Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Ch, H, M, Ht, R||ELISA, ICC, IF, IHC, IP, RIA, WB||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Rabbit polyclonal antiserum in buffer containing 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
References | 64 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Dexamethasone-Mediated Activation of Fibronectin Matrix Assembly Reduces Dispersal of Primary Human Glioblastoma Cells. |
Shannon, S; Vaca, C; Jia, D; Entersz, I; Schaer, A; Carcione, J; Weaver, M; Avidar, Y; Pettit, R; Nair, M; Khan, A; Foty, RA
PloS one 10 e0135951 2015
Despite resection and adjuvant therapy, the 5-year survival for patients with Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is less than 10%. This poor outcome is largely attributed to rapid tumor growth and early dispersal of cells, factors that contribute to a high recurrence rate and poor prognosis. An understanding of the cellular and molecular machinery that drive growth and dispersal is essential if we are to impact long-term survival. Our previous studies utilizing a series of immortalized GBM cell lines established a functional causation between activation of fibronectin matrix assembly (FNMA), increased tumor cohesion, and decreased dispersal. Activation of FNMA was accomplished by treatment with Dexamethasone (Dex), a drug routinely used to treat brain tumor related edema. Here, we utilize a broad range of qualitative and quantitative assays and the use of a human GBM tissue microarray and freshly-isolated primary human GBM cells grown both as conventional 2D cultures and as 3D spheroids to explore the role of Dex and FNMA in modulating various parameters that can significantly influence tumor cell dispersal. We show that the expression and processing of fibronectin in a human GBM tissue-microarray is variable, with 90% of tumors displaying some abnormality or lack in capacity to secrete fibronectin or assemble it into a matrix. We also show that low-passage primary GBM cells vary in their capacity for FNMA and that Dex treatment reactivates this process. Activation of FNMA effectively "glues" cells together and prevents cells from detaching from the primary mass. Dex treatment also significantly increases the strength of cell-ECM adhesion and decreases motility. The combination of increased cohesion and decreased motility discourages in vitro and ex vivo dispersal. By increasing cell-cell cohesion, Dex also decreases growth rate of 3D spheroids. These effects could all be reversed by an inhibitor of FNMA and by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU-486. Our results describe a new role for Dex as a suppressor of GBM dispersal and growth.
|Spatial mapping of juxtacrine axo-glial interactions identifies novel molecules in peripheral myelination. |
Poitelon, Y; Bogni, S; Matafora, V; Della-Flora Nunes, G; Hurley, E; Ghidinelli, M; Katzenellenbogen, BS; Taveggia, C; Silvestri, N; Bachi, A; Sannino, A; Wrabetz, L; Feltri, ML
Nature communications 6 8303 2015
Cell-cell interactions promote juxtacrine signals in specific subcellular domains, which are difficult to capture in the complexity of the nervous system. For example, contact between axons and Schwann cells triggers signals required for radial sorting and myelination. Failure in this interaction causes dysmyelination and axonal degeneration. Despite its importance, few molecules at the axo-glial surface are known. To identify novel molecules in axo-glial interactions, we modified the 'pseudopodia' sub-fractionation system and isolated the projections that glia extend when they receive juxtacrine signals from axons. By proteomics we identified the signalling networks present at the glial-leading edge, and novel proteins, including members of the Prohibitin family. Glial-specific deletion of Prohibitin-2 in mice impairs axo-glial interactions and myelination. We thus validate a novel method to model morphogenesis and juxtacrine signalling, provide insights into the molecular organization of the axo-glial contact, and identify a novel class of molecules in myelination.
|Poly(vinyl alcohol)/gelatin Hydrogels Cultured with HepG2 Cells as a 3D Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Morphological Study. |
Moscato, S; Ronca, F; Campani, D; Danti, S
Journal of functional biomaterials 6 16-32 2015
It has been demonstrated that three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models represent fundamental tools for the comprehension of cellular phenomena both for normal and cancerous tissues. Indeed, the microenvironment affects the cellular behavior as well as the response to drugs. In this study, we performed a morphological analysis on a hepatocarcinoma cell line, HepG2, grown for 24 days inside a bioartificial hydrogel composed of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and gelatin (G) to model a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in 3D. Morphological features of PVA/G hydrogels were investigated, resulting to mimic the trabecular structure of liver parenchyma. A histologic analysis comparing the 3D models with HepG2 cell monolayers and tumor specimens was performed. In the 3D setting, HepG2 cells were viable and formed large cellular aggregates showing different morphotypes with zonal distribution. Furthermore, β-actin and α5β1 integrin revealed a morphotype-related expression; in particular, the frontline cells were characterized by a strong immunopositivity on a side border of their membrane, thus suggesting the formation of lamellipodia-like structures apt for migration. Based on these results, we propose PVA/G hydrogels as valuable substrates to develop a long term 3D HCC model that can be used to investigate important aspects of tumor biology related to migration phenomena.
|Directional cell movement through tissues is controlled by exosome secretion. |
Sung, BH; Ketova, T; Hoshino, D; Zijlstra, A; Weaver, AM
Nature communications 6 7164 2015
Directional cell movement through tissues is critical for multiple biological processes and requires maintenance of polarity in the face of complex environmental cues. Here we use intravital imaging to demonstrate that secretion of exosomes from late endosomes is required for directionally persistent and efficient in vivo movement of cancer cells. Inhibiting exosome secretion or biogenesis leads to defective tumour cell migration associated with increased formation of unstable protrusions and excessive directional switching. In vitro rescue experiments with purified exosomes and matrix coating identify adhesion assembly as a critical exosome function that promotes efficient cell motility. Live-cell imaging reveals that exosome secretion directly precedes and promotes adhesion assembly. Fibronectin is found to be a critical motility-promoting cargo whose sorting into exosomes depends on binding to integrins. We propose that autocrine secretion of exosomes powerfully promotes directionally persistent and effective cell motility by reinforcing otherwise transient polarization states and promoting adhesion assembly.
