Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M||ELISA, IP, WB, IHC, NEUT||R||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Interferon-γ Antibody, clone RMMG-1|
|Presentation||Purified immunoglobulin. Liquid in PBS containing 0.1% bovine serum albumin.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||500 µg|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|PTPIP51 in protein interactions: regulation and in situ interacting partners. |
Alexander Brobeil,Manuel Bobrich,Claudia Tag,Monika Wimmer
Cell biochemistry and biophysics 63 2012
This study investigated the regulation of 14-3-3β binding to PTPIP51 by the tyrosine phosphorylation status of PTPIP51. The tyrosine 176 residue is phosphorylated by c-Src. Up to now, nothing is known about the impact of such well-established phosphorylation events on the interaction profile of PTPIP51 with its partners of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In human keratinocytes the PTPIP51 phosphorylation was varied by inhibiting the phosphatase activity, thus enhancing the phosphorylation of PTPIP51. Differential blocking of Src kinase family members (despite c-Src) by PP2 increased the activity of c-Src and the tyrosine phosphorylation of PTPIP51 at position 176, which is the substrate of c-Src kinase. The amount of PTPIP51 interactions with 14-3-3β, Raf-1, PTP1B and c-Src was evaluated and the resulting data were compared to an untreated control group. The increased phosphorylation level resulted in a sharp drop of the 14-3-3β/PTPIP51 and 14-3-3β/Raf-1 interaction. Besides the 14-3-3 interaction of PTPIP51, the interaction with the two MAPK modulators, protein kinase A (PKA) and diacylglycerol kinase alpha (DAGKα), are also regulated by the tyrosine phosphorylation status of PTPIP51. Additional immunostaining experiments were done investigating the functional implication on these interactions of the phosphorylation in apoptotic processes. In the pervanadate- and PP2-treated HaCaT cells, higher amounts of apoptotic cells were not detected as compared to the control group. The presented data confirms a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent interaction of PTPIP51 with 14-3-3β and Raf-1 in vivo and a tyrosine-dependent interaction profile with DAGKα and PKA. The non-interaction of PTPIP51 with 14-3-3 is not sufficient for triggering apoptosis.
|Interferon-gamma induced adipose tissue inflammation is linked to endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice. |
Zhang, H; Potter, BJ; Cao, JM; Zhang, C
Basic research in cardiology 106 1135-45 2011
Interferon-gamma (IFNγ) has previously been associated with immuno-mediated inflammation in diet-induced obesity and type 1 diabetes. This study sought to define the role of IFNγ-induced adipose tissue inflammation in endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. We examined mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) inflammation, and endothelial function of small mesenteric artery (SMA) in control mice (m Lepr(db)), diabetic mice (Lepr(db)), m Lepr(db) treated with IFNγ, and Lepr(db) treated with anti-IFNγ or anti-monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (anti-MCP-1). mRNA and protein expression of IFNγ and MCP-1 were increased in MAT of Lepr(db), accompanied by increased T-lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration. Anti-IFNγ reduced MAT inflammatory cell infiltration and inflammatory cytokine expression in Lepr(db), while IFNγ treatment showed the opposite effects in m Lepr(db). Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation of SMA was impaired in Lepr(db) versus m Lepr(db), but sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced vasorelaxation was comparable. Both anti-IFNγ and anti-MCP-1 improved endothelial function of Lepr(db), while IFNγ treatment impaired endothelial function of m Lepr(db). Superoxide production was higher in both MAT and SMA of Lepr(db) mice, and anti-IFNγ reduced MAT and SMA superoxide production. Macrophage accumulation in the adventitia of SMA, and mRNA expression of MCP-1 in SMA were increased in Lepr(db) and IFNγ-treated m Lepr(db), but reduced in anti-IFNγ treated Lepr(db). These findings suggest IFNγ has a key role in the regulation of visceral adipose tissue inflammatory response and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.
|SASP mediates chemoresistance and tumor-initiating-activity of mesothelioma cells. |
Canino, C, et al.
Oncogene, (2011) 2011
Here we show that pemetrexed-treated mesothelioma cells undergo accelerated senescence. This is characterized by the secretion of proinflammatory and mitogenic cytokines, reminiscent of an SASP (senescence-associated secretory phenotype). Conditioned media from senescent MPM (malignant pleural mesothelioma) cells trigger the emergence of EMT (epithelial-to-mesenchymal)-like, clonogenic and chemoresistant cell subpopulations, expressing high levels of ALDH (aldehyde dehydrogenase) activity (ALDH(bright) cells). We show by fluorescence-activated cell sorting of purified ALDH(bright) and ALDH(low) cells, that both cell-autonomous and cell-non-autonomous mechanisms converge to maintain the SASP-induced, EMT-like cell subpopulations. Chemoresistant ALDH(bright) cells exist within primary MPM specimens and enrichment for ALDH(bright) cells correlates with an earlier tumor onset into NOD/SCID mice. We show that RAS(v12) expression induces SASP-like changes in untransformed human mesothelial cells, and that p53 ablation increases the effect of RAS(v12) expression. We identify STAT3 activation as a crucial event downstream to SASP signaling. In fact, small hairpin RNA-mediated ablation of STAT3 deeply attenuates the induction of EMT genes and the increase of ALDH(bright) cells induced by SASP-cytokines. This strongly affects the chemoresistance of MPM cells in vitro and leads to anticancer effects in vivo.Oncogene advance online publication, 24 October 2011; doi:10.1038/onc.2011.485.
