 after ligation by OX40L assembled a signaling complex that contained the adapter TNFR-associated factor 2 as well as PKB and its upstream activator phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Recruitment of PKB and PI3K were dependent on TNFR-associated factor 2 and on translocation of OX40 into detergent-insoluble membrane lipid microdomains but independent of TCR engagement. However, OX40 only resulted in strong phosphorylation and functional activation of the PI3K-PKB pathway when Ag was recognized. Therefore, OX40 primarily functions to augment PKB signaling in T cells by enhancing the amount of PI3K and PKB available to the TCR. This highlights a quantitative role of this TNFR family second signal to supplement signal 1.
|Beta-catenin inhibits T cell activation by selective interference with linker for activation of T cells-phospholipase C-γ1 phosphorylation. |
Driessens, G; Zheng, Y; Locke, F; Cannon, JL; Gounari, F; Gajewski, TF
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 186 784-90 2011
Despite the defined function of the β-catenin pathway in thymocytes, its functional role in peripheral T cells is poorly understood. We report that in a mouse model, β-catenin protein is constitutively degraded in peripheral T cells. Introduction of stabilized β-catenin into primary T cells inhibited proliferation and cytokine secretion after TCR stimulation and blunted effector cell differentiation. Functional and biochemical studies revealed that β-catenin selectively inhibited linker for activation of T cells phosphorylation on tyrosine 136, which was associated with defective phospholipase C-γ1 phosphorylation and calcium signaling but normal ERK activation. Our findings indicate that β-catenin negatively regulates T cell activation by a previously undescribed mechanism and suggest that conditions under which β-catenin might be inducibly stabilized in vivo would be inhibitory for T cell-based immunity.
|β2 integrin induces TCRζ-Syk-phospholipase C-γ phosphorylation and paxillin-dependent granule polarization in human NK cells. |
March, ME; Long, EO
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 186 2998-3005 2011
Cytotoxic lymphocytes kill target cells through polarized release of the content of lytic granules at the immunological synapse. In human NK cells, signals for granule polarization and for degranulation can be uncoupled: Binding of β(2) integrin LFA-1 to ICAM is sufficient to induce polarization but not degranulation, whereas CD16 binding to IgG triggers unpolarized degranulation. In this study, we investigated the basis for this difference. IL-2-expanded human NK cells were stimulated by incubation with plate-bound ligands of LFA-1 (ICAM-1) and CD16 (human IgG). Surprisingly, LFA-1 elicited signals similar to those induced by CD16, including tyrosine phosphorylation of the TCR ζ-chain, tyrosine kinase Syk, and phospholipase C-γ. Whereas CD16 activated Ca(2+) mobilization and LAT phosphorylation, LFA-1 did not, but induced strong Pyk2 and paxillin phosphorylation. LFA-1-dependent granule polarization was blocked by inhibition of Syk, phospholipase C-γ, and protein kinase C, as well as by paxillin knockdown. Therefore, common signals triggered by CD16 and LFA-1 bifurcate to provide independent control of Ca(2+)-dependent degranulation and paxillin-dependent granule polarization.
|T-cell receptor microclusters critical for T-cell activation are formed independently of lipid raft clustering. |
Hashimoto-Tane, A; Yokosuka, T; Ishihara, C; Sakuma, M; Kobayashi, W; Saito, T
Molecular and cellular biology 30 3421-9 2010
We studied the function of lipid rafts in generation and signaling of T-cell receptor microclusters (TCR-MCs) and central supramolecular activation clusters (cSMACs) at immunological synapse (IS). It has been suggested that lipid raft accumulation creates a platform for recruitment of signaling molecules upon T-cell activation. However, several lipid raft probes did not accumulate at TCR-MCs or cSMACs even with costimulation and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between TCR or LAT and lipid raft probes was not induced at TCR-MCs under the condition of positive induction of FRET between CD3 zeta and ZAP-70. The analysis of LAT mutants revealed that raft association is essential for the membrane localization but dispensable for TCR-MC formation. Careful analysis of the accumulation of raft probes in the cell interface revealed that their accumulation occurred after cSMAC formation, probably due to membrane ruffling and/or endocytosis. These results suggest that lipid rafts control protein translocation to the membrane but are not involved in the clustering of raft-associated molecules and therefore that the lipid rafts do not serve as a platform for T-cell activation.
