Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||ELISA, FC, ICC, IHC, IP, FUNC||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified immunoglobulin in 0.02M PB, 0.25M NaCl, pH 7.6, 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
References | 30 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Substrate stress relaxation regulates cell spreading. |
Chaudhuri, O; Gu, L; Darnell, M; Klumpers, D; Bencherif, SA; Weaver, JC; Huebsch, N; Mooney, DJ
Nature communications 6 6364 2015
Studies of cellular mechanotransduction have converged upon the idea that cells sense extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity by gauging resistance to the traction forces they exert on the ECM. However, these studies typically utilize purely elastic materials as substrates, whereas physiological ECMs are viscoelastic, and exhibit stress relaxation, so that cellular traction forces exerted by cells remodel the ECM. Here we investigate the influence of ECM stress relaxation on cell behaviour through computational modelling and cellular experiments. Surprisingly, both our computational model and experiments find that spreading for cells cultured on soft substrates that exhibit stress relaxation is greater than cells spreading on elastic substrates of the same modulus, but similar to that of cells spreading on stiffer elastic substrates. These findings challenge the current view of how cells sense and respond to the ECM.
|Exogenous IGFBP-2 promotes proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance to temozolomide in glioma cells via the integrin β1-ERK pathway. |
Han, S; Li, Z; Master, LM; Master, ZW; Wu, A
British journal of cancer 111 1400-9 2014
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) is significantly increased in the serum of patients with malignant gliomas. High plasma IGFBP-2 levels are correlated with poor prognosis in glioma patients. However, the exact role of exogenous IGFBP-2 in gliomas is unclear.Using the MTT cell viability assay, cell cycle analysis, and the transwell migration assay, it was demonstrated that IGFBP-2 treatment stimulated proliferation and invasion in U87 and U251 cell lines and primary SU3 glioma cells. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining revealed that IGFBP-2 promoted ERK phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Moreover, blocking ERK activation using the inhibitor PD98059 markedly reduced the effects of IGFBP-2 in glioma cells. As IGFBP-2 has an integrin-binding domain, the contribution of integrin β1 to these IGFBP-2-mediated processes was examined. Neutralisation or knockdown of the expression of integrin β1 inhibited IGFBP-2-induced ERK activation, cell proliferation, and cell invasion. Significantly, IGFBP-2 induced temozolomide resistance in glioma cells in an integrin β1/ERK-dependent manner.Exogenous IGFBP-2 induces proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance in glioma cells via integrin β1/ERK signaling, suggesting that targeting this pathway could represent a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of gliomas. The identification of this pathway in glioma progression provides insight into the mechanism by which serum IGFBP-2 levels can predict the prognosis of glioma patients.
|Roles of the putative integrin-binding motif of the human metapneumovirus fusion (f) protein in cell-cell fusion, viral infectivity, and pathogenesis. |
Wei, Y; Zhang, Y; Cai, H; Mirza, AM; Iorio, RM; Peeples, ME; Niewiesk, S; Li, J
Journal of virology 88 4338-52 2014
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a relatively recently identified paramyxovirus that causes acute upper and lower respiratory tract infection. Entry of hMPV is unusual among the paramyxoviruses, in that fusion is accomplished by the fusion (F) protein without the attachment glycoprotein (G protein). It has been suggested that hMPV F protein utilizes integrin αvβ1 as a cellular receptor. Consistent with this, the F proteins of all known hMPV strains possess an integrin-binding motif ((329)RGD(331)). The role of this motif in viral entry, infectivity, and pathogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we show that α5β1 and αv integrins are essential for cell-cell fusion and hMPV infection. Mutational analysis found that residues R329 and G330 in the (329)RGD(331) motif are essential for cell-cell fusion, whereas mutations at D331 did not significantly impact fusion activity. Furthermore, fusion-defective RGD mutations were either lethal to the virus or resulted in recombinant hMPVs that had defects in viral replication in cell culture. In cotton rats, recombinant hMPV with the R329K mutation in the F protein (rhMPV-R329K) and rhMPV-D331A exhibited significant defects in viral replication in nasal turbinates and lungs. Importantly, inoculation of cotton rats with these mutants triggered a high level of neutralizing antibodies and protected against hMPV challenge. Taken together, our data indicate that (i) α5β1 and αv integrins are essential for cell-cell fusion and viral replication, (ii) the first two residues in the RGD motif are essential for fusion activity, and (iii) inhibition of the interaction of the integrin-RGD motif may serve as a new target to rationally attenuate hMPV for the development of live attenuated vaccines.Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is one of the major causative agents of acute respiratory disease in humans. Currently, there is no vaccine or antiviral drug for hMPV. hMPV enters host cells via a unique mechanism, in that viral fusion (F) protein mediates both attachment and fusion activity. Recently, it was suggested that hMPV F protein utilizes integrins as receptors for entry via a poorly understood mechanism. Here, we show that α5β1 and αv integrins are essential for hMPV infectivity and F protein-mediated cell-cell fusion and that the integrin-binding motif in the F protein plays a crucial role in these functions. Our results also identify the integrin-binding motif to be a new, attenuating target for the development of a live vaccine for hMPV. These findings not only will facilitate the development of antiviral drugs targeting viral entry steps but also will lead to the development new live attenuated vaccine candidates for hMPV.