|Exclusion of integrins from CNS axons is regulated by Arf6 activation and the AIS. |
Franssen, EH; Zhao, RR; Koseki, H; Kanamarlapudi, V; Hoogenraad, CC; Eva, R; Fawcett, JW
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 8359-75 2015
Integrins are adhesion and survival molecules involved in axon growth during CNS development, as well as axon regeneration after injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Adult CNS axons do not regenerate after injury, partly due to a low intrinsic growth capacity. We have previously studied the role of integrins in axon growth in PNS axons; in the present study, we investigate whether integrin mechanisms involved in PNS regeneration may be altered or lacking from mature CNS axons by studying maturing CNS neurons in vitro. In rat cortical neurons, we find that integrins are present in axons during initial growth but later become restricted to the somato-dendritic domain. We investigated how this occurs and whether it can be altered to enhance axonal growth potential. We find a developmental change in integrin trafficking; transport becomes predominantly retrograde throughout axons, but not dendrites, as neurons mature. The directionality of transport is controlled through the activation state of ARF6, with developmental upregulation of the ARF6 GEF ARNO enhancing retrograde transport. Lowering ARF6 activity in mature neurons restores anterograde integrin flow, allows transport into axons, and increases axon growth. In addition, we found that the axon initial segment is partly responsible for exclusion of integrins and removal of this structure allows integrins into axons. Changing posttranslational modifications of tubulin with taxol also allows integrins into the proximal axon. The experiments suggest that the developmental loss of regenerative ability in CNS axons is due to exclusion of growth-related molecules due to changes in trafficking.
|Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine internalization and its age-related alterations in skeletal muscle progenitor cells. |
Nakamura, K; Yamanouchi, K; Nishihara, M
Aging cell 13 175-84 2014
Aging causes phenotypic changes in skeletal muscle progenitor cells (Skm-PCs), such as reduced myogenesis and increased adipogenesis due to alterations in their environment or niche. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), which is secreted into the niche of Skm-PCs, inhibits adipogenesis and promotes myogenesis. We have previously reported that Skm-PC responsiveness to SPARC declines with age, although the mechanism underlying this decline is unknown. In this study, we found that SPARC is internalized by Skm-PCs and that this uptake increases with age. Internalization is dependent on integrin-α5, a cell surface SPARC-binding molecule, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We also demonstrated that internalized SPARC is transported to Rab7-positive endosomes. Skm-PCs from old rats exhibited increased clathrin expression and decreased Rab7 expression exclusively in MyoD-negative cells. In loss-of-function analyses, clathrin knockdown increased the anti-adipogenic effect of SPARC, whereas Rab7 knockdown reduced it, indicating that alterations in SPARC internalization may mediate the age-related decline in its anti-adipogenic effect. These results provide insights into age-related SPARC resistance in Skm-PCs, which may lead to sarcopenia.
|The cancer glycocalyx mechanically primes integrin-mediated growth and survival. |
Paszek, MJ; DuFort, CC; Rossier, O; Bainer, R; Mouw, JK; Godula, K; Hudak, JE; Lakins, JN; Wijekoon, AC; Cassereau, L; Rubashkin, MG; Magbanua, MJ; Thorn, KS; Davidson, MW; Rugo, HS; Park, JW; Hammer, DA; Giannone, G; Bertozzi, CR; Weaver, VM
Nature 511 319-25 2014
Malignancy is associated with altered expression of glycans and glycoproteins that contribute to the cellular glycocalyx. We constructed a glycoprotein expression signature, which revealed that metastatic tumours upregulate expression of bulky glycoproteins. A computational model predicted that these glycoproteins would influence transmembrane receptor spatial organization and function. We tested this prediction by investigating whether bulky glycoproteins in the glycocalyx promote a tumour phenotype in human cells by increasing integrin adhesion and signalling. Our data revealed that a bulky glycocalyx facilitates integrin clustering by funnelling active integrins into adhesions and altering integrin state by applying tension to matrix-bound integrins, independent of actomyosin contractility. Expression of large tumour-associated glycoproteins in non-transformed mammary cells promoted focal adhesion assembly and facilitated integrin-dependent growth factor signalling to support cell growth and survival. Clinical studies revealed that large glycoproteins are abundantly expressed on circulating tumour cells from patients with advanced disease. Thus, a bulky glycocalyx is a feature of tumour cells that could foster metastasis by mechanically enhancing cell-surface receptor function.
|Recombinant fibronectin matrix mimetics specify integrin adhesion and extracellular matrix assembly. |
Roy, DC; Hocking, DC
Tissue engineering. Part A 19 558-70 2013
Tissue engineering seeks to create functional tissues and organs by integrating natural or synthetic scaffolds with bioactive factors and cells. Creating biologically active scaffolds that support key aspects of tissue regeneration, including the re-establishment of a functional extracellular matrix (ECM), is a challenge currently facing this field. During tissue repair, fibronectin is converted from an inactive soluble form into biologically active ECM fibrils through a cell-dependent process. ECM fibronectin promotes cell processes critical to tissue regeneration and regulates the deposition and organization of other ECM proteins. We previously developed biomimetics of ECM fibronectin by directly coupling the heparin-binding fragment of the first type III repeat of fibronectin (FNIII1H) to the integrin-binding repeats (FNIII8-10). As adhesive substrates, fibronectin matrix mimetics promote cell growth, migration, and contractility through a FNIII1H-dependent mechanism. Here, we analyzed fibronectin matrix mimetic variants designed to include all or part of the integrin-binding domain for their ability to support new ECM assembly. We found that specific modifications of the integrin-binding domain produced adhesive substrates that selectively engage different integrin receptors to, in turn, regulate the amount of fibronectin and collagen deposited into the ECM. The ability of fibronectin matrix mimetics to direct cell-substrate interactions and regulate ECM assembly makes them promising candidates for use as bioactive surfaces, where precise control over integrin-binding specificity and ECM deposition are required.