|Vitamin D controls T cell antigen receptor signaling and activation of human T cells. |
von Essen MR, Kongsbak M, Schjerling P, Olgaard K, Odum N, Geisler C
Nat Immunol 11 344-9. Epub 2010 Mar 7. 2010
Phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes are key signaling proteins downstream of many extracellular stimuli. Here we show that naive human T cells had very low expression of PLC-gamma1 and that this correlated with low T cell antigen receptor (TCR) responsiveness in naive T cells. However, TCR triggering led to an upregulation of approximately 75-fold in PLC-gamma1 expression, which correlated with greater TCR responsiveness. Induction of PLC-gamma1 was dependent on vitamin D and expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Naive T cells did not express VDR, but VDR expression was induced by TCR signaling via the alternative mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 pathway. Thus, initial TCR signaling via p38 leads to successive induction of VDR and PLC-gamma1, which are required for subsequent classical TCR signaling and T cell activation.
|Targeting of the small GTPase Rap2b, but not Rap1b, to lipid rafts is promoted by palmitoylation at Cys176 and Cys177 and is required for efficient protein activation in human platelets. |
Ilaria Canobbio, Piera Trionfini, Gianni F Guidetti, Cesare Balduini, Mauro Torti, Ilaria Canobbio, Piera Trionfini, Gianni F Guidetti, Cesare Balduini, Mauro Torti
Cellular signalling 20 1662-70 2008
Rap1b and Rap2b are the only members of the Rap family of GTPases expressed in circulating human platelets. Rap1b is involved in the inside-out activation of integrins, while the role of Rap2b is still poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the localization of Rap proteins to specific microdomains of plasma membrane called lipid rafts, implicated in signal transduction. We found that Rap1b was not associated to lipid rafts in resting platelets, and did not translocate to these microdomains in stimulated cells. By contrast, about 20% of Rap2b constitutively associated to lipid rafts, and this percentage did not increase upon platelet stimulation. Rap2b interaction with lipid rafts also occurred in transfected HEK293T cell. Upon metabolic labelling with [(3)H]palmitate, incorporation of the label into Rap2b was observed. Palmitoylation of Rap2b did not occur when Cys176 or Cys177 were mutated to serine, or when the C-terminal CAAX motif was deleted. Contrary to CAAX deletion, Cys176 and Cys177 substitution did not alter the membrane localization of Rap2b, however, relocation of the mutants within lipid rafts was completely prevented. In intact platelets, disruption of Rap2b interaction with lipid rafts obtained by cholesterol depletion caused a significant inhibition of aggregation. Importantly, agonist-induced activation of Rap2b was concomitantly severely impaired. These results demonstrate that Rap2b, but not the more abundant Rap1b, is associated to lipid rafts in human platelets. This interaction is supported by palmitoylation of Rap2b, and is important for a complete agonist-induced activation of this GTPase.
|Caspase-8 and c-FLIPL associate in lipid rafts with NF-kappaB adaptors during T cell activation. |
Misra, RS; Russell, JQ; Koenig, A; Hinshaw-Makepeace, JA; Wen, R; Wang, D; Huo, H; Littman, DR; Ferch, U; Ruland, J; Thome, M; Budd, RC
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 19365-74 2007
Humans and mice lacking functional caspase-8 in T cells manifest a profound immunodeficiency syndrome due to defective T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-induced NF-kappaB signaling and proliferation. It is unknown how caspase-8 is activated following T cell stimulation, and what is the caspase-8 substrate(s) that is necessary to initiate T cell cycling. We observe that following TCR ligation, a small portion of total cellular caspase-8 and c-FLIP(L) rapidly migrate to lipid rafts where they associate in an active caspase complex. Activation of caspase-8 in lipid rafts is followed by rapid cleavage of c-FLIP(L) at a known caspase-8 cleavage site. The active caspase.c-FLIP complex forms in the absence of Fas (CD95/APO1) and associates with the NF-kappaB signaling molecules RIP1, TRAF2, and TRAF6, as well as upstream NF-kappaB regulators PKC theta, CARMA1, Bcl-10, and MALT1, which connect to the TCR. The lack of caspase-8 results in the absence of MALT1 and Bcl-10 in the active caspase complex. Consistent with this observation, inhibition of caspase activity attenuates NF-kappaB activation. The current findings define a link among TCR, caspases, and the NF-kappaB pathway that occurs in a sequestered lipid raft environment in T cells.