|Type IV collagen stimulates pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration, and inhibits apoptosis through an autocrine loop. |
Öhlund, D; Franklin, O; Lundberg, E; Lundin, C; Sund, M
BMC cancer 13 154 2013
Pancreatic cancer shows a highly aggressive and infiltrative growth pattern and is characterized by an abundant tumor stroma known to interact with the cancer cells, and to influence tumor growth and drug resistance. Cancer cells actively take part in the production of extracellular matrix proteins, which then become deposited into the tumor stroma. Type IV collagen, an important component of the basement membrane, is highly expressed by pancreatic cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, the cellular effects of type IV collagen produced by the cancer cells were characterized.The expression of type IV collagen and its integrin receptors were examined in vivo in human pancreatic cancer tissue. The cellular effects of type IV collagen were studied in pancreatic cancer cell lines by reducing type IV collagen expression through RNA interference and by functional receptor blocking of integrins and their binding-sites on the type IV collagen molecule.We show that type IV collagen is expressed close to the cancer cells in vivo, forming basement membrane like structures on the cancer cell surface that colocalize with the integrin receptors. Furthermore, the interaction between type IV collagen produced by the cancer cell, and integrins on the surface of the cancer cells, are important for continuous cancer cell growth, maintenance of a migratory phenotype, and for avoiding apoptosis.We show that type IV collagen provides essential cell survival signals to the pancreatic cancer cells through an autocrine loop.
|Adhesion, vitality and osteogenic differentiation capacity of adipose derived stem cells seeded on nitinol nanoparticle coatings. |
Strauss, S; Neumeister, A; Barcikowski, S; Kracht, D; Kuhbier, JW; Radtke, C; Reimers, K; Vogt, PM
PloS one 8 e53309 2013
Autologous cells can be used for a bioactivation of osteoimplants to enhance osseointegration. In this regard, adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) offer interesting perspectives in implantology because they are fast and easy to isolate. However, not all materials licensed for bone implants are equally suited for cell adhesion. Surface modifications are under investigation to promote cytocompatibility and cell growth. The presented study focused on influences of a Nitinol-nanoparticle coating on ASCs. Possible toxic effects as well as influences on the osteogenic differentiation potential of ASCs were evaluated by viability assays, scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and alizarin red staining. It was previously shown that Nitinol-nanoparticles exert no cell toxic effects to ASCs either in soluble form or as surface coating. Here we could demonstrate that a Nitinol-nanoparticle surface coating enhances cell adherence and growth on Nitinol-surfaces. No negative influence on the osteogenic differentiation was observed. Nitinol-nanoparticle coatings offer new possibilities in implantology research regarding bioactivation by autologous ASCs, respectively enhancement of surface attraction to cells.
|Rab25 regulates integrin expression in polarized colonic epithelial cells. |
Krishnan, M; Lapierre, LA; Knowles, BC; Goldenring, JR
Molecular biology of the cell 24 818-31 2013
Rab25 is a tumor suppressor for colon cancer in humans and mice. To identify elements of intestinal polarity regulated by Rab25, we developed Caco2-BBE cell lines stably expressing short hairpin RNA for Rab25 and lines rescuing Rab25 knockdown with reexpression of rabbit Rab25. Rab25 knockdown decreased α2-, α5-, and β1-integrin expression. We observed colocalization and direct association of Rab25 with α5β1-integrins. Rab25 knockdown also up-regulated claudin-1 expression, increased transepithelial resistance, and increased invasive behavior. Rab25-knockdown cells showed disorganized brush border microvilli with decreases in villin expression. All of these changes were reversed by reintroduction of rabbit Rab25. Rab25 knockdown altered the expression of 29 gene transcripts, including the loss of α5-integrin transcripts. Rab25 loss decreased expression of one transcription factor, ETV4, and overexpression of ETV4 in Rab25-knockdown cells reversed losses of α5β1-integrin. The results suggest that Rab25 controls intestinal cell polarity through the regulation of gene expression.
|Elevated expression of syntenin in breast cancer is correlated with lymph node metastasis and poor patient survival. |
Yang, Y; Hong, Q; Shi, P; Liu, Z; Luo, J; Shao, Z
Breast cancer research : BCR 15 R50 2013
Syntenin is a scaffolding-PDZ domain-containing protein. Although it is reported that syntenin is associated with melanoma growth and metastasis, the possible role of syntenin in breast cancer has not been well elucidated. The present study investigated the expression and function of syntenin in breast cancer.Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blots were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression of syntenin. With a combination of overexpression and RNA interference, the effect of syntenin on migration, invasion, and ERK1/2 activation was examined in breast cancer cell lines. The effect of syntenin in vivo was assessed with an orthotropic xenograft tumor model in BALB/c nu/nu mice. In addition, the expression level of syntenin in clinical breast cancer tissues was evaluated with immunohistochemistry. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to evaluate patient survival, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis.Our study showed that syntenin expression was upregulated in high-metastasis breast cancer cell lines and breast cancer tissues. Overexpression of syntenin in breast cancer cells promoted cell migration and invasion in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of syntenin promoted breast tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. We further showed that activation of integrin β1 and ERK1/2 was required for syntenin-mediated migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. The correlation between syntenin expression and tumor size (P = 0.011), lymph node status (P = 0.001), and recurrence (P = 0.002) was statistically significant. More important, syntenin expression in primary tumors was significantly related to patients' overall survival (OS; P = 0.023) and disease-free survival (DFS; P = 0.001). Its status was an independent prognostic factor of OS (P = 0.049) and DFS (P = 0.002) in our cohort of patients.These results suggest that syntenin plays a significant role in breast cancer progression, and it warrants further investigation as a candidate molecular marker of breast cancer metastasis and a potential therapeutic target.
|Synstatin: a selective inhibitor of the syndecan-1-coupled IGF1R-αvβ3 integrin complex in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. |
Rapraeger, Alan C
FEBS J., (2013) 2013
The syndecans are a family of heparan-sulfate-decorated cell surface proteoglycans, matrix receptors with roles in cell adhesion and growth factor signaling. Their heparan sulfate chains recognize "heparin-binding" motifs ubiquitously present in the extracellular matrix (ECM), providing the means for syndecans to constitutively bind and cluster to sites of cell-matrix adhesion. Emerging evidence suggests that specialized docking sites in the syndecan extracellular domains may serve to localize other receptors to these sites as well, including integrins and growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases. A prototypic example of this mechanism is the capture of the αvβ3 integrin and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) by syndecan-1 (Sdc1) - forming a ternary receptor complex in which signaling downstream of IGF1R activates the integrin. This Sdc1-coupled ternary receptor complex is especially prevalent on tumor cells and activated endothelial cells undergoing angiogenesis, reflecting the upregulated expression of αvβ3 integrin in such cells. As such, much effort has focused on developing therapeutics that target this integrin in various cancers. Along these lines, the site in the Sdc1 ectodomain responsible for capture and activation of the αvβ3 or αvβ5 integrins by IGF1R can be mimicked by a short peptide called "synstatin" (SSTN), which competitively displaces the integrin and IGF1R kinase from the syndecan and inactivates the complex. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the Sdc1-coupled ternary receptor complex and the efficacy of SSTN as an emerging therapeutic to target this signaling mechanism. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.
|Matrix metalloproteinase-2 cleavage of the β1 integrin ectodomain facilitates colon cancer cell motility. |
Kryczka, J; Stasiak, M; Dziki, L; Mik, M; Dziki, A; Cierniewski, C
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 36556-66 2012
Cancer cell invasion is a key element in metastasis that requires integrins for adhesion/de-adhesion, as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) for focalized proteolysis. Herein we show that MMP-2 is up-regulated in resected colorectal tumors and degrades β1 integrins with the release of fragments containing the β1 I-domain. The β1 cleavage pattern is similar to that produced by digestion of α5β1 and α2β1 with MMP-2. Two such fragments, at 25 and 75 kDa, were identified after immunoprecipitation, with monoclonal antibody BD610468 reacting with the NH(2)-terminal I-like ectodomain followed by SDS-PAGE and microsequencing using electrospray (ISI-Q-TOF-Micromass) spectrometry. Cleavage of the β1 integrin can be abolished by inhibition of MMP-2 activity; it can be induced by up-regulation of MMP-2 expression, as exemplified by HT29 colon cancer cells transfected with pCMV6-XL5-MMP-2. Co-immunoprecipitation studies of colon cancer cells showed that the β1 integrin subunit is associated with MMP-2. The MMP-2-mediated shedding of the I-like domain from β1 integrins resulted in decreased adhesion of colon cancer cells to collagen and fibronectin, thus abolishing their receptivity. Furthermore, such cells showed enhanced motility as evaluated by a "wound healing-like" assay and time-lapse microscopy, indicating their increased invasiveness. Altogether, our data demonstrate that MMP-2 amplifies the motility of colon cancer cells, not only by digesting the extracellular matrix components in the vicinity of cancer cells but also by inactivating their major β1 integrin receptors.
|Loss of epidermal hypoxia-inducible factor-1α accelerates epidermal aging and affects re-epithelialization in human and mouse. |
Rezvani, HR; Ali, N; Serrano-Sanchez, M; Dubus, P; Varon, C; Ged, C; Pain, C; Cario-André, M; Seneschal, J; Taïeb, A; de Verneuil, H; Mazurier, F
Journal of cell science 124 4172-83 2011
In mouse and human skin, HIF-1α is constitutively expressed in the epidermis, mainly in the basal layer. HIF-1α has been shown to have crucial systemic functions: regulation of kidney erythropoietin production in mice with constitutive HIF-1α epidermal deletion, and hypervascularity following epidermal HIF-1α overexpression. However, its local role in keratinocyte physiology has not been clearly defined. To address the function of HIF-1α in the epidermis, we used the mouse model of HIF-1α knockout targeted to keratinocytes (K14-Cre/Hif1a(flox/flox)). These mice had a delayed skin phenotype characterized by skin atrophy and pruritic inflammation, partly mediated by basement membrane disturbances involving laminin-332 (Ln-332) and integrins. We also investigated the relevance of results of studies in mice to human skin using reconstructed epidermis and showed that HIF-1α knockdown in human keratinocytes impairs the formation of a viable reconstructed epidermis. A diminution of keratinocyte growth potential, following HIF-1α silencing, was associated with a decreased expression of Ln-322 and α6 integrin and β1 integrin. Overall, these results indicate a role of HIF-1α in skin homeostasis especially during epidermal aging.
|CCR7/CCL21 migration on fibronectin is mediated by phospholipase Cgamma1 and ERK1/2 in primary T lymphocytes. |
Shannon, LA; Calloway, PA; Welch, TP; Vines, CM
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 38781-7 2010
CCR7 binds to its cognate ligand, CCL21, to mediate the migration of circulating naive T lymphocytes to the lymph nodes. T lymphocytes can bind to fibronectin, a constituent of lymph nodes, via their β1 integrins, which is a primary mechanism of T lymphocyte migration; however, the signaling pathways involved are unclear. We report that rapid (within 2 min) and transient phosphorylation of ERK1/2 is required for T cell migration on fibronectin in response to CCL21. Conversely, prevention of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by inhibition of its kinase, MAPK/MEK, prevented T lymphocyte migration. Previous studies have suggested that phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1) can mediate phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which is required for β1 integrin activation. Paradoxically, we found that inhibition of PLCγ1 phosphorylation by the general PLC inhibitor U73122 was associated with a delayed and reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and reduced migration of T lymphocytes on fibronectin. To further characterize the relationship between ERK1/2 and PLCγ1, we reduced PLCγ1 levels by 85% using shRNA and observed a reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and a significant loss of CCR7-mediated migration of T lymphocytes on fibronectin. In addition, we found that inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by U0126 resulted in a decreased phosphorylation of PLCγ1, suggesting a feedback loop between ERK1/2 and PLCγ1. Overall, these results suggest that the CCR7 signaling pathway leading to T lymphocyte migration on fibronectin is a β1 integrin-dependent pathway involving transient ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which is modulated by PLCγ1.
|Integrin alpha 6 regulates glioblastoma stem cells. |
Lathia, Justin D, et al.
Cell Stem Cell, 6: 421-32 (2010) 2010
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of tumor cells suggested to be critical for tumor maintenance, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. Prospective identification and targeting of CSCs are therefore priorities for the development of novel therapeutic paradigms. Although CSC enrichment has been achieved with cell surface proteins including CD133 (Prominin-1), the roles of current CSC markers in tumor maintenance remain unclear. We examined the glioblastoma stem cell (GSC) perivascular microenvironment in patient specimens to identify enrichment markers with a functional significance and identified integrin alpha6 as a candidate. Integrin alpha6 is coexpressed with conventional GSC markers and enriches for GSCs. Targeting integrin alpha6 in GSCs inhibits self-renewal, proliferation, and tumor formation capacity. Our results provide evidence that GSCs express high levels of integrin alpha6, which can serve not only as an enrichment marker but also as a promising antiglioblastoma therapy.
|C-propeptides of procollagens I alpha 1 and II that differentially accumulate in enchondromas versus chondrosarcomas regulate tumor cell survival and migration. |
Jean-Baptiste Vincourt,Stéphanie Etienne,Justine Cottet,Camille Delaunay,Claudie Bantsimba Malanda,Bantsimba Malanda,Frédéric Lionneton,François Sirveaux,Patrick Netter,François Plénat,Didier Mainard,Jean-Michel Vignaud,Jacques Magdalou
Cancer research 70 2010
Chondrogenic tumors that exhibit benign or malignant behaviors synthesize variable amounts of cartilage-like extracellular matrix. To define the regulators of these phenotypes, we performed a proteomic comparison of multiple human chondrogenic tumors, which revealed differential accumulation of the C-propeptides of procollagens Ialpha1 and II (PC1CP and PC2CP) in malignant versus benign tumors, respectively. Expression patterns of PC1CP correlated with levels of tumor vascularization, whereas expression patterns of PC2CP suggested its susceptibility to immobilization within the extracellular matrix. Prompted by these observations, we investigated the functions of recombinant PC1CP and PC2CP in the extracellular matrix in soluble or immobilized states. Each induced beta1 integrin-mediated chondrocyte adhesion by distinct domains and efficacies, suggesting that they initiated distinct signaling pathways. Indeed, immobilized PC2CP, but not PC1CP, induced apoptosis of primary chondrocytes and EAhy926 endothelial cells. In contrast, soluble PC1CP, but not PC2CP, induced the migration of EAhy926 cells and increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CXCR4 expression in chondrocytes. Soluble PC2CP also increased VEGF expression, but along with a more pronounced effect on CXCR4 and matrix metalloproteinase 13 expression. Our findings suggest that PC1CP favors angiogenesis and tumor progression, but that PC2CP acts in a more complex manner, exerting antitumor and antiangiogenic properties through apoptosis induction when immobilized, but progression and metastasis when soluble. In summary, the relative levels of PC1CP and PC2CP and their interactions within the extracellular matrix contribute to tumor progression, angiogenesis, and metastasis in chondrogenic tumors.
|Neutralization of malaria GPI in vitro by serum IgG from malaria exposed individuals. |
de Souza JB, Runglall M, Corran PH, Okell LC, Kumar S, Gowda DC, Couper KN, Riley EM
Infect Immun 2010
Parasite-derived glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) is believed to be a major inducer of the pathways leading to pathology and morbidity during malaria infection and has been termed a malaria "toxin". The generation of neutralising anti-GPI ("anti-toxic") antibodies has, therefore, been hypothesised to be an important step in the acquisition of anti-disease immunity to malaria; however to date the GPI-neutralising capacity of antibodies induced during natural malaria infection has not been evaluated. Here we describe the development of an in vitro macrophage-based assay to assess the neutralising capacity of malarial GPI-specific IgG. We demonstrate that IgG from Plasmodium falciparum-exposed individuals can significantly inhibit GPI-induced activation of macrophages in vitro, as shown by reduced TNF production and attenuation of CD40 expression. The GPI neutralising capacity of individual IgG samples was directly correlated with anti-GPI antibody titre. IgG from malaria-exposed individuals also neutralised the macrophage activating effects of P. falciparum schizont extract (PfSE) but there was only a poor correlation between PfSE neutralising activity and anti-GPI antibody titre, suggesting that PfSE contains other macrophage activating moieties in addition to GPI. In conclusion, we have established an in vitro assay to test the "toxin" neutralising activity of anti-malarial antibodies and have shown that anti-GPI antibodies from malaria immune individuals are able to neutralise GPI- induced macrophage activation; however the clinical relevance of anti-GPI antibodies remains to be proven given that malarial schizonts contain other pro-inflammatory moieties in addition to GPI.
|Downregulation of connective tissue growth factor by three-dimensional matrix enhances ovarian carcinoma cell invasion. |
Maria V Barbolina, Brian P Adley, David L Kelly, Jaclyn Shepard, Angela J Fought, Denise Scholtens, Peter Penzes, Lonnie D Shea, M Sharon Stack
International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer 125 816-25 2009
Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is a leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies, due mainly to the prevalence of undetected metastatic disease. The process of cell invasion during intraperitoneal anchoring of metastatic lesions requires concerted regulation of many processes, including modulation of adhesion to the extracellular matrix and localized invasion. Exploratory cDNA microarray analysis of early response genes (altered after 4 hr of 3D collagen culture) coupled with confirmatory real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, multiple 3D cell culture matrices, Western blot, immunostaining, adhesion, migration and invasion assays were used to identify modulators of adhesion pertinent to EOC progression and metastasis. cDNA microarray analysis indicated a dramatic downregulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in EOC cells placed in invasion- mimicking conditions (3D Type I collagen). Examination of human EOC specimens revealed that CTGF expression was absent in 46% of the tested samples (n = 41), but was present in 100% of normal ovarian epithelium samples (n = 7). Reduced CTGF expression occurs in many types of cells and may be a general phenomenon displayed by cells encountering a 3D environment. CTGF levels were inversely correlated with invasion such that downregulation of CTGF increased, while its upregulation reduced collagen invasion. Cells adhered preferentially to a surface comprised of both collagen I and CTGF relative to either component alone using alpha6beta1 and alpha3beta1 integrins. Together these data suggest that downregulation of CTGF in EOC cells may be important for cell invasion through modulation of cell-matrix adhesion.Full Text Article
|Impaired transcription factor interplay in addition to advanced glycation end products suppress podocalyxin expression in high glucose-treated human podocytes. |
Drossopoulou, Garyfalia I, et al.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol., 297: F594-603 (2009) 2009
Podocalyxin represents a Wilms' tumor suppressor protein (WT1)-regulated differentiation marker for glomerular epithelium. We provide evidence concerning mechanisms involved in the regulation of podocalyxin expression following long-term exposure to increased (25 mM) glucose levels. Prolonged culture of conditionally immortalized human podocytes in 25 mM glucose induced suppression of podocalyxin expression both at the protein and mRNA levels, whereas WT1 protein levels remained unaltered. WT1 interacted with another transcription factor, CRE-binding protein (CBP). This association was decreased by 40% in the presence of 25 mM glucose. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays on chromatin from podocytes cultured in 25 mM glucose revealed reduced WT1 binding to podocalyxin promoter sequences, probably resulting from impaired WT1-CBP interactions. We explored the possible role of glucose-induced adducts (advanced glycation end products; AGEs) in impairing interactions between WT1 and CBP, with the use of aminoguanindine, an inhibitor of AGE formation. Podocytes were cultured in the simultaneous presence of 20 mM aminoguanidine and 25 mM glucose, and podocalyxin protein levels were examined. Aminoguanidine effectively prevented downregulation of podocalyxin protein levels but could not restore podocalyxin levels once expression was suppressed. Thus increased glucose apparently impaired the ability of WT1 to initiate transcription in part by decreased association of WT1 with CBP. Administration of aminoguanidine concomitant with increasing glucose levels in our in vitro model system protected from glucose-induced "silencing" of the podocalyxin gene, suggesting that AGEs play an important role in suppressing its expression in diabetic conditions.
|Interactions between galectin-3 and integrinbeta3 in regulating endometrial cell proliferation and adhesion. |
Lei CX, Zhang W, Zhou JP, Liu YK
Human reproduction (Oxford, England) 24 2879-89 2009
BACKGROUND: Galectin-3 (gal-3) is a beta-galactoside-binding protein which can be detected in endometrium. The study was designed to investigate synergism of gal-3 and integrinbeta3 in endometrial cell proliferation and adhesion in an in vitro model of endometrial receptivity. METHODS: The RL95-2 cell line was employed as an in vitro model for receptive endometrium. Cells transfected with gal-3 siRNA or treated with exogenous gal-3 were incubated with or without function-blocking integrinbeta1/3 antibody for evaluating synergism of gal-3 and integrins on cell proliferation and adhesion. Proliferation was measured by BrdU incorporation, and adhesion to fibronectin (FN) was determined by an adhesion assay. Integrin expression was analyzed by Flow Cytometry and western blots. Bewo spheroids were co-cultured with the RL95-2 monolayer to mimic the blastocyst-endometrial interaction, and colocalization of gal-3, integrinbeta3 and FN at the interface was observed by confocal microscopy. RESULTS: The knock-down of gal-3 inhibited RL95-2 cell proliferation and adhesion. However, a reduction of proliferation and adhesion was also observed in presence of exogenous gal-3, and this was further reduced by a functional block to integrinbeta3. Moreover, gal-3 knock-down significantly increased integrinbeta3 expression, however, the colocalization of integrinbeta3 and FN was not increased. As expected, the colocalization of integrinbeta3 was decreased with the knock-down of gal-3. CONCLUSIONS: This study has provided an in vitro model for the complex interactions between gal-3 and integrinbeta3 in the regulation of endometrial cell proliferation and adhesion.
|Blockade of tumor growth due to matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibition is mediated by sequential activation of beta1-integrin, ERK, and NF-kappaB. |
Bhoopathi, P; Chetty, C; Kunigal, S; Vanamala, SK; Rao, JS; Lakka, SS
The Journal of biological chemistry 283 1545-52 2008
We previously showed that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 inhibition using an adenovirus-mediated delivery of MMP-9 small interfering RNA (Ad-MMP-9), caused senescence in medulloblastoma cells. Regardless of whether or not Ad-MMP-9 would induce apoptosis, the possible signaling mechanism is still obscure. In this report, we demonstrate that Ad-MMP-9 induced apoptosis in DAOY cells as determined by propidium iodide and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated nick end labeling staining. Ad-MMP-9 infection induced the release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-9 and -3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Ad-MMP-9 infection stimulated ERK, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicated an increase in NF-kappaB activation. ERK inhibition, using a kinase-dead mutant for ERK, ameliorated NF-kappaB activation and caspase-mediated apoptosis in Ad-MMP-9-infected cells. beta1-Integrin expression in Ad-MMP-9-infected cells also increased, and this increase was reversed by the reintroduction of MMP-9. We found that the addition of beta1 blocking antibodies inhibited Ad-MMP-9-induced ERK activation. Taken together, our results indicate that MMP-9 inhibition induces apoptosis due to altered beta1-integrin expression in medulloblastoma. In addition, ERK activation plays an active role in this process and functions upstream of NF-kappaB activation to initiate the apoptotic signal.Full Text Article
|Polo-like kinase 1 is involved in invasion through extracellular matrix. |
Rizki, A; Mott, JD; Bissell, MJ
Cancer research 67 11106-10 2007
Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) has important functions in maintaining genome stability via its role in mitosis. Because PLK1 is up-regulated in many invasive carcinomas, we asked whether it may also play a role in acquisition of invasiveness, a crucial step in transition to malignancy. In a model of metaplastic basal-like breast carcinoma progression, we found that PLK1 expression is necessary but not sufficient to induce invasiveness through laminin-rich extracellular matrix. PLK1 mediates invasion via vimentin and beta1 integrin, both of which are necessary. We observed that PLK1 phosphorylates vimentin on Ser82, which in turn regulates cell surface levels of beta1 integrin. We found PLK1 to be also highly expressed in preinvasive in situ carcinomas of the breast. These results support a role for the involvement of PLK1 in the invasion process and point to this pathway as a potential therapeutic target for preinvasive and invasive breast carcinoma treatment.
|Design of a novel fibronectin-mimetic peptide-amphiphile for functionalized biomaterials. |
Mardilovich, Anastasia, et al.
Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids, 22: 3259-64 (2006) 2006
The interaction of the alpha5beta1 integrin with its ligand, fibronectin, supports numerous adhesive functions and has an important role in health and disease. In recent years, there has been a considerable effort in designing fibronectin-mimetic peptides to target the integrin. However, to date, the therapeutic use of these peptides has been limited, as they cannot accurately mimic fibronectin's binding affinity for alpha5beta1. A peptide-amphiphile (PR_b) was synthesized with a peptide headgroup composed of four building blocks: a spacer; RGDSP, the primary recognition site for alpha5beta1; PHSRN, the synergy binding site; and a linker. The linker was designed to mimic two important criteria: the distance and the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity between PHSRN and RGD in fibronectin. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were seeded on different substrates and evaluated in terms of adhesion, spreading, specificity, cytoskeleton organization, focal adhesions, and secretion of extracellular fibronectin. This peptide was shown to perform comparably to fibronectin, indicating that a biomimetic approach can result in the design of novel peptides with therapeutic potential for biomaterial functionalization.
|Dystroglycan receptor is involved in integrin activation in intestinal epithelia. |
Driss, A; Charrier, L; Yan, Y; Nduati, V; Sitaraman, S; Merlin, D
American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 290 G1228-42 2006
The dystroglycans (alpha-DG and beta-DG), which play important roles in the formation of basement membranes, have been well studied in skeletal muscle and nerve, but their expression and localization in intestinal epithelial cells has not been previously investigated. Here, we demonstrated that the DG complex, composed of alpha-DG, beta-DG, and utrophin, is specifically expressed in the basolateral membrane of the Caco-2-BBE monolayer. The DG complex coprecipitated with beta(1)-integrin, suggesting a possible interaction among these proteins. In addition, we observed that activation of DG receptors by laminin-1 enhanced the interaction between beta(1)-integrin and laminin-1, whereas activation of DG receptors by laminin-2 reduced the interaction between beta(1)-integrin and laminin-2. Finally, we demonstrated that the intracellular COOH-terminal tail of beta-DG and its binding to the DG binding domain of utrophin are crucial for the interactions between laminin-1/-2 and beta(1)-integrin. Collectively, these novel results indicate that dystroglycans play important roles in the regulation of interactions between intestinal epithelial cells and the extracellular matrix.Full Text Article
|Sphingosine-1-phosphate induces a PDGFR-dependent cell detachment via inhibiting beta1 integrin in HEK293 cells. |
Alexander Zaslavsky, Song Li, Yan Xu
FEBS letters 579 3899-906 2005
Several different types of interactions between sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) have been revealed recently. In this work, we used HEK293 cells to further investigate the potential crosstalk. Interestingly, we observed that S1P specifically induced a PDGFR-dependent cell detachment in HEK293 cells, which could be inhibited by AG1296, a specific inhibitor for PDGFR. EGFR on the other hand, did not have any effect on cell detachment. The detachment was extracellular matrix (ECM) protein specific, suggesting the involvement of specific integrin molecules. When beta(1) integrin was engaged into an active state, S1P-induced cell detachment was blocked, suggesting that S1P induced an inside-out inhibitory effect on beta(1) integrin. G(i) protein and ERK activation were required for the cell detachment induced by S1P, suggesting an endogenous receptor for S1P is likely to be involved.
|RGD-containing peptides activate S6K1 through beta3 integrin in adult cardiac muscle cells. |
Balasubramanian, Sundaravadivel and Kuppuswamy, Dhandapani
J. Biol. Chem., 278: 42214-24 (2003) 2003
The enzyme p70S6 kinase (S6K1) is critical for cell growth, and we have reported its activation during cardiac hypertrophy. Because cardiac hypertrophy also involves integrin activation, we analyzed whether integrins could contribute to S6K1 activation. Using adult feline cardiomyocytes, here we report that integrin-interacting Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides activate S6K1 as observed by band shifting, kinase activity and phosphorylation at Thr-389 and Thr-421/Ser-424 of S6K1, and S6 protein phosphorylation. Perturbation of specific integrin function with blocking antibodies and by overexpressing the beta1A cytoplasmic tail revealed that beta3 but not beta1 integrin mediates the RGD-induced S6K1 activation. This activation is focal adhesion complex-independent and is accompanied by the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Studies using specific inhibitors and dominant negative c-Raf expression in cardiomyocytes indicate that the S6K1 activation involves mTOR, MEK/ERK, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways and is independent of protein kinase C and c-Raf. Finally, addition of fluorescent-labeled RGD peptide to cardiomyocytes exhibits its internalization and localization to the endocytic vesicles, and pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with endocytic inhibitors reduced the S6K1 activation. These data suggest that RGD interaction with beta3 integrin and its subsequent endocytosis trigger specific signaling pathway(s) for S6K1 activation in cardiomyocytes and that this process may contribute to hypertrophic growth and remodeling of myocardium.
|Angiogenesis in collagen I requires alpha2beta1 ligation of a GFP*GER sequence and possibly p38 MAPK activation and focal adhesion disassembly. |
Sweeney, SM; DiLullo, G; Slater, SJ; Martinez, J; Iozzo, RV; Lauer-Fields, JL; Fields, GB; San Antonio, JD
The Journal of biological chemistry 278 30516-24 2003
Angiogenesis depends on proper collagen biosynthesis and cross-linking, and type I collagen is an ideal angiogenic scaffold, although its mechanism is unknown. We examined angiogenesis using an assay wherein confluent monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were overlain with collagen in a serum-free defined medium. Small spaces formed in the cell layer by 2 h, and cells formed net-like arrays by 6-8 h and capillary-like lumens by 24 h. Blocking of alpha2beta1, but not alpha1 or alpha(v)beta3 integrin function halted morphogenesis. We found that a triple-helical, homotrimeric peptide mimetic of a putative alpha2beta1 binding site: alpha1(I)496-507 GARGERGFP*GER (where single-letter amino acid nomenclature is used, P* = hydroxyproline) inhibited tube formation, whereas a peptide carrying another putative site: alpha1(I)127-138 GLP*GERGRP*GAP* or control peptides did not. A chemical inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), SB202190, blocked tube formation, and p38 MAPK activity was increased in collagen-treated cultures, whereas targeting MAPK kinase (MEK), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) had little effect. Collagen-treated cells had fewer focal adhesions and 3- to 5-fold less activated FAK. Thus capillary morphogenesis requires endothelial alpha2beta1 integrin engagement of a single type I collagen integrin-binding site, possibly signaling via p38 MAPK and focal adhesion disassembly/FAK inactivation.
|A monoclonal antibody to a carbohydrate epitope expressed on glycolipid and on alpha3beta1 integrin on human esophageal carcinoma. |
Roudabeh J Jamasbi, Gary D Stoner, Linda J Foote, Trish K Lankford, Sandra Davern, Stephen J Kennel
Hybridoma and hybridomics 22 367-76 2003
A mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb-9) produced by immunization with a human esophageal carcinoma cell line, TE-2 (derived from undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma) reacted specifically with about 30% of esophageal carcinoma cell lines and tissue sections from clinical samples. MAb-9 showed minimal reactivity with normal esophageal tissue. (125)I, fluorescent or gold particle labeled MAb-9 bound to TE-2 cell surfaces. (125)I-radiolabeled MAb-9 was used to detect reactive material from cell extracts in Western blot. Treatment of TE-2 membrane proteins with neuraminidase, N-glycanase or O-glycanase reduced antigen detection. Treatment of cells with periodic acid destroyed antibody binding in ELISA. Lipid extracts from cell membranes, containing glycolipids, also reacted with MAb-9. MAb-9 was used to purify target antigen from detergent solubilized membrane proteins and the prominent bands from subsequent gel electrophoresis were trypsin digested and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Peptides from alpha(3) and beta(1) integrin chains were identified. These data indicate that alpha3beta1integrin is prominently expressed on certain esophageal carcinomas and that a specific carbohydrate unit is selectively displayed on the alpha(3) integrin subunit as well as on glycolipid on the cell surface. The alpha3beta1 integrin expressed on A-431 carcinoma cells does not display this carbohydrate epitope and is not detected by MAb-9. Thus, expression of the carbohydrate epitope is the basis for the tumor selective reaction of MAb-9 with a subset of esophageal carcinomas.
|Circulating skeletal stem cells. |
S A Kuznetsov, M H Mankani, S Gronthos, K Satomura, P Bianco, P G Robey, S A Kuznetsov, M H Mankani, S Gronthos, K Satomura, P Bianco, P G Robey
The Journal of cell biology 153 1133-40 2001
We report the isolation of adherent, clonogenic, fibroblast-like cells with osteogenic and adipogenic potential from the blood of four mammalian species. These cells phenotypically resemble but are distinguishable from skeletal stem cells found in bone marrow (stromal stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells). The osteogenic potential of the blood-borne cells was proven by an in vivo transplantation assay in which either polyclonal or single colony-derived strains were transplanted into the subcutis of immunocompromised mice, and the donor origin of the fully differentiated bone cells was proven using species-specific probes. This is the first definitive proof of the existence of circulating skeletal stem cells in mammals.Full Text Article
|The tetraspanin CD9 associates with the integrin alpha6beta4 in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes and is involved in cell motility. |
Baudoux, B, et al.
Eur. J. Cell Biol., 79: 41-51 (2000) 2000
Integrins are involved in several ways in keratinocyte physiology, including cell motility. CD9 is a member of the tetraspanin protein family which is found in association with other transmembrane proteins like the integrins. CD9 is expressed in the epidermal tissue, but this expression is not regulated by differentiation. The present work focuses on association of CD9 with the integrin alpha6beta4 in keratinocytes. In vivo, CD9 does not co-localize with alpha6beta4, and is not internalized with the integrin upon basal detachment with dispase. In vitro, CD9 is found partly in co-localization with alpha6beta4 and is internalized with the integrin after keratinocyte detachment with dispase. Using blocking antibodies in a phagokinetic tracks assay, we show that CD9, and to a lesser extent alpha6beta4, but not the tetraspanin CD82, promote motility of subconfluent keratinocytes on collagen I. Our observations also suggest that CD9 is involved in the formation of lamellipodia. We also report that the phorbol ester TPA has no effect on CD9 expression and association with alpha6beta4, but increases keratinocyte motility, possibly through modulation of integrin subunits expression, or through upregulation of collagenase-1 expression. Together, these results confirm that CD9 associates with alpha6beta4 in cultured keratinocytes, possibly in order to regulate the function of the integrin, and that CD9 is involved in keratinocyte motility on collagen. The data suggest that regulation of adhesion characteristics by CD9 in keratinocytes may play a role in epidermal repair.
|The cysteine-rich domain of human ADAM 12 supports cell adhesion through syndecans and triggers signaling events that lead to beta1 integrin-dependent cell spreading. |
Iba, K, et al.
J. Cell Biol., 149: 1143-56 (2000) 2000
The ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of proteins is involved in a variety of cellular interactions, including cell adhesion and ecto- domain shedding. Here we show that ADAM 12 binds to cell surface syndecans. Three forms of recombinant ADAM 12 were used in these experiments: the cys-teine-rich domain made in Escherichia coli (rADAM 12-cys), the disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domain made in insect cells (rADAM 12-DC), and full-length human ADAM 12-S tagged with green fluorescent protein made in mammalian cells (rADAM 12-GFP). Mesenchymal cells specifically and in a dose-dependent manner attach to ADAM 12 via members of the syndecan family. After binding to syndecans, mesenchymal cells spread and form focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. Integrin beta1 was responsible for cell spreading because function-blocking monoclonal antibodies completely inhibited cell spreading, and chondroblasts lacking beta1 integrin attached but did not spread. These data suggest that mesenchymal cells use syndecans as the initial receptor for the ADAM 12 cysteine-rich domain-mediated cell adhesion, and then the beta1 integrin to induce cell spreading. Interestingly, carcinoma cells attached but did not spread on ADAM 12. However, spreading could be efficiently induced by the addition of either 1 mM Mn(2+) or the beta1 integrin-activating monoclonal antibody 12G10, suggesting that in these carcinoma cells, the ADAM 12-syndecan complex fails to modulate the function of beta1 integrin.
|Postnatal human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in vitro and in vivo. |
Gronthos, S; Mankani, M; Brahim, J; Robey, PG; Shi, S
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97 13625-30 2000
Dentinal repair in the postnatal organism occurs through the activity of specialized cells, odontoblasts, that are thought to be maintained by an as yet undefined precursor population associated with pulp tissue. In this study, we isolated a clonogenic, rapidly proliferative population of cells from adult human dental pulp. These DPSCs were then compared with human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), known precursors of osteoblasts. Although they share a similar immunophenotype in vitro, functional studies showed that DPSCs produced only sporadic, but densely calcified nodules, and did not form adipocytes, whereas BMSCs routinely calcified throughout the adherent cell layer with clusters of lipid-laden adipocytes. When DPSCs were transplanted into immunocompromised mice, they generated a dentin-like structure lined with human odontoblast-like cells that surrounded a pulp-like interstitial tissue. In contrast, BMSCs formed lamellar bone containing osteocytes and surface-lining osteoblasts, surrounding a fibrous vascular tissue with active hematopoiesis and adipocytes. This study isolates postnatal human DPSCs that have the ability to form a dentin/pulp-like complex.
|Immunohistochemical techniques to study the extracellular matrix and its receptors. |
Hoffstrom, B G and Wayner, E A
Meth. Enzymol., 245: 316-46 (1994) 1994
|Anti-Integrin beta1, clone P5D2 - Data Sheet|