Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, H, M, Rb||WB, IHC, IH(P)||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Keratin K3/K76 Antibody, clone AE5|
|Presentation||The monoclonal was purified by ion exchange chromatography is presented in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.2) containing 0.09% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||For use within 1 month of purchase store at 2°-8°C, for long term storage aliquot antibody into small volumes and store at -20°C for up to one year.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
References | 11 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Results of a phase I/II clinical trial: standardized, non-xenogenic, cultivated limbal stem cell transplantation. |
Zakaria, N; Possemiers, T; Dhubhghaill, SN; Leysen, I; Rozema, J; Koppen, C; Timmermans, JP; Berneman, Z; Tassignon, MJ
Journal of translational medicine 12 58 2014
To determine if a standardized, non-xenogenic, reduced manipulation cultivation and surgical transplantation of limbal stem cell grafts is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with total and partial limbal stem cell deficiency.In vitro cellular outgrowth and phenotype of the limbal epithelial cell and composite grafts were validated using a new protocol. Patients received either autologous (n = 15) or allogenic (n = 3) explants cultured using a standardized protocol free from xenogenic products. The resulting grafts were transplanted using a reduced manipulation surgical technique.The majority of cells (greater than 50%) displayed a progenitor phenotype typified by positive immunofluorescence for ∆Np63, CK14 and ABCG2 and low immunofluorescence for CK3/12 and desmoglein 3 proteins. The surgical protocol was designed to minimize manipulation and the graft itself was secured without sutures. The transplant recipients were followed for a mean of 24 months. Twelve of the 18 transplant recipients were graded as anatomically successful (67%), based on the defined success parameters. There was a significant reduction in corneal neovascularization, which was accompanied by an improvement in pain though not photophobia or central corneal opacity post transplant. The transplantation protocol showed no measureable effect on visual acuity.We conclude that this standardized culture system and surgical approach is safe and effective in reducing corneal neovascularization. The technique is free from animal contaminants and maintains a large proportion of progenitor cells. Although this technique did not improve visual function, restoring a functional epithelial cell layer and reducing corneal neovascularization provides an improved platform for a penetrating keratoplasty to ultimately improve visual function.
|A small molecule inhibitor of SRC family kinases promotes simple epithelial differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. |
Lian, X; Selekman, J; Bao, X; Hsiao, C; Zhu, K; Palecek, SP
PloS one 8 e60016 2013
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provide unprecedented opportunities to study the earliest stages of human development in vitro and have the potential to provide unlimited new sources of cells for regenerative medicine. Although previous studies have reported cytokeratin 14+/p63+ keratinocyte generation from hPSCs, the multipotent progenitors of epithelial lineages have not been described and the developmental pathways regulating epithelial commitment remain largely unknown. Here we report membrane localization of β-catenin during retinoic acid (RA)--induced epithelial differentiation. In addition hPSC treatment with the Src family kinase inhibitor SU6656 modulated β-catenin localization and produced an enriched population of simple epithelial cells under defined culture conditions. SU6656 strongly upregulated expression of cytokeratins 18 and 8 (K18/K8), which are expressed in simple epithelial cells, while repressing expression of the pluripotency gene Oct4. This homogeneous population of K18+K8+Oct4- simple epithelial precursor cells can further differentiate into cells expressing keratinocyte or corneal-specific markers. These enriched hPSC-derived simple epithelial cells may provide a ready source for development and toxicology cell models and may serve as a progenitor for epithelial cell transplantation applications.
|Carrier-free epithelial cell sheets prepared by enzymatic degradation of collagen gel. |
Qicheng Ke,Xiaoran Wang,Qianying Gao,Zheng Wu,Pengxia Wan,Weijiao Zhan,Jian Ge,Zhichong Wang
Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine 5 2011
Limbal stem-cell deficiency by ocular trauma or disease causes corneal opacification and vision loss. Conventional tissue engineering using biodegradable scaffolds has met with limited success. In this study, we developed a novel method for preparing carrier-free epithelial cell sheets, which have potential for use in repairing defects of the ocular surface. Stratified corneal epithelial cell sheets were prepared in culture dishes coated with biodegradable type I collagen. Haematoxylin and eosin staining, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry were performed to characterize the cell sheets. Then, carrier-free epithelial sheets were successfully engineered using specific collagenase to degrade the collagen gel. Cell sheets of four to six cell layers after culture for 14 days were similar to natural rabbit corneal epithelia, as shown by pathological examination. Microvillus, tight cell-cell junctions and desmosome junctions were observed via electron microscopy. K3 and basement membrane components, such as type IV collagen and laminin, were expressed in the cells sheets and integrin β1 was maintained in basal cells. This novel method of using collagenase to degrade collagen gel is both simple and effective in preparing intact carrier-free epithelial cell sheets. Such sheets have great potential for application during in vivo corneal regeneration.
|Isolation, culture, characterization and optimization of human corneal stem cells. |
Sharifi, AM; Darabi, R; Jadidi, K
Biocell : official journal of the Sociedades Latinoamericanas de Microscopía Electronica ... et. al 34 53-5 2010
The effects of human versus mouse EGF on cell growth and culture duration were studied to optimize a human limbal stem cells culture method for therapeutical autologous transplantation. Limbal cells were obtained by trypsin digestion and transferred to a culture medium. The time needed to reach full confluence in culture was determined. Specific antibodies to corneal stem cell marker (P63) versus corneal epithelial differentiation marker (K3) were used for histochemical determinations. A high proportion of P63 positive cells (85 +/- 4.6%), and a correspondingly low proportion K3 positive cells (15 +/- 3.8%) indicated that most cultured cells remained undifferentiated and were considered as stem cells (mean +/- SE, n=10). Cultures reached full confluency after 17.3 +/- 1.2 days when the medium was supplemented with human EGF, while 21.7 +/- 1.5 days were needed when the medium was supplemented with mouse EGF. The results showed that limbal stem cells proliferate more easily and reach to full confluency in a shorter time if the medium is supplemented with hEGF rather than with mEGF.
|A biomimetic scaffold for culturing limbal stem cells: a promising alternative for clinical transplantation. |
Subhadra Dravida, Subhash Gaddipati, May Griffith, Kim Merrett, Soundarya Lakshmi Madhira, Virender S Sangwan, Geeta K Vemuganti, Subhadra Dravida, Subhash Gaddipati, May Griffith, Kim Merrett, Soundarya Lakshmi Madhira, Virender S Sangwan, Geeta K Vemuganti
Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine 2 263-71 2008
Limbal tissues can be cultured on various types of scaffolds to create a sheet of limbal-corneal epithelium for research as well as clinical transplantation. An optically clear, biocompatible, biomimetic scaffold would be an ideal replacement graft for transplanting limbal stem cells. In this study, we evaluated the physical and culture characteristics of the recombinant human cross-linked collagen scaffold (RHC-III scaffold) and compared it with denuded human amniotic membrane (HAM). Optical/mechanical properties and microbial susceptibility were measured for the scaffolds. With the approval of the institutional review board, 2 mm fresh human limbal tissues were cultured on 2.5 x 2.5 cm(2) scaffolds in a medium containing autologous serum in a feeder cell-free submerged system. The cultured cell systems were characterized by morphology and immunohistochemistry for putative stem cells and differentiated cell markers. The refractive index (RI) and tensile strength of the RHC-III scaffold were comparable to human cornea, with delayed in vitro degradation compared to HAM. RHC-III scaffolds were 10-fold less susceptible to microbial growth. Cultures were initiated on day 1, expanded to form a monolayer by day 3 and covered the entire growth surface in 10 days. Stratified epithelium on the scaffolds was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The cultured cells showed p63 and ABCG2 positivity in the basal layer and were immunoreactive for cytokeratin K3 and K12 in the suprabasal layers. RHC-III scaffold supports and retains the growth and stemness of limbal stem cells, in addition to resembling human cornea; thus, it could be a good replacement scaffold for growing cells for clinical transplantation.
|Intrastromal invasion by limbal epithelial cells is mediated by epithelial-mesenchymal transition activated by air exposure. |
Kawakita, T; Espana, EM; He, H; Li, W; Liu, CY; Tseng, SC
The American journal of pathology 167 381-93 2005
Corneal epithelial stem cells are located in the basal layer of the limbus between the cornea and the conjunctiva. Regulation of these limbal epithelial progenitor cells by the stromal niche dictates corneal surface health. To further characterize this process, limbal explants were cultured at the air-fluid interface, termed air-lifting, to stimulate the niche. As compared to submerged cultures, air-lifting significantly promoted epithelial stratification, migration, proliferation, and intrastromal invasion by limbal epithelial cells. Epithelial intrastromal invasion was noted when the limbal, but not corneal, epithelium was recombined with the limbal stroma containing live, but not dead, cells. Invading limbal basal cells displayed up-regulated nuclear expression of p63 and Ki67, down-regulated E-cadherin and cornea-specific keratin 3, and switched expression of beta-catenin from intercellular junctions to the nucleus and cytoplasm, indicating the activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Invaded cells isolated by collagenase from the stroma of air-lifted, but not submerged, explants showed vivid clonal growth on 3T3 fibroblast feeder layers and complete epithelial-mesenchymal transition by expressing nuclear p63 and cytoplasmic S100A4. These findings collectively suggest that epithelial-mesenchymal transition via the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway influences the fate of limbal epithelial cells, likely to be progenitor cells, between regeneration and fibrosis when the stromal niche is activated.