|Persistence of cooperatively stabilized signaling clusters drives T-cell activation. |
Bunnell, SC; Singer, AL; Hong, DI; Jacque, BH; Jordan, MS; Seminario, MC; Barr, VA; Koretzky, GA; Samelson, LE
Molecular and cellular biology 26 7155-66 2006
Antigen recognition triggers the recruitment of the critical adaptor protein SLP-76 to small macromolecular clusters nucleated by the T-cell receptor (TCR). These structures develop rapidly, in parallel with TCR-induced increases in tyrosine phosphorylation and cytosolic calcium, and are likely to contribute to TCR-proximal signaling. Previously, we demonstrated that these SLP-76-containing clusters segregate from the TCR and move towards the center of the contact interface. Neither the function of these clusters nor the structural requirements governing their persistence have been examined extensively. Here we demonstrate that defects in cluster assembly and persistence are associated with defects in T-cell activation in the absence of Lck, ZAP-70, or LAT. Clusters persist normally in the absence of phospholipase C-gamma1, indicating that in the absence of a critical effector, these structures are insufficient to drive T-cell activation. Furthermore, we show that the critical adaptors LAT and Gads localize with SLP-76 in persistent clusters. Mutational analyses of LAT, Gads, and SLP-76 indicated that multiple domains within each of these proteins contribute to cluster persistence. These data indicate that multivalent cooperative interactions stabilize these persistent signaling clusters, which may correspond to the functional complexes predicted by kinetic proofreading models of T-cell activation.Full Text Article
|DC-SIGN ligation on dendritic cells results in ERK and PI3K activation and modulates cytokine production. |
Caparrós, E; Munoz, P; Sierra-Filardi, E; Serrano-Gómez, D; Puig-Kröger, A; Rodríguez-Fernández, JL; Mellado, M; Sancho, J; Zubiaur, M; Corbí, AL
Blood 107 3950-8 2006
The generation of pathogen-specific immune responses is dependent on the signaling capabilities of pathogen-recognition receptors. DC-SIGN is a C-type lectin that mediates capture and internalization of viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens by myeloid dendritic cells. DC-SIGN-interacting pathogens are thought to modulate dendritic cell maturation by interfering with intracellular signaling from Toll-like receptor molecules. We report that engagement of DC-SIGN by specific antibodies does not promote dendritic cell maturation but induces ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation without concomitant p38MAPK activation. DC-SIGN ligation also triggers PLCgamma phosphorylation and transient increases in intracellular calcium in dendritic cells. In agreement with its signaling capabilities, a fraction of DC-SIGN molecules partitions within lipid raft-enriched membrane fractions both in DC-SIGN-transfected and dendritic cells. Moreover, DC-SIGN in dendritic cells coprecipitates with the tyrosine kinases Lyn and Syk. The relevance of the DC-SIGN-initiated signals was demonstrated in monocyte-derived dendritic cells, as DC-SIGN cross-linking synergizes with TNF-alpha for IL-10 release and enhances the production of LPS-induced IL-10. These results demonstrate that DC-SIGN-triggered intracellular signals modulate dendritic cell maturation. Since pathogens stimulate Th2 responses via preferential activation of ERK1/2, these results provide a molecular explanation for the ability of DC-SIGN-interacting pathogens to preferentially evoke Th2-type immune responses.
|The ubiquitously expressed Csk adaptor protein Cbp is dispensable for embryogenesis and T-cell development and function. |
Dobenecker, MW; Schmedt, C; Okada, M; Tarakhovsky, A
Molecular and cellular biology 25 10533-42 2005
Regulation of Src family kinase (SFK) activity is indispensable for a functional immune system and embryogenesis. The activity of SFKs is inhibited by the presence of the carboxy-terminal Src kinase (Csk) at the cell membrane. Thus, recruitment of cytosolic Csk to the membrane-associated SFKs is crucial for its regulatory function. Previous studies utilizing in vitro and transgenic models suggested that the Csk-binding protein (Cbp), also known as phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid microdomains (PAG), is the membrane adaptor for Csk. However, loss-of-function genetic evidence to support this notion was lacking. Herein, we demonstrate that the targeted disruption of the cbp gene in mice has no effect on embryogenesis, thymic development, or T-cell functions in vivo. Moreover, recruitment of Csk to the specialized membrane compartment of "lipid rafts" is not impaired by Cbp deficiency. Our results indicate that Cbp is dispensable for the recruitment of Csk to the membrane and that another Csk adaptor, yet to be discovered, compensates for the loss of Cbp.Full Text Article
|CD45 signals outside of lipid rafts to promote ERK activation, synaptic raft clustering, and IL-2 production. |
Min Zhang, Miriana Moran, June Round, Teresa A Low, Viresh P Patel, Tamar Tomassian, Joseph D Hernandez, M Carrie Miceli
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 174 1479-90 2005
CD45 is dynamically repositioned within lipid rafts and the immune synapse during T cell activation, although the molecular consequences of CD45 repositioning remain unclear. In this study we examine the role of CD45 membrane compartmentalization in regulating murine T cell activation. We find that raft-localized CD45 antagonizes IL-2 production by opposing processive TCR signals, whereas raft-excluded CD45 promotes ERK-dependent polarized synaptic lipid raft clustering and IL-2 production. We propose that these dual CD45 activities ensure that only robust TCR signals proceed, whereas signals meeting threshold requirements are potentiated. Our findings highlight membrane compartmentalization as a key regulator of CD45 function and elucidate a novel signal transduction pathway by which raft-excluded CD45 positively regulates T cell activation.
|T cell receptor zeta reconstitution fails to restore responses of T cells rendered hyporesponsive by tumor necrosis factor alpha. |
Clark, JM; Annenkov, AE; Panesar, M; Isomäki, P; Chernajovsky, Y; Cope, AP
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101 1696-701 2004
Expression and function of the antigen T cell receptor (TCR) play a central role in regulating immune responsiveness. Accordingly, targeting the expression of TCRalphabeta or its associated CD3 subunits profoundly influences T cell development and adaptive immunity. Down-regulation of the invariant TCRzeta chain has been documented in a wide variety of chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases, and is thought to contribute to the paradoxical immune suppression observed in these diseases. Previously, we reported that prolonged exposure of T cell hybridoma clones to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) induces nondeletional and reversible hyporesponsiveness to TCR engagement, associated with down-regulation of TCRzeta chain expression, impaired TCR/CD3 complex assembly, and attenuation of TCR-induced membrane proximal tyrosine phosphorylation. Here, we have tested whether receptor specific T cell responses are rescued in TNF-treated T cell hybridomas by retroviral-mediated expression of zeta-chimeric (C2zeta) receptors or wild-type TCRzeta. Expression of C2zeta receptors at the cell surface is relatively refractory to chronic TNF stimulation. However, C2zeta receptor function depends on association with endogenous TCRzeta chains, whose expression is down-regulated by TNF, and so C2 receptor specific responses are attenuated in TNF-treated T cells. Unexpectedly, overexpression of wild-type TCRzeta maintains cell surface TCR/CD3 complex expression but fails to rescue receptor proximal signaling in TNF-treated T cells, suggesting the existence of hitherto unrecognized mechanisms through which TNF regulates T cell responsiveness. We provide additional evidence that TNF also uncouples distal TCR signaling pathways independently of its effects on TCRzeta expression.
|Proteome analysis reveals caspase activation in hyporesponsive CD4 T lymphocytes induced in vivo by the oral administration of antigen |
Kaji, T., et al
J Biol Chem, 278:27836-43 (2003) 2003
|T cell receptor-mediated signal transduction controlled by the beta chain transmembrane domain: apoptosis-deficient cells display unbalanced mitogen-activated protein kinases activities upon T cell receptor engagement. |
Teixeiro, Emma, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 277: 3993-4002 (2002) 2002
The bases that support the versatility of the T cell receptor (TCR) to generate distinct T cell responses remain unclear. We have previously shown that mutant cells in the transmembrane domain of TCRbeta chain are impaired in TCR-induced apoptosis but are not affected in other functions. Here we describe the biochemical mechanisms by which this mutant receptor supports some T cell responses but fails to induce apoptosis. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) is activated at higher and more sustained levels in TCRbeta-mutated than in wild type cells. Conversely, activation of both c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is severely reduced in mutant cells. By attempting to link this unbalanced induction to altered upstream events, we found that ZAP-70 is normally activated. However, although SLP-76 phosphorylation is normally induced, TCR engagement of mutant cells results in lower tyrosine phosphorylation of LAT but in higher tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav than in wild type cells. The results suggest that an altered signaling cascade leading to an imbalance in mitogen-activated protein kinase activities is involved in the selective impairment of apoptosis in these mutant cells. Furthermore, they also provide new insights in the contribution of TCR to decipher the signals that mediate apoptosis distinctly from proliferation.
|Effect of redox balance alterations on cellular localization of LAT and downstream T-cell receptor signaling pathways. |
Gringhuis, SI; Papendrecht-van der Voort, EA; Leow, A; Nivine Levarht, EW; Breedveld, FC; Verweij, CL
Molecular and cellular biology 22 400-11 2002
The integral membrane protein linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is a central adapter protein in the T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated signaling pathways. The cellular localization of LAT is extremely sensitive to intracellular redox balance alterations. Reduced intracellular levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH), a hallmark of chronic oxidative stress, resulted in the membrane displacement of LAT, abrogated TCR-mediated signaling and consequently hyporesponsiveness of T lymphocytes. The membrane displacement of LAT is accompanied by a considerable difference in the mobility of LAT upon native and nonreducing denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, a finding indicative of a conformational change. Targeted mutation of redox-sensitive cysteine residues within LAT created LAT mutants which remain membrane anchored under conditions of chronic oxidative stress. The expression of redox-insensitive LAT mutants allows for restoration of TCR-mediated signal transduction, whereas CD28-mediated signaling pathways remained impaired. These results are indicative that the membrane displacement of LAT as a result of redox balance alterations is a consequence of a conformational change interfering with the insertion of LAT into the plasma membrane. Conclusively, the data suggest a role for LAT as a crucial intermediate in the sensitivity of TCR signaling and hence T lymphocytes toward chronic oxidative stress.Full Text Article
|Dynamic recruitment of human CD2 into lipid rafts. Linkage to T cell signal transduction |
Yang, H. and Reinherz, E. L.
J Biol Chem, 276:18775-85 (2001) 2001
|High resolution mapping of mast cell membranes reveals primary and secondary domains of Fc(epsilon)RI and LAT. |
Wilson, B S, et al.
J. Cell Biol., 154: 645-58 (2001) 2001
In mast cells, cross-linking the high-affinity IgE receptor (Fc(epsilon)RI) initiates the Lyn-mediated phosphorylation of receptor ITAMs, forming phospho-ITAM binding sites for Syk. Previous immunogold labeling of membrane sheets showed that resting Fc(epsilon)RI colocalize loosely with Lyn, whereas cross-linked Fc(epsilon)RI redistribute into specialized domains (osmiophilic patches) that exclude Lyn, accumulate Syk, and are often bordered by coated pits. Here, the distribution of Fc(epsilon)RI beta is mapped relative to linker for activation of T cells (LAT), Grb2-binding protein 2 (Gab2), two PLCgamma isoforms, and the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), all implicated in the remodeling of membrane inositol phospholipids. Before activation, PLCgamma1 and Gab2 are not strongly membrane associated, LAT occurs in small membrane clusters separate from receptor, and PLCgamma2, that coprecipitates with LAT, occurs in clusters and along cytoskeletal cables. After activation, PLCgamma2, Gab2, and a portion of p85 colocalize with Fc(epsilon)RI beta in osmiophilic patches. LAT clusters enlarge within 30 s of receptor activation, forming elongated complexes that can intersect osmiophilic patches without mixing. PLCgamma1 and another portion of p85 associate preferentially with activated LAT. Supporting multiple distributions of PI3-kinase, Fc(epsilon)RI cross-linking increases PI3-kinase activity in anti-LAT, anti-Fc(epsilon)RIbeta, and anti-Gab2 immune complexes. We propose that activated mast cells propagate signals from primary domains organized around Fc(epsilon)RIbeta and from secondary domains, including one organized around LAT.
|Selective accumulation of raft-associated membrane protein LAT in T cell receptor signaling assemblies |
Harder, T. and Kuhn, M.
J Cell Biol, 151:199-208 (2000) 2000
|Displacement of linker for activation of T cells from the plasma membrane due to redox balance alterations results in hyporesponsiveness of synovial fluid T lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. |
S I Gringhuis, A Leow, E A Papendrecht-Van Der Voort, P H Remans, F C Breedveld, C L Verweij
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 164 2170-9 2000
The T lymphocytes that reside in the synovium of the inflamed joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis display severe hyporesponsiveness upon antigenic stimulation, which is probably due to their constant subjection to high levels of oxidative stress. Here we report that the synovial fluid T lymphocytes exert severely impaired phosphorylation of the adaptor protein linker for activation of T cells (LAT), a crucial component of the TCR-mediated signaling pathways. In healthy T lymphocytes, LAT is a membrane-bound protein and becomes phosphorylated by zeta-associated protein of 70 kDa (ZAP-70) upon TCR engagement. The molecular basis underlying the deficient phosphorylation of LAT and consequently the hyporesponsiveness of the synovial fluid T lymphocytes lies in the membrane displacement of LAT. We demonstrate that the subcellular localization of LAT is sensitive to changes in the intracellular levels of the antioxidant glutathione. The membrane anchorage of LAT, and consequently the phosphorylation of LAT and the cellular activation of the synovial fluid T lymphocytes upon TCR engagement, is restored in synovial fluid T lymphocytes after supplementation of the intracellular glutathione levels with N-acetyl-l -cysteine. These data suggest a role for the membrane displacement of LAT in the hyporesponsiveness of the synovial fluid T lymphocytes as a consequence of oxidative stress.
|TCR activation inhibits chemotaxis toward stromal cell-derived factor-1: evidence for reciprocal regulation between CXCR4 and the TCR. |
J W Peacock, F R Jirik
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 162 215-23 1999
Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), a C-X-C family chemokine, is a potent T lymphocyte chemoattractant. We investigated the effects of T cell activation on the chemotactic response to SDF-1. Anti-CD3 Ab stimulation of either Jurkat T cells or murine peripheral CD4+ T lymphocytes produced a dramatic inhibition of SDF-1-induced chemotaxis. In contrast, the SDF-1 responses of Jurkat clones with deficiencies in key TCR signaling components (Lck, CD45, and TCR-beta), were only marginally reduced by anti-CD3 stimulation. Similar to PMA treatment, which abolished both CXCR4 receptor expression and the chemotactic response of Jurkat cells to SDF-1, anti-CD3 Ab treatment reduced cell surface expression of CXCR4 to 65% of the control value, an effect that was blocked by protein kinase C inhibitors. Our data suggest that initial T cell activation events inhibit the response of Jurkat T cells to CXCR4 stimulation. In contrast, SDF-1 treatment resulted in a reduction of tyrosine phosphorylation of the TCR downstream effectors, ZAP-70, SLP-76, and LAT (linker for activation of T cells), suggesting that this chemokine potentially regulates the threshold for T cell activation.
|LAT: the ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase substrate that links T cell receptor to cellular activation. |
Zhang, W, et al.
Cell, 92: 83-92 (1998) 1998
Despite extensive study, several of the major components involved in T cell receptor-mediated signaling remain unidentified. Here we report the cloning of the cDNA for a highly tyrosine-phosphorylated 36-38 kDa protein, previously characterized by its association with Grb2, phospholipase C-gamma1, and the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Deduced amino acid sequence identifies a novel integral membrane protein containing multiple potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites. We show that this protein is phosphorylated by ZAP-70/Syk protein tyrosine kinases leading to recruitment of multiple signaling molecules. Its function is demonstrated by inhibition of T cell activation following overexpression of a mutant form lacking critical tyrosine residues. Therefore, we propose to name the molecule LAT-linker for activation of T cells.
|Activating and inhibitory mutations in adjacent tyrosines in the kinase domain of ZAP-70. |
Wange, R L, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 270: 18730-3 (1995) 1995
ZAP-70 is an 70-kDa protein tyrosine kinase, expressed exclusively in T cells and NK cells, and plays a critical role in mediating T cell activation in response to T cell receptor engagement. The strong correlation between tyrosine phosphorylation of ZAP-70 and its acquisition of increased kinase activity suggests that is is positively regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Previously, we identified tyrosines 492 and 493 of ZAP-70 as being sites of in vivo phosphorylation in response to T cell receptor engagement. To determine the role of phosphorylation in regulating ZAP-70 activity, we mutated each of these tyrosines individually to phenylalanine. When expressed in COS cells, Y493F-mutated ZAP-70 demonstrated normal basal kinase activity, but, unlike wild type ZAP-70, could not be activated by tyrosine phosphorylation induced by incubation with pervanadate or by co-expression of constitutively activated Lck. This suggests that Tyr-493 phosphorylation is required for the tyrosine phosphorylation-induced activation of ZAP-70. The Y492F mutation resulted in 4-fold higher basal kinase activity, which could be stimulated further by tyrosine phosphorylation. These results reveal that critical tyrosine residues in the kinase domain of ZAP-70 are important in regulation of its catalytic activity.