|Integrin α5β1 plays a critical role in resistance to temozolomide by interfering with the p53 pathway in high-grade glioma. |
Janouskova, H; Maglott, A; Leger, DY; Bossert, C; Noulet, F; Guerin, E; Guenot, D; Pinel, S; Chastagner, P; Plenat, F; Entz-Werle, N; Lehmann-Che, J; Godet, J; Martin, S; Teisinger, J; Dontenwill, M
Cancer research 72 3463-70 2012
Integrins play a role in the resistance of advanced cancers to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In this study, we show that high expression of the α5 integrin subunit compromises temozolomide-induced tumor suppressor p53 activity in human glioblastoma cells. We found that depletion of the α5 integrin subunit increased p53 activity and temozolomide sensitivity. However, when cells were treated with the p53 activator nutlin-3a, the protective effect of α5 integrin on p53 activation and cell survival was lost. In a functional p53 background, nutlin-3a downregulated the α5 integrin subunit, thereby increasing the cytotoxic effect of temozolomide. Clinically, α5β1 integrin expression was associated with a more aggressive phenotype in brain tumors, and high α5 integrin gene expression was associated with decreased survival of patients with high-grade glioma. Taken together, our findings indicate that negative cross-talk between α5β1 integrin and p53 supports glioma resistance to temozolomide, providing preclinical proof-of-concept that α5β1 integrin represents a therapeutic target for high-grade brain tumors. Direct activation of p53 may remain a therapeutic option in the subset of patients with high-grade gliomas that express both functional p53 and a high level of α5β1 integrin.
|Perlecan domain V is upregulated in human brain arteriovenous malformation and could mediate the vascular endothelial growth factor effect in lesional tissue. |
Kahle, MP; Lee, B; Pourmohamad, T; Cunningham, A; Su, H; Kim, H; Chen, Y; McCulloch, CE; Barbaro, NM; Lawton, MT; Young, WL; Bix, GJ
Neuroreport 23 627-30 2012
Brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM), a rare but important cause of intracranial hemorrhage, has increased angiogenesis and inflammation as key components of the nidus of abnormal vessels and stroma that form the resected surgical specimen. Accordingly, both vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β have been implicated in the pathology of BAVM for their proangiogenic and vascular-regulating roles. The C-terminal fragment of the extracellular matrix component perlecan (domain V, DV) has been shown to be increased and through the α5β1 integrin, to increase VEGF levels in and around areas of cerebral ischemic injury, another proangiogenic condition. We aimed to determine whether the concentrations of DV, DV's proangiogenic receptor α5β1 integrin, or DV's antiangiogenic receptor α2β1 integrin are elevated in human BAVM tissue. DV levels were increased in BAVM compared with control brain tissue from epileptic resection, as was α5β1 integrin. In addition, α5β1 integrin was preferentially increased and localized to endothelial cells compared with α2β1 integrin. VEGF and transforming growth factor-β levels were also increased in BAVM compared with control tissue. Furthermore, increases in all components were strongly correlated. Excessive generation of proangiogenic DV in BAVM suggests that DV may participate in its pathology and may represent a future therapeutic target.
|A combinatorial extracellular matrix platform identifies cell-extracellular matrix interactions that correlate with metastasis. |
Reticker-Flynn, NE; Malta, DF; Winslow, MM; Lamar, JM; Xu, MJ; Underhill, GH; Hynes, RO; Jacks, TE; Bhatia, SN
Nature communications 3 1122 2012
Extracellular matrix interactions have essential roles in normal physiology and many pathological processes. Although the importance of extracellular matrix interactions in metastasis is well documented, systematic approaches to identify their roles in distinct stages of tumorigenesis have not been described. Here we report a novel-screening platform capable of measuring phenotypic responses to combinations of extracellular matrix molecules. Using a genetic mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma, we measure the extracellular matrix-dependent adhesion of tumour-derived cells. Hierarchical clustering of the adhesion profiles differentiates metastatic cell lines from primary tumour lines. Furthermore, we uncovered that metastatic cells selectively associate with fibronectin when in combination with galectin-3, galectin-8 or laminin. We show that these molecules correlate with human disease and that their interactions are mediated in part by α3β1 integrin. Thus, our platform allowed us to interrogate interactions between metastatic cells and their microenvironments, and identified extracellular matrix and integrin interactions that could serve as therapeutic targets.
|Age-related resistance of skeletal muscle-derived progenitor cells to SPARC may explain a shift from myogenesis to adipogenesis. |
Nakamura, K; Nakano, S; Miyoshi, T; Yamanouchi, K; Matsuwaki, T; Nishihara, M
Aging 4 40-8 2012
Aging causes phenotypic changes in skeletal muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs) that lead to the loss of myogenicity and adipogenesis. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), which is secreted from SMPCs, stimulates myogenesis and inhibits adipogenesis. The present study aimed to examine whether changes in SPARC expression, its signaling pathway, or both are involved in age-related phenotypic changes in SMPCs. SPARC expression levels were comparable in SMPCs derived from young and old rats. However, when SPARC expression was reduced by a SPARC-specific siRNA, SMPCs from young rats showed reduced myogenesis and increased adipogenesis. In striking contrast, old rats showed little changes in these functions. Recombinant SPARC was effective in inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting myogenesis of SMPCs from young rats but had no effect on SMPCs from old rats when endogenous SPARC levels were reduced by the SPARC-siRNA. Further, the level of integrin α5, a subunit of the putative SPARC receptor, was decreased in SMPCs from old rats, and its inhibition in SMPCs from young rats by siRNA reduced adipogenesis in response to SPARC. These results suggest that, although SPARC plays a role in regulating SMPC function, SMPCs become refractory to the action of SPARC with age. Our data may explain an age-related shift from myogenesis to adipogenesis, associated with sarcopenia.
