|Erythroid induction of K562 cells treated with mithramycin is associated with inhibition of raptor gene transcription and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) functions. |
Finotti, A; Bianchi, N; Fabbri, E; Borgatti, M; Breveglieri, G; Gasparello, J; Gambari, R
Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR activity, is a potent inducer of erythroid differentiation and fetal hemoglobin production in β-thalassemic patients. Mithramycin (MTH) was studied to see if this inducer of K562 differentiation also operates through inhibition of mTOR. We can conclude from the study that the mTOR pathway is among the major transcript classes affected by mithramycin-treatment in K562 cells and a sharp decrease of raptor protein production and p70S6 kinase is detectable in mithramycin treated K562 cells. The promoter sequence of the raptor gene contains several Sp1 binding sites which may explain its mechanism of action. We hypothesize that the G+C-selective DNA-binding drug mithramycin is able to interact with these sequences and to inhibit the binding of Sp1 to the raptor promoter due to the following results: (a) MTH strongly inhibits the interactions between Sp1 and Sp1-binding sites of the raptor promoter (studied by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, EMSA); (b) MTH strongly reduces the recruitment of Sp1 transcription factor to the raptor promoter in intact K562 cells (studied by chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, ChIP); (c) Sp1 decoy oligonucleotides are able to specifically inhibit raptor mRNA accumulation in K562 cells. In conclusion, raptor gene expression is involved in mithramycin-mediated induction of erythroid differentiation of K562 cells and one of its mechanism of action is the inhibition of Sp1 binding to the raptor promoter.
|Parallel pathways in RAF-induced senescence and conditions for its reversion. |
M Jeanblanc,S Ragu,C Gey,K Contrepois,R Courbeyrette,J-Y Thuret,C Mann
We developed a clonal WI-38hTERT/GFP-RAF1-ER immortal cell line to study RAF-induced senescence of human fibroblasts. Activation of the GFP-RAF1-ER kinase by addition of 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen led to a robust induction of senescence within one population doubling, accompanied by the assembly of heterochromatic foci. At least two pathways contribute in parallel to this senescence leading to the accumulation of p15, p16, p21 and p27 inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CKIs). Cells that traversed S phase after RAF1 kinase activation experienced a replicative stress manifested by phosphorylation of H2AX and Chk2 and synthesis of p21. However, about half the cells in the population were blocked without passing through S phase and did not show activation of DNA-damage checkpoints. When the cells were cultivated in 5% oxygen, RAF1 activation generated minimal reactive oxygen species, but RAF-induced senescence occurred efficiently in these conditions even in the presence of anti-oxidants or inhibitors of DNA checkpoint pathways. Despite the presence of heterochromatic foci, simultaneous knockdown of p16 and p21 with inactivation of the GFP-RAF1-ER kinase led to rapid reversion of the senescent state with the majority of cells becoming competent for long-term proliferation. These results demonstrate that replicative and oxidative stresses are not required for RAF-induced senescence, and this senescence is readily reversed upon loss of CKIs.
|Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57KIP2 in soft tissue sarcomas and Wilms'tumors. |
Orlow, I, et al.
Cancer Res., 56: 1219-21 (1996)
Mammalian cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors fall into two families, the INK4 and the CIP/KIP. The CIP/KIP family comprises three structurally related members, including p21CiP1/WAF1, p27KIP1, and p57KIP2. These proteins are all capable of inhibiting the progression of the cell cycle by binding and inhibiting G(1) cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. In humans, p57KIP2 is expressed specifically in skeletal muscle, heart, brain, kidney, and lung. Human KIP2 resides in 11p15.5, a chromosomal region that is a common site for loss of heterozygosity in certain sarcomas, Wilms' tumors, and tumors associated with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Because of the function, selective expression, and chromosomal location of p57KIP2, we undertook the present study to search for potential mutations of KIP2 in a cohort of 126 tumors composed of 75 soft tissue sarcomas and 51 Wilms' tumors. The KIP2 gene was characterized by Southern blot, comparative multiplex PCR, PCR -single-strand conformational polymorphism, and DNA sequencing assays in these neoplasms. Deletions of the KIP2 gene or point mutations at the region encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitory domain were not found in the tumors analyzed. The absence of KIP2 mutations might indicate that these tumors arise due to defects at a closely linked but separate locus. Alternatively, similarly to the mouse homologue, inactivation of KIP2 could occur via genomic imprinting.
|p57KIP2, a structurally distinct member of the p21CIP1 Cdk inhibitor family, is a candidate tumor suppressor gene. |
Matsuoka, S, et al.
Genes Dev., 9: 650-62 (1995)
Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are positive regulators of cell proliferation, whereas Cdk inhibitors (CKIs) inhibit proliferation. We describe a new CKI, p57KIP2, which is related to p21CIP1 and p27KIP1. p57KIP2 is a potent, tight-binding inhibitor of several G1 cyclin/Cdk complexes, and its binding is cyclin dependent. Unlike CIP1, KIP2 is not regulated by p53. Overexpression of p57KIP2 arrests cells in G1. p57KIP2 proteins have a complex structure. Mouse p57KIP2 consists of four structurally distinct domains: an amino-terminal Cdk inhibitory domain, a proline-rich domain, an acidic-repeat region, and a carboxy-terminal domain conserved with p27KIP1. Human p57KIP2 appears to have conserved the amino- and carboxy-terminal domains but has replaced the internal regions with sequences containing proline-alanine repeats. In situ hybridization during mouse embryogenesis revealed that KIP2 mRNA displays a striking pattern of expression during development, showing high level expression in skeletal muscle, brain, heart, lungs, and eye. Most of the KIP2-expressing cells are terminally differentiated, suggesting that p57KIP2 is involved in decisions to exit the cell cycle during development and differentiation. Human KIP2 is located at 11p15.5, a region implicated in both sporadic cancers and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, a familial cancer syndrome, marking it as a candidate tumor suppressor. The discovery of a new member of the p21CIP1 inhibitor family with novel structural features and expression patterns suggests a complex role for these proteins in cell cycle control and development.