|Neuropilin-1/GIPC1 signaling regulates alpha5beta1 integrin traffic and function in endothelial cells. |
Valdembri, D; Caswell, PT; Anderson, KI; Schwarz, JP; König, I; Astanina, E; Caccavari, F; Norman, JC; Humphries, MJ; Bussolino, F; Serini, G
Neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) is a coreceptor for vascular endothelial growth factor A165 (VEGF-A165, VEGF-A164 in mice) and semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A). Nevertheless, Nrp1 null embryos display vascular defects that differ from those of mice lacking either VEGF-A164 or Sema3A proteins. Furthermore, it has been recently reported that Nrp1 is required for endothelial cell (EC) response to both VEGF-A165 and VEGF-A121 isoforms, the latter being incapable of binding Nrp1 on the EC surface. Taken together, these data suggest that the vascular phenotype caused by the loss of Nrp1 could be due to a VEGF-A164/SEMA3A-independent function of Nrp1 in ECs, such as adhesion to the extracellular matrix. By using RNA interference and rescue with wild-type and mutant constructs, we show here that Nrp1 through its cytoplasmic SEA motif and independently of VEGF-A165 and SEMA3A specifically promotes alpha5beta1-integrin-mediated EC adhesion to fibronectin that is crucial for vascular development. We provide evidence that Nrp1, while not directly mediating cell spreading on fibronectin, interacts with alpha5beta1 at adhesion sites. Binding of the homomultimeric endocytic adaptor GAIP interacting protein C terminus, member 1 (GIPC1), to the SEA motif of Nrp1 selectively stimulates the internalization of active alpha5beta1 in Rab5-positive early endosomes. Accordingly, GIPC1, which also interacts with alpha5beta1, and the associated motor myosin VI (Myo6) support active alpha5beta1 endocytosis and EC adhesion to fibronectin. In conclusion, we propose that Nrp1, in addition to and independently of its role as coreceptor for VEGF-A165 and SEMA3A, stimulates through its cytoplasmic domain the spreading of ECs on fibronectin by increasing the Rab5/GIPC1/Myo6-dependent internalization of active alpha5beta1. Nrp1 modulation of alpha5beta1 integrin function can play a causal role in the generation of angiogenesis defects observed in Nrp1 null mice.
|A specific alpha5beta1-integrin conformation promotes directional integrin translocation and fibronectin matrix formation. |
Clark, Katherine, et al.
J. Cell. Sci., 118: 291-300 (2005)
Integrin adhesion receptors are structurally dynamic proteins that adopt a number of functionally relevant conformations. We have produced a conformation-dependent anti-alpha5 monoclonal antibody (SNAKA51) that converts alpha5beta1 integrin into a ligand-competent form and promotes fibronectin binding. In adherent fibroblasts, SNAKA51 preferentially bound to integrins in fibrillar adhesions. Clustering of integrins expressing this activation epitope induced directional translocation of alpha5beta1, mimicking fibrillar adhesion formation. Priming of alpha5beta1 integrin by SNAKA51 increased the accumulation of detergent-resistant fibronectin in the extracellular matrix, thus identifying an integrin conformation that promotes matrix assembly. The SNAKA51 epitope was mapped to the calf-1/calf-2 domains. We propose that the action of the antibody causes the legs of the integrin to change conformation and thereby primes the integrin to bind ligand. These findings identify SNAKA51 as the first anti-integrin antibody to selectively recognize a subset of adhesion contacts, and they identify an integrin conformation associated with integrin translocation and fibronectin matrix formation.