|Endothelial cell migration on fibronectin is regulated by syntaxin 6-mediated alpha5beta1 integrin recycling. |
Tiwari, A; Jung, JJ; Inamdar, SM; Brown, CO; Goel, A; Choudhury, A
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 36749-61 2011
The α5β1 integrin heterodimer regulates many processes that contribute to embryonic development and angiogenesis, in both physiological and pathological contexts. As one of the major adhesion complexes on endothelial cells, it plays a vital role in adhesion and migration along the extracellular matrix. We recently showed that angiogenesis is modulated by syntaxin 6, a Golgi- and endosome-localized t-SNARE, and that it does so by regulating the post-Golgi trafficking of VEGFR2. Here we show that syntaxin 6 is also required for α5β1 integrin-mediated adhesion of endothelial cells to, and migration along, fibronectin. We demonstrate that syntaxin 6 and α5β1 integrin colocalize in EEA1-containing early endosomes, and that functional inhibition of syntaxin 6 leads to misrouting of β1 integrin to the degradation pathway (late endosomes and lysosomes) rather transport along recycling pathway from early endosomes; an increase in the pool of ubiquitinylated α5 integrin and its lysosome-dependent degradation; reduced cell spreading on fibronectin; decreased Rac1 activation; and altered Rac1 localization. Collectively, our data show that functional syntaxin 6 is required for the regulation of α5β1-mediated endothelial cell movement on fibronectin. These syntaxin 6-regulated membrane trafficking events control outside-in signaling via haptotactic and chemotactic mechanisms.
|MT1-MMP regulates the turnover and endocytosis of extracellular matrix fibronectin. |
Shi, F; Sottile, J
Journal of cell science 124 4039-50 2011
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is dynamically remodeled by cells during development, normal tissue homeostasis and in a variety of disease processes. We previously showed that fibronectin is an important regulator of ECM remodeling. The deposition and/or polymerization of fibronectin into the ECM controls the deposition and stability of other ECM molecules. In addition, agents that inhibit fibronectin polymerization promote the turnover of fibronectin fibrils and enhance ECM fibronectin endocytosis and intracellular degradation. Endocytosis of ECM fibronectin is regulated by β1 integrins, including α5β1 integrin. We have examined the role of extracellular proteases in regulating ECM fibronectin turnover. Our data show that membrane type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP; also known as MMP14) is a crucial regulator of fibronectin turnover. Cells lacking MT1-MMP show reduced turnover and endocytosis of ECM fibronectin. MT1-MMP regulates ECM fibronectin remodeling by promoting extracellular cleavage of fibronectin and by regulating α5β1-integrin endocytosis. Our data also show that fibronectin polymerization stabilizes fibronectin fibrils and inhibits ECM fibronectin endocytosis by inhibiting α5β1-integrin endocytosis. These data are the first to show that an ECM protein and its modifying enzyme can regulate integrin endocytosis. These data also show that integrin trafficking plays a major role in modulating ECM fibronectin remodeling. The dual dependence of ECM fibronectin turnover on extracellular proteolysis and endocytosis highlights the complex regulatory mechanisms that control ECM remodeling to ensure maintenance of proper tissue function.
|MAL/MRTF-A controls migration of non-invasive cells by upregulation of cytoskeleton-associated proteins. |
Leitner, L; Shaposhnikov, D; Mengel, A; Descot, A; Julien, S; Hoffmann, R; Posern, G
Journal of cell science 124 4318-31 2011
Monomeric actin regulates gene expression through serum response factor (SRF) by inhibiting its transcriptional coactivator myocardin-related transcription factor (MAL/MRTF). Many affected genes encode cytoskeletal components. We have analysed the migratory effects of actin-MAL signalling and of new target genes in non-invasive highly adherent cells. Expression of active MAL impaired migration of both fibroblasts and epithelial cells, whereas dominant-negative constructs and partial knockdown of MAL/MRTF enhanced motility. Knockdown of three newly characterised G-actin-regulated MAL targets, integrin α5, plakophilin 2 (Pkp2) and FHL1, enhanced cell migration. All three were upregulated by external stimulation through actin-MAL-SRF signalling, and MAL and SRF were inducibly recruited to cis-regulatory elements of the integrin α5 and Pkp2 genes. Finally, the reduced migration of epithelial cells stably expressing MAL was partially reversed by knockdown of Pkp2 and FHL1. We conclude that the actin-MAL pathway promotes adhesive gene expression, including integrin α5, Pkp2 and FHL1, and that this is anti-motile for non-invasive cells harbouring high basal activity.
|Molecular characterization of the tumor-suppressive function of nischarin in breast cancer. |
Baranwal, S; Wang, Y; Rathinam, R; Lee, J; Jin, L; McGoey, R; Pylayeva, Y; Giancotti, F; Blobe, GC; Alahari, SK
Journal of the National Cancer Institute 103 1513-28 2011
Nischarin (encoded by NISCH), an α5 integrin-binding protein, has been identified as a regulator of breast cancer cell invasion. We hypothesized that it might be a tumor suppressor and were interested in its regulation.We examined nischarin expression in approximately 300 human breast cancer and normal tissues using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Loss of heterozygosity analysis was performed by examining three microsatellite markers located near the NISCH locus in normal and tumor tissues. We generated derivatives of MDA-MB-231 human metastatic breast cancer cells that overexpressed nischarin and measured tumor growth from these cells as xenografts in mice; metastasis by these cells after tail vein injection; and α5 integrin expression, Rac, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling using western blotting. We also generated clones of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in which nischarin expression was silenced and measured tumor growth in mouse xenograft models (n = 5 for all mouse experiments). P values were from two-sided Student t tests in pairwise comparisons.Normal human breast tissue samples had statistically significantly higher expression of nischarin mRNA compared with tumor tissue samples (mean level in normal breast = 50.7 [arbitrary units], in breast tumor = 16.49 [arbitrary units], difference = 34.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 11.63 to 56.79, P = .003), and loss of heterozygosity was associated with loss of nischarin expression. MDA-MB-231 cells in which nischarin was overexpressed had statistically significantly reduced tumor growth and metastasis compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cells (mean volume at day 40, control vs nischarin-expressing tumors, 1977 vs 42.27 mm(3), difference = 1935 mm(3), 95% CI = 395 to 3475 mm(3), P = .025). Moreover, MCF-7 tumor xenografts in which nischarin expression was silenced grew statistically significantly faster than parental cells (mean volume at day 63, tumors with scrambled short hairpin RNA [shRNA] vs with nischarin shRNA, 224 vs 1262 mm(3), difference = 1038 mm(3), 95% CI = 899.6 to 1176 mm(3), P less than .001). Overexpression of nischarin was associated with decreased α5 integrin expression, FAK phosphorylation, and Rac activation.Nischarin may be a novel tumor suppressor that limits breast cancer progression by regulating α5 integrin expression and subsequently α5 integrin-, FAK-, and Rac-mediated signaling.
|Collagen VI is a basement membrane component that regulates epithelial cell-fibronectin interactions. |
Groulx, JF; Gagné, D; Benoit, YD; Martel, D; Basora, N; Beaulieu, JF
Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 30 195-206 2011
Collagen VI is a heterotrimer composed of three α chains (α1, α2, α3) widely expressed throughout various interstitial matrices. Collagen VI is also found near the basement membranes of many tissues where it serves as an anchoring meshwork. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and role of collagen VI at the epithelial-stromal interface in the intestine. Results showed that collagen VI is a bona fide epithelial basal lamina component and constitutes the major collagen type of epithelial origin in this organ. In vitro, collagen VI co-distributes with fibronectin. Targeted knockdown of collagen VI expression in intestinal epithelial cells was used to investigate its function. Depletion of collagen VI from the matrix led to a significant increase in cell spreading and fibrillar adhesion formation coinciding with an upregulation of fibronectin expression, deposition and organization as well as activation of myosin light chain phosphorylation by the myosin light chain kinase and Rho kinase dependent mechanisms. Plating cells deficient for collagen VI on collagen VI rescued the phenotype. Taken together, these data demonstrate that collagen VI is an important basal lamina component involved in the regulation of epithelial cell behavior most notably as a regulator of epithelial cell-fibronectin interactions.
|Autocrine fibronectin directs matrix assembly and crosstalk between cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in vascular endothelial cells. |
Cseh, B; Fernandez-Sauze, S; Grall, D; Schaub, S; Doma, E; Van Obberghen-Schilling, E
Journal of cell science 123 3989-99 2010
Cellular fibronectin (cFN) variants harboring extra FN type 3 repeats, namely extra domains B and A, are major constituents of the extracellular matrix around newly forming blood vessels during development and angiogenesis. Their expression is induced by angiogenic stimuli and their assembly into fibrillar arrays is driven by cell-generated tension at α5β1 integrin-based adhesions. Here, we examined the role and functional redundancy of cFN variants in cultured endothelial cells by isoform-selective RNA interference. We show that FN fibrillogenesis is a cell-autonomous process whereby basally directed secretion and assembly of cellular FN are tightly coupled events that play an important role not only in signaling at cell-matrix adhesions but also at cell-cell contacts. Silencing of cFN variants differentially affects integrin usage, cell spreading, motility and capillary morphogenesis in vitro. cFN-deficient cells undergo a switch from α5β1- to αvβ3-based adhesion, accompanied by a Src-regulated disruption of adherens junctions. These studies identify a crucial role for autocrine FN in subendothelial matrix assembly and junctional integrity that provides spatially and temporally restricted control of endothelial plasticity during angiogenic blood vessel remodeling.
|alpha2beta1 integrin controls association of Rac with the membrane and triggers quiescence of endothelial cells. |
Cailleteau, L; Estrach, S; Thyss, R; Boyer, L; Doye, A; Domange, B; Johnsson, N; Rubinstein, E; Boucheix, C; Ebrahimian, T; Silvestre, JS; Lemichez, E; Meneguzzi, G; Mettouchi, A
Journal of cell science 123 2491-501 2010
Integrin receptors and their extracellular matrix ligands provide cues to cell proliferation, survival, differentiation and migration. Here, we show that alpha2beta1 integrin, when ligated to the basement membrane component laminin-1, triggers a proliferation arrest in primary endothelial cells. Indeed, in the presence of strong growth signals supplied by growth factors and fibronectin, alpha2beta1 engagement alters assembly of mature focal adhesions by alpha5beta1 and leads to impairment of downstream signaling and cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Although the capacity of alpha5beta1 to signal for GTP loading of Rac is preserved, the joint engagement of alpha2beta1 interferes with membrane anchorage of Rac. Adapting the 'split-ubiquitin' sensor to screen for membrane-proximal alpha2 integrin partners, we identified the CD9 tetraspanin and further establish its requirement for destabilization of focal adhesions, control of Rac subcellular localization and growth arrest induced by alpha2beta1 integrin. Altogether, our data establish that alpha2beta1 integrin controls endothelial cell commitment towards quiescence by triggering a CD9-dependent dominant signaling.
|Integrin-linked kinase regulates migration and proliferation of human intestinal cells under a fibronectin-dependent mechanism. |
Gagné D, Groulx JF, Benoit YD, Basora N, Herring E, Vachon PH, Beaulieu JF
J Cell Physiol 222 387-400. 2010
Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) plays a role in integrin signaling-mediated extracellular matrix (ECM)-cell interactions and also acts as a scaffold protein in functional focal adhesion points. In the present study, we investigated the expression and roles of ILK in human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vivo and in vitro. Herein, we report that ILK and its scaffold-function interacting partners, PINCH-1, alpha-parvin, and beta-parvin, are expressed according to a decreasing gradient from the bottom of the crypt (proliferative/undifferentiated) compartment to the tip of the villus (non-proliferative/differentiated) compartment, closely following the expression pattern of the ECM/basement membrane component fibronectin. The siRNA knockdown of ILK in human IECs caused a loss of PINCH-1, alpha-parvin, and beta-parvin expression, along with a significant decrease in cell proliferation via a loss of cyclin D1 and an increase in p27 and hypophosphorylated pRb expression levels. ILK knockdown severely affected cell spreading, migration, and restitution abilities, which were shown to be directly related to a decrease in fibronectin deposition. All ILK knockdown-induced defects were rescued with exogenously deposited fibronectin. Altogether, our results indicate that ILK performs crucial roles in the control of human intestinal cell and crypt-villus axis homeostasis-especially with regard to basement membrane fibronectin deposition-as well as cell proliferation, spreading, and migration. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.Full Text Article
|Evaluation of retinoic acid therapy for OTX2-positive medulloblastomas. |
Bai R, Siu IM, Tyler BM, Staedtke V, Gallia GL, Riggins GJ
Neuro Oncol 2010
The homeobox transcription factor OTX2 plays an essential role during embryonic brain development. It is normally silenced in the adult brain, but is overexpressed by genomic amplification or other mechanisms in the majority of medulloblastomas (MBs). Retinoic acids (RAs) can suppress OTX2 expression and inhibit MB growth. In this study, 9-cis RA most potently inhibited MB cell growth. 9-cis RA functions through the downregulation of OTX2 expression, which subsequently induces neuronal differentiation of OTX2-expressing cells. Treatment with 9-cis RA reduced the growth of D425 flank xenograft tumors in mice. In an intracranial model, however, MB tumors showed resistance to 9-cis RA treatment, and we implicated fibroblast growth factor (FGF) as a potential mediator of resistance to RA therapy. These findings suggest a mechanism for RA-mediated anti-tumor effect on OTX2-positive MB cells and indicate that therapeutic targeting of OTX2 might be effective if FGF pathway-mediated resistance can be overcome.
|Secreted phosphoprotein 1 binds integrins to initiate multiple cell signaling pathways, including FRAP1/mTOR, to support attachment and force-generated migration of trophectoderm cells. |
Kim J, Erikson DW, Burghardt RC, Spencer TE, Wu G, Bayless KJ, Johnson GA, Bazer FW
Matrix Biol 2010
Attachment and migration of trophectoderm (Tr) cells, hallmarks of blastocyst implantation in mammals, are unique uterine events. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) in the uterus binds integrins on conceptus Tr and uterine luminal epithelium (LE), affecting cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The signal transduction pathways activated by SPP1 and integrins in conceptuses have not been elucidated. Results of this study demonstrate that SPP1 binds alphavbeta3 and alpha5beta1 integrins to induce focal adhesion assembly, a prerequisite for adhesion and migration of Tr, through activation of: 1) P70S6K via crosstalk between FRAP1/mTOR and MAPK pathways; 2) mTOR, PI3K, MAPK3/MAPK1 (Erk1/2) and MAPK14 (p38) signaling to stimulate Tr cell migration; and 3) focal adhesion assembly and myosin II motor activity to induce migration of Tr cells. These cell signaling pathways, acting in concert, mediate adhesion, migration and cytoskeletal remodeling of Tr cells essential for expansion and elongation of conceptuses and attachment to uterine LE for implantation. Copyright Â© 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.
|Mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor limits cell invasion by controlling alphaVbeta3 integrin expression and proteolytic processing of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor. |
Schiller, HB; Szekeres, A; Binder, BR; Stockinger, H; Leksa, V
Molecular biology of the cell 20 745-56 2009
The multifunctional mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (M6P/IGF2R) is considered a tumor suppressor. We report here that RNA interference with M6P/IGF2R expression in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expressing human cancer and endothelial cells resulted in increased pericellular plasminogen activation, cell adhesion, and higher invasive potential through matrigel. M6P/IGF2R silencing led also to the cell surface accumulation of urokinase and plasminogen and enhanced expression of alphaV integrins. Genetic rescue experiments and inhibitor studies revealed that the enhanced plasminogen activation was due to a direct effect of M6P/IGF2R on uPAR, whereas increased cell adhesion to vitronectin was dependent on alphaV integrin expression and not uPAR. Increased cell invasion of M6P/IGF2R knockdown cells was rescued by cosilencing both uPAR and alphaV integrin. Furthermore, we found that M6P/IGF2R expression accelerates the cleavage of uPAR. M6P/IGF2R silencing resulted in an increased ratio of full-length uPAR to the truncated D2D3 fragment, incapable of binding most uPAR ligands. We conclude that M6P/IGF2R controls cell invasion by regulating alphaV integrin expression and by accelerating uPAR cleavage, leading to the loss of the urokinase/vitronectin/integrin-binding site on uPAR.Full Text Article
|Enhanced focal adhesion assembly reflects increased mechanosensation and mechanotransduction at maternal-conceptus interface and uterine wall during ovine pregnancy. |
Burghardt, RC; Burghardt, JR; Taylor, JD; Reeder, AT; Nguen, BT; Spencer, TE; Bayless, KJ; Johnson, GA
Reproduction (Cambridge, England) 137 567-82 2009
The integrity of the fetal-maternal interface is critical for proper fetal nourishment during pregnancy. Integrins are important adhesion molecules present at the interface during implantation; however, in vivo evidence for integrin activation and focal adhesion formation at the maternal-conceptus interface is limited. We hypothesized that focal adhesion assembly in uterine luminal epithelium (LE) and conceptus trophectoderm (Tr) results from integrin binding of extracellular matrix (ECM) at this interface to provide increased tensile forces and signaling to coordinate utero-placental development. An ovine model of unilateral pregnancy was used to evaluate mechanotransduction events leading to focal adhesion assembly at the maternal-conceptus interface and within the uterine wall. Animals were hysterectomized on days 40, 80, or 120 of pregnancy, and uteri immunostained for integrins (ITGAV, ITGA4, ITGA5, ITGB1, ITGB3, and ITGB5), ECM proteins (SPP1, LGALS15, fibronectin (FN), and vitronectin (VTN)), cytoskeletal molecules (ACTN and TLN1), and a signal generator (PTK2). Focal adhesion assembly in myometrium and stroma was also studied to provide a frame of reference for mechanical stretch of the uterine wall. Large focal adhesions containing aggregates of ITGAV, ITGA4, ITGA5, ITGB1, ITGB5, ACTN, and PTK2 were detected in interplacentomal uterine LE and Tr of gravid but not non-gravid uterine horns and increased during pregnancy. SPP1 and LGALS15, but not FN or VTN, were present along LE and Tr interfaces in both uterine horns. These data support the idea that focal adhesion assembly at the maternal-conceptus interface reflects adaptation to increasing forces caused by the growing fetus. Cooperative binding of multiple integrins to SPP1 deposited at the maternal-conceptus interface forms an adhesive mosaic to maintain a tight connection between uterine and placental surfaces along regions of epitheliochorial placentation in sheep.
|Neuropilin-1/GIPC1 signaling regulates alpha5beta1 integrin traffic and function in endothelial cells. |
Valdembri, D; Caswell, PT; Anderson, KI; Schwarz, JP; König, I; Astanina, E; Caccavari, F; Norman, JC; Humphries, MJ; Bussolino, F; Serini, G
PLoS biology 7 e25 2009
Neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) is a coreceptor for vascular endothelial growth factor A165 (VEGF-A165, VEGF-A164 in mice) and semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A). Nevertheless, Nrp1 null embryos display vascular defects that differ from those of mice lacking either VEGF-A164 or Sema3A proteins. Furthermore, it has been recently reported that Nrp1 is required for endothelial cell (EC) response to both VEGF-A165 and VEGF-A121 isoforms, the latter being incapable of binding Nrp1 on the EC surface. Taken together, these data suggest that the vascular phenotype caused by the loss of Nrp1 could be due to a VEGF-A164/SEMA3A-independent function of Nrp1 in ECs, such as adhesion to the extracellular matrix. By using RNA interference and rescue with wild-type and mutant constructs, we show here that Nrp1 through its cytoplasmic SEA motif and independently of VEGF-A165 and SEMA3A specifically promotes alpha5beta1-integrin-mediated EC adhesion to fibronectin that is crucial for vascular development. We provide evidence that Nrp1, while not directly mediating cell spreading on fibronectin, interacts with alpha5beta1 at adhesion sites. Binding of the homomultimeric endocytic adaptor GAIP interacting protein C terminus, member 1 (GIPC1), to the SEA motif of Nrp1 selectively stimulates the internalization of active alpha5beta1 in Rab5-positive early endosomes. Accordingly, GIPC1, which also interacts with alpha5beta1, and the associated motor myosin VI (Myo6) support active alpha5beta1 endocytosis and EC adhesion to fibronectin. In conclusion, we propose that Nrp1, in addition to and independently of its role as coreceptor for VEGF-A165 and SEMA3A, stimulates through its cytoplasmic domain the spreading of ECs on fibronectin by increasing the Rab5/GIPC1/Myo6-dependent internalization of active alpha5beta1. Nrp1 modulation of alpha5beta1 integrin function can play a causal role in the generation of angiogenesis defects observed in Nrp1 null mice.
|alpha(5)beta(1) Integrin Ligand PHSRN Induces Invasion and alpha(5) mRNA in Endothelial Cells to Stimulate Angiogenesis. |
Zeng, ZZ; Yao, H; Staszewski, ED; Rockwood, KF; Markwart, SM; Fay, KS; Spalding, AC; Livant, DL
Translational oncology 2 8-20 2009
Angiogenesis requires endothelial cell invasion and is crucial for wound healing and for tumor growth and metastasis. Invasion of native collagen is mediated by the alpha(5)beta(1) integrin fibronectin receptor. Thus, alpha(5)beta(1) up-regulation on the surfaces of endothelial cells may induce endothelial cell invasion to stimulate angiogenesis. We report that the interaction of alpha(5)beta(1) with its PHSRN peptide ligand induces human microvascular endothelial cell invasion and that PHSRN-induced endothelial cell invasion is regulated by alpha(4)beta(1) integrin and requires matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1). Moreover, our results show that exposure to PHSRN causes rapid, specific up-regulation of surface levels of alpha(5)beta(1) integrin and significantly increases alpha(5) integrin mRNA in microvascular endothelial cells. Consistent with these results, alpha(5) small interfering RNA abrogates PHSRN-induced surface alpha(5) and MMP-1 up-regulation, as well as blocking invasion induction. We also observed dose-dependent, PHSRN-induced alpha(5)beta(1) integrin up-regulation on endothelial cells in vivo in Matrigel plugs. We further report that the PHSCN peptide, an alpha(5)beta(1)-targeted invasion inhibitor, blocks PHSRN-induced invasion, alpha(5)beta(1) up-regulation, alpha(5) mRNA induction, and MMP-1 secretion in microvascular endothelial cells and that systemic PHSCN administration prevents PHSRN-induced alpha(5)beta(1) up-regulation and angiogenesis in Matrigel plugs. These results demonstrate a critical role for alpha(5)beta(1) integrin and MMP-1 in mediating the endothelial cell invasion and angiogenesis and suggest that PHSRN-induced alpha(5) transcription and alpha(5)beta(1) up-regulation may form an important feed-forward mechanism for stimulating angiogenesis.
|Focal adhesion kinase modulates cell adhesion strengthening via integrin activation. |
Michael, KE; Dumbauld, DW; Burns, KL; Hanks, SK; García, AJ
Molecular biology of the cell 20 2508-19 2009
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an essential nonreceptor tyrosine kinase regulating cell migration, adhesive signaling, and mechanosensing. Using FAK-null cells expressing FAK under an inducible promoter, we demonstrate that FAK regulates the time-dependent generation of adhesive forces. During the early stages of adhesion, FAK expression in FAK-null cells enhances integrin activation to promote integrin binding and, hence, the adhesion strengthening rate. Importantly, FAK expression regulated integrin activation, and talin was required for the FAK-dependent effects. A role for FAK in integrin activation was confirmed in human fibroblasts with knocked-down FAK expression. The FAK autophosphorylation Y397 site was required for the enhancements in adhesion strengthening and integrin-binding responses. This work demonstrates a novel role for FAK in integrin activation and the time-dependent generation of cell-ECM forces.Full Text Article
|Integrin alpha5beta1 mediates attachment, migration, and proliferation in human retinal pigment epithelium: relevance for proliferative retinal disease. |
Li, R; Maminishkis, A; Zahn, G; Vossmeyer, D; Miller, SS
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 50 5988-96 2009
The aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of integrin alpha5beta1 in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and its ability to modulate RPE cell attachment, proliferation, migration, and F-actin cytoskeleton distribution.Expression and localization of alpha5beta1 were analyzed on human RPE by immunoblot/immunofluorescence. Polarized secretion of fibronectin was measured. RPE attachments to different substrates were determined using cell attachment screening kits. BrdU incorporation and wound-healing assays were used to test hfRPE proliferation and migration. F-actin cytoskeleton was visualized with phalloidin.Integrin alpha5beta1 was detected in native adult and fetal human RPE. The alpha5-subunit is predominantly localized at the apical membrane of hfRPE, whereas the beta1-subunit is uniformly detected at the apical/basolateral membranes. The authors also found that hfRPE cultures secrete significant amounts of fibronectin to the apical bath. JSM6427, a specific integrin alpha5beta1 antagonist, significantly inhibited hfRPE cell attachment to fibronectin, but not laminin, or collagen I or IV. JSM6427 also showed a strong inhibitory effect on bFGF, PDGF-BB, and serum-induced cell migration and proliferation. Furthermore, JSM6427 induced significant disruption of the F-actin cytoskeleton of dividing RPE cells but had no effect on quiescent cells.The apical localization of alpha5beta1 and the secretion of fibronectin to the apical bath suggest the presence of an autocrine loop that can guide the migration of RPE. The strong inhibitory effects of JSM6427 on human RPE cell attachment, proliferation, and migration is probably mediated by F-actin cytoskeletal disruption in proliferating cells and suggests a potential clinical use of this compound in proliferative retinopathies.
|Expression of integrins on human choroidal neovascular membranes. |
Cui, J; Maberley, D; Samad, A; Ma, P; Ning, A; Matsubara, JA; Baciu, P
Journal of ocular biology, diseases, and informatics 2 12-9 2009
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|Role of MT1-MMP in the osteogenic differentiation. |
Paola Manduca, Alessia Castagnino, Domenico Lombardini, Stefania Marchisio, Stefano Soldano, Valentina Ulivi, Stefano Zanotti, Corrado Garbi, Nicoletta Ferrari, Daniela Palmieri, Paola Manduca, Alessia Castagnino, Domenico Lombardini, Stefania Marchisio, Stefano Soldano, Valentina Ulivi, Stefano Zanotti, Corrado Garbi, Nicoletta Ferrari, Daniela Palmieri, Paola Manduca, Alessia Castagnino, Domenico Lombardini, Stefania Marchisio, Stefano Soldano, Valentina Ulivi, Stefano Zanotti, Corrado Garbi, Nicoletta Ferrari, Daniela Palmieri
Bone 44 251-65 2009
Metalloproteinase MT1-MMP is induced and Pro-MMP-2 up modulated early in rat preosteoblasts (ROB) set to differentiate. We here show that the induction of MMPs, accompanied by activation of Pro-MMP-2, occurs by 6 h of adhesion on endogenous extracellular matrix (ECM), Fibronectin (FN) and Collagen type I (CI). These events do not occur after adhesion on Collagen III (CIII), Vitronectin (VN) or BSA. Within the first hour on inducing substrata or plastic, FAK is unchanged and ERK(1,2), is activated, but this activation is not sufficient for MT1-MMP induction. The function of p38 MAPK and PTKs is not required for the induction by substrata of MMPs. Six hours after plating preosteoblasts on