|Propagation and phenotypic preservation of rabbit limbal epithelial cells on amniotic membrane. |
Wang, DY; Hsueh, YJ; Yang, VC; Chen, JK
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 44 4698-704 2003
To describe the phenotypic characteristics of a limbal epithelial cell sheet outgrowth from a limbal explant cultured on amniotic membrane.Immunofluorescent staining and confocal microscopy were used to examine the expressions of p63, Ki-67, keratins 3 and 14, connexin 43, and the integrin alpha6/beta4 and alpha3/beta1 subunits in corneal and limbal tissues in a limbal explant and epithelial outgrowth cultured for 2 weeks on amniotic membrane.The expression patterns of p63, Ki-67, keratins, integrins, and connexin 43 in a limbal explant with an epithelial outgrowth cultured for 2 weeks on amniotic membrane resembled those in freshly prepared limbus. Moreover, the distribution of integrin subunits in positive cells of the limbal explant and its epithelial outgrowth was similar to that of the corneal epithelial cells during wound repair.The epithelial cell sheet grown from a limbal explant on amniotic membrane exhibited a phenotype similar to that of the limbus, suggesting that amniotic membrane is a substrate capable of supporting the propagation and preservation of p63-positive limbal epithelial cells.
|Monoclonal antibody analysis of bovine epithelial keratins. Specific pairs as defined by coexpression. |
Cooper, D; Sun, TT
The Journal of biological chemistry 261 4646-54 1986
We have characterized the keratin proteins of various bovine epithelial tissues by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, coupled with the immunoblot technique using AE1, AE2, AE3, AE5, CA20, BE14, and 6.11 monoclonal antikeratin antibodies. The results indicate that all known bovine keratins can be divided into two subfamilies. The "acidic" (Type I) subfamily consists of 41-, 43-, 45-, 46-, 50-, 54-, 56-, and 56.5-kDa keratins, all of which have a pI of less than 5.6, and most of them are recognized by our AE1 antibody, whereas the "neutral-to-basic" (Type II) subfamily consists of 55-, 57-, 58-, 62-65-, 66-, and 67-kDa keratins, all of which have a pI of greater than 6.0 and are recognized by our AE3 antibody. Tissue distribution data and cell culture studies show that, within the two subfamilies, keratins with similar "size ranks" form a "pair" as defined by frequent co-expression. Furthermore, within most "keratin pairs," the basic keratin is larger than the acidic one by 8-10 kDa. These results provide further support for the concepts of "keratin subfamilies" and keratin pairs and are consistent with the possibility that the acidic and basic members of at least some keratin pairs may interact specifically during in vivo tonofilament assembly and/or function. Immunoblotting data derived from the use of several monospecific antibodies show that although the size, charge, and pattern of expression of most bovine keratins are similar to those of the human counterparts, there are important exceptions to this rule.
|Differentiation-related expression of a major 64K corneal keratin in vivo and in culture suggests limbal location of corneal epithelial stem cells. |
Schermer, A; Galvin, S; Sun, TT
The Journal of cell biology 103 49-62 1986
In this paper we present keratin expression data that lend strong support to a model of corneal epithelial maturation in which the stem cells are located in the limbus, the transitional zone between cornea and conjunctiva. Using a new monoclonal antibody, AE5, which is highly specific for a 64,000-mol-wt corneal keratin, designated RK3, we demonstrate that this keratin is localized in all cell layers of rabbit corneal epithelium, but only in the suprabasal layers of the limbal epithelium. Analysis of cultured corneal keratinocytes showed that they express sequentially three major keratin pairs. Early cultures consisting of a monolayer of "basal" cells express mainly the 50/58K keratins, exponentially growing cells synthesize additional 48/56K keratins, and postconfluent, heavily stratified cultures begin to express the 55/64K corneal keratins. Cell separation experiments showed that basal cells isolated from postconfluent cultures contain predominantly the 50/58K pair, whereas suprabasal cells contain additional 55/64K and 48/56K pairs. Basal cells of the older, postconfluent cultures, however, can become AE5 positive, indicating that suprabasal location is not a prerequisite for the expression of the 64K keratin. Taken together, these results suggest that the acidic 55K and basic 64K keratins represent markers for an advanced stage of corneal epithelial differentiation. The fact that epithelial basal cells of central cornea but not those of the limbus possess the 64K keratin therefore indicates that corneal basal cells are in a more differentiated state than limbal basal cells. These findings, coupled with the known centripetal migration of corneal epithelial cells, strongly suggest that corneal epithelial stem cells are located in the limbus, and that corneal basal cells correspond to "transient amplifying cells" in the scheme of "stem cells----transient amplifying cells----terminally differentiated cells."
|Monoclonal antibody analysis of bovine epithelial keratins. Specific pairs as defined by coexpression. |
Cooper, D and Sun, T T
J. Biol. Chem., 261: 4646-54 (1986) 1986
|Immunofluorescent staining of keratin fibers in cultured cells |
Sun, T-T and Green, H.
Cell, 14:469-476 (1978) 1978
|Anti-Keratin K3/K67, clone AE5 - Data Sheet|