Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||FC, IP, IHC, FUNC||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Interferon-α/β Receptor Chain 2 Antibody, clone MMHAR-2|
|Presentation||Purified immunoglobulin. Liquid in PBS containing 0.1% bovine serum albumin (BSA).|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 µg|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Targeting interferon response genes sensitizes aromatase inhibitor resistant breast cancer cells to estrogen-induced cell death. |
Choi, HJ; Lui, A; Ogony, J; Jan, R; Sims, PJ; Lewis-Wambi, J
Breast cancer research : BCR 17 6 2015
Estrogen deprivation using aromatase inhibitors (AIs) is currently the standard of care for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Unfortunately, the majority of patients treated with AIs eventually develop resistance, inevitably resulting in patient relapse and, ultimately, death. The mechanism by which resistance occurs is still not completely known, however, recent studies suggest that impaired/defective interferon signaling might play a role. In the present study, we assessed the functional role of IFITM1 and PLSCR1; two well-known interferon response genes in AI resistance.Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses were used to assess mRNA and protein levels of IFITM1, PLSCR1, STAT1, STAT2, and IRF-7 in AI-resistant MCF-7:5C breast cancer cells and AI-sensitive MCF-7 and T47D cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was performed on tissue microarrays consisting of normal breast tissues, primary breast tumors, and AI-resistant recurrence tumors. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantitate intracellular IFNα level. Neutralizing antibody was used to block type 1 interferon receptor IFNAR1 signaling. Small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown IFITM1, PLSCR1, STAT1, STAT2, IRF-7, and IFNα expression.We found that IFITM1 and PLSCR1 were constitutively overexpressed in AI-resistant MCF-7:5C breast cancer cells and AI-resistant tumors and that siRNA knockdown of IFITM1 significantly inhibited the ability of the resistant cells to proliferate, migrate, and invade. Interestingly, suppression of IFITM1 significantly enhanced estradiol-induced cell death in AI-resistant MCF-7:5C cells and markedly increased expression of p21, Bax, and Noxa in these cells. Significantly elevated level of IFNα was detected in AI-resistant MCF-7:5C cells compared to parental MCF-7 cells and suppression of IFNα dramatically reduced IFITM1, PLSCR1, p-STAT1, and p-STAT2 expression in the resistant cells. Lastly, neutralizing antibody against IFNAR1/2 and knockdown of STAT1/STAT2 completely suppressed IFITM1, PLSCR1, p-STAT1, and p-STAT2 expression in the resistant cells, thus confirming the involvement of the canonical IFNα signaling pathway in driving the overexpression of IFITM1 and other interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in the resistant cells.Overall, these results demonstrate that constitutive overexpression of ISGs enhances the progression of AI-resistant breast cancer and that suppression of IFITM1 and other ISGs sensitizes AI-resistant cells to estrogen-induced cell death.
|Positive role of promyelocytic leukemia protein in type I interferon response and its regulation by human cytomegalovirus. |
Kim, YE; Ahn, JH
PLoS pathogens 11 e1004785 2015
Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), a major component of PML nuclear bodies (also known as nuclear domain 10), is involved in diverse cellular processes such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, gene regulation, and DNA damage response. PML also acts as a restriction factor that suppresses incoming viral genomes, therefore playing an important role in intrinsic defense. Here, we show that PML positively regulates type I interferon response by promoting transcription of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and that this regulation by PML is counteracted by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IE1 protein. Small hairpin RNA-mediated PML knockdown in human fibroblasts reduced ISG induction by treatment of interferon-β or infection with UV-inactivated HCMV. PML was required for accumulation of activated STAT1 and STAT2, interacted with them and HDAC1 and HDAC2, and was associated with ISG promoters after HCMV infection. During HCMV infection, viral IE1 protein interacted with PML, STAT1, STAT2, and HDACs. Analysis of IE1 mutant viruses revealed that, in addition to the STAT2-binding domain, the PML-binding domain of IE1 was necessary for suppression of interferon-β-mediated ISG transcription, and that IE1 inhibited ISG transcription by sequestering interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) in a manner requiring its binding of PML and STAT2, but not of HDACs. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PML participates in type I interferon-induced ISG expression by regulating ISGF3, and that this regulation by PML is counteracted by HCMV IE1, highlighting a widely shared viral strategy targeting PML to evade intrinsic and innate defense mechanisms.