|PTPIP51 is phosphorylated by Lyn and c-Src kinases lacking dephosphorylation by PTP1B in acute myeloid leukemia. |
Alexander Brobeil,Manuel Bobrich,Michaela Graf,Anke Kruchten,Wolfgang Blau,Mathias Rummel,Sabine Oeschger,Klaus Steger,Monika Wimmer
Leukemia research 35 2011
Protein tyrosine phosphatase interacting protein 51 (PTPIP51) is known to be expressed in blood cells with restriction to the myeloid lineage. All myeloid progenitor cells are PTPIP51 positive except for the myeloblasts. To define the expression of PTPIP51 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we performed immunohistochemical experiments with peptide specific antibodies (C-terminus, N-terminus and aas 114-129) to PTPIP51 with samples of AML bone marrow trephine biopsy specimens. AML blasts reacted positive for PTPIP51 protein encompassing the C-terminal sequence. Healthy bone marrow displayed an exclusive staining for the N-terminal containing form of PTPIP51. Moreover, PTPIP51 protein was highly phosphorylated at its tyrosine 176 residue. Acquired confocal images of AML cells displayed an absence of PTP1B and revealed a co-localization of PTPIP51 and Lyn. Duolink proximity ligation assays (DPLA) corroborated an interaction for PTPIP51 with Lyn and c-Src. In AML blasts rarely an interaction of PTPIP51 with PTP1B and Raf-1 was seen. Furthermore, DPLA signals were also obtained for PTPIP51 and c-Kit in AML cells. Therefore, PTPIP51 was identified as a new signal molecule of the c-Kit signaling pathway. By the phosphorylation done by Lyn, c-Src and c-Kit, PTPIP51 is prevented to influence mitogen activated protein kinase pathway on Raf-1 level contributing to increased proliferation of AML cells.
|PTPIP51-a myeloid lineage specific protein interacts with PTP1B in neutrophil granulocytes. |
Alexander Brobeil,Michaela Graf,Sabine Oeschger,Klaus Steger,Monika Wimmer
Blood cells, molecules & diseases 45 2010
Protein tyrosine phosphatase interacting protein 51 (PTPIP51) was identified as an in vitro interacting partner of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP). The full-length form of PTPIP51 encompasses 470aas and has a molecular weight of 52kDa. The physiological function is poorly understood but an involvement in differentiation processes and apoptosis has been suggested. Preliminary observations suggested differences in PTPIP51 expression in blood cells. To analyze a possible involvement of PTPIP51 in hematopoietic processes, we studied its expression in samples of peripheral venous blood (PVB), umbilical cord blood (UCB) and human bone marrow (HBM). In both, PVB and UCB PTPIP51 expression was restricted to neutrophil granulocytes. In HBM samples, besides in mature neutrophil ganulocytes PTPIP51 protein and mRNA was present in myeloid precursor cells of neutrophils. The expression of PTPIP51 in neutrophil granulocytes was corroborated by immunoblot analysis exhibiting different molecular weight forms of PTPIP51 protein. Anti-peptide antibodies, identifying specific regions of the PTPIP51 protein (C-terminus, N-terminus and aas114-129) revealed a distinct isoform expression pattern in neutrophil granulocytes of different sources. In PVB and UCB neutrophil granulocytes reacted positive for all three peptide antibodies. In contrast, neutrophils of HBM express solely an N-terminal variant of PTPIP51 protein, lacking the C-terminal and aas114-129 sequence. Immunocytochemical results displayed a strict co-localization of PTPIP51 and PTP1B in PVB and UCB. The interaction of both proteins was verified by a proximity ligation assay. Neither proliferating cells, as identified by PCNA immunostaining, nor apoptotic cells, labeled by TUNEL assay, displayed an immunoreactivity for PTPIP51 in HBM. In fact, PTPIP51 expression was restricted to myeloid precursor cells undergoing differentiation. In blood cells therefore, PTPIP51 expression is restricted to differentiating and mature neutrophil granulocytes.
|Influence of local environment on the differentiation of neural stem cells engrafted onto the injured spinal cord. |
Lucia Ricci-Vitiani, Patrizia Casalbore, Giovanna Petrucci, Liverana Lauretti, Nicola Montano, Luigi Maria Larocca, Maria Laura Falchetti, Dario Giuseppe Lombardi, Valeria Di Giorgio Gerevini, Carlo Cenciarelli,
Neurological research 28 488-92 2006
OBJECTIVES: In vitro, neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferate as undifferentiated spheroids and differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. These features make NSCs suitable for spinal cord (SC) reconstruction. However, in vivo experiments have demonstrated that in the injured SC transplanted NSCs either remain undifferentiated or differentiate into the astrocytic phenotype. The microenvironment of the injured SC is believed to play a crucial role in driving the differentiation of the engrafted NSCs. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inflammatory cytokines (ICs) may be involved in the restricted differentiation of NSCs after grafting onto the injured SC. METHODS: As the first step, we used immunohistochemistry to analyse the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and interferon (IFN)-gamma in the normal SC of mice and following traumatic injury. Then, we investigated whether a combination of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IFN-gamma may affect the phenotype of murine NSCs in vitro. RESULTS: We found that TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IFN-gamma, which are absent in the normal SC, are all expressed in the injured SC and the expression of these cytokines follows a timely tuned fashion with IFN-gamma being detectable as long as 4 weeks after injury. In culture, exposure of proliferating NSCs to a combination of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IFN-gamma was per se sufficient to induce the astrocytic differentiation of these cells even in the absence of serum. CONCLUSIONS: In the traumatically injured SC, differentiation of engrafted NSCs is restricted towards the astrocytic lineage because of the inflammatory environment. ICs are likely to play a major role in differentiation of NSCs in the in vivo conditions.
|Lethal cutaneous disease in transgenic mice conditionally expressing type I human T cell leukemia virus Tax. |
Kwon, H; Ogle, L; Benitez, B; Bohuslav, J; Montano, M; Felsher, DW; Greene, WC
The Journal of biological chemistry 280 35713-22 2005
Type I human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I) is etiologically linked with adult T cell leukemia, an aggressive and usually fatal expansion of activated CD4+ T lymphocytes that frequently traffic to skin. T cell transformation induced by HTLV-I involves the action of the 40-kDa viral Tax transactivator protein. Tax both stimulates the HTLV-I long terminal repeat and deregulates the expression of select cellular genes by altering the activity of specific host transcription factors, including cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor, NF-kappaB/Rel, and serum response factor. To study initiating events involved in HTLV-I Tax-induced T cell transformation, we generated "Tet-off" transgenic mice conditionally expressing in a lymphocyte-restricted manner (EmuSR alpha promoter-enhancer) either wild-type Tax or mutant forms of Tax that selectively compromise the NF-kappaB (M22) or CREB/activating transcription factor (M47) activation pathways. Wild-type Tax and M47 Tax-expressing mice, but not M22-Tax expressing mice, developed progressive alopecia, hyperkeratosis, and skin lesions containing profuse activated CD4 T cell infiltrates with evidence of deregulated inflammatory cytokine production. In addition, these animals displayed systemic lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. These findings suggest that Tax-mediated activation of NF-kappaB plays a key role in the development of this aggressive skin disease that shares several features in common with the skin disease occurring during the preleukemic stage in HTLV-I-infected patients. Of note, this skin disease completely resolved when Tax transgene expression was suppressed by administration of doxycycline, emphasizing the key role played by this viral oncoprotein in the observed pathology.
|The effects of a nonimmunogenic form of murine soluble interferon-gamma receptor on the development of autoimmune diabetes in the NOD mouse. |
Nicoletti, F, et al.
Endocrinology, 137: 5567-75 (1996) 1996
Previous studies have shown that in vivo treatment with antiinterferon-gamma (anti-IFNgamma) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) prevents the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Although these findings anticipate that specific anti-IFNgamma therapies may be useful for the prevention/treatment of human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, there are several reasons why the use of anti-IFNgamma mAb may be difficult in the clinical setting. With the aim to develop alternative forms of specific anti-IFNgamma therapies, we recently produced a nonimmunogenic form of the soluble IFNgamma receptor (sIFNgammaR) that binds and neutralizes murine IFNgamma with an affinity higher than that of anti-IFNgamma mAb. In this study we compared the efficacy of sIFNgammaR to that of two anti-IFNgamma mAbs (XMG 1.2 and AN-18) in the prevention of spontaneous and accelerated (cyclophosphamide-induced) forms of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. The results show that in the spontaneous model, sIFNgammaR could prevent histological and clinical signs of autoimmune diabetes as efficiently as the two mAbs. Under ex vivo conditions, sIFNgammaR exhibited a more powerful modulatory effect than XMG 1.2 mAb on cytokine secretion from splenic lymphoid cells, which resulted in a significant reduction of Concanavalin A-induced IL-2 secretion and an augmented release of both unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6. Moreover, although both mAbs were immunogenic and elicited formation of high titers of anti-rat IgG, sIFNgammaR did not induce antibody formation. Unexpectedly, in the cyclophosphamide-induced model, sIFNgammaR turned out to be less effective than either of the two anti-IFNgamma mAbs. Taken together, these data support the role of IFNgamma in the pathogenesis of NOD mice, but, more importantly, suggest that a nonimmunogenic approach is possible to the diminution of the effects of IFNgamma in this model.
|Anti-Interferon-gamma, clone RMMG-1 - Data Sheet|