|Chlamydia trachomatis-infected epithelial cells and fibroblasts retain the ability to express surface-presented major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. |
Kägebein, D; Gutjahr, M; Große, C; Vogel, AB; Rödel, J; Knittler, MR
Infection and immunity 82 993-1006 2014
The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of a variety of infectious diseases such as trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. In infected target cells, C. trachomatis replicates within parasitophorous vacuoles and expresses the protease-like activity factor CPAF. Previous studies have suggested that CPAF degrades the host transcription factors RFX5 and NF-κB p65, which are involved in the regulation of constitutive and inducible expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I). It was speculated that Chlamydia suppresses the surface presentation of MHC I in order to evade an effective immune response. Nevertheless, a recent study suggested that RFX5 and NF-κB p65 may not serve as target substrates for CPAF-mediated degradation, raising concerns about the proposed MHC I subversion by Chlamydia. Hence, we investigated the direct influence of Chlamydia on MHC I expression and surface presentation in infected host cells. By using nine different human cells and cell lines infected with C. trachomatis (serovar D or LGV2), we demonstrate that chlamydial infection does not interfere with expression, maturation, transport, and surface presentation of MHC I, suggesting functional antigen processing in bacterium-infected cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the interaction of chlamydiae with their host cells and should be taken into consideration for the design of future therapies and vaccines.
|Gardiquimod: a Toll-like receptor-7 agonist that inhibits HIV type 1 infection of human macrophages and activated T cells. |
Buitendijk, M; Eszterhas, SK; Howell, AL
AIDS research and human retroviruses 29 907-18 2013
Immune response modifiers are being studied as therapeutic agents for viral infections and cancer. These molecules include agonists for the Toll-like receptors (TLR), a family of innate immune receptors. TLR7 and 8, located in cellular endosomes, bind single-stranded RNA characteristic of viral genomes, and trigger intracellular signaling pathways that induce inflammatory cytokines and antiviral innate immune factors. We studied the anti-HIV-1 effects of gardiquimod, a specific TLR7 agonist when used at concentrations below 10 μM, in macrophages and activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Gardiquimod, added prior to or within 2 days after infection with X4, R5, or dual-tropic (R5/X4) strains of HIV-1, significantly reduced infection in these cells. Cocultures of activated PBMCs added to gardiquimod-treated and HIV-1-exposed macrophages demonstrated minimal HIV-1 replication for up to 10 days, suggesting that gardiquimod inhibited activated PBMCs viral amplification from HIV-1-exposed macrophages. Gardiquimod treatment of both activated PBMCs and macrophages induced interferon-alpha (IFN-α) transcription within hours of addition, and sustained IFN-α protein secretion for several days. Treatment of cells with a peptide inhibitor to the MyD88 adaptor protein blocked the induction of IFN-α by gardiquimod, and partially reversed the anti-HIV effects in activated PBMCs. Blocking the IFN-α receptor with a neutralizing antibody also reduced the anti-HIV effect of gardiquimod. Gardiquimod inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, an early step in the life cycle of HIV-1. These findings suggest that gardiquimod, functioning as both an immune system modifier and a reverse transcriptase inhibitor, could be developed as a novel therapeutic agent to block systemic and mucosal transmission of HIV-1.
|Identification of a novel subunit of the type I interferon receptor localized to human chromosome 21. |
Colamonici, O R and Domanski, P
J. Biol. Chem., 268: 10895-9 (1993) 1993
Expression in mouse cells of the cloned human IFN alpha receptor (IFN alpha R) subunit selectively confers response and binding to human IFN alpha 8, indicating that other subunits are involved in IFN alpha binding. We report here that a new monoclonal antibody (mAb), termed IFNaR beta 1, recognizes a novel IFN alpha R subunit different from the one recently cloned and distinct from the alpha subunit recognized by the IFN alpha R3 mAb. The IFNaR beta 1 mAb blocks the biological effect of seven different Type I IFNs. Immunoprecipitations after cell surface iodination demonstrate that the IFNaR beta 1 mAb recognizes a protein with a molecular mass of 100 kDa in Daudi and U-266 cells that express normal IFN alpha R. However, a 55-kDa protein instead of the 100-kDa product was immunoprecipitated in the IFN alpha-resistant U-937 cell line that express the variant form of the receptor. We also demonstrate that the gene that codes for this novel IFN alpha R subunit maps to human chromosome 21, as do the cloned IFN alpha R subunit and the alpha subunit, indicating the existence of a locus on this chromosome that regulates binding for Type I IFNs.
|MOUSE ANTI-HUMAN INTERFERON ALPHA/BETA RECEPTOR CHAIN 2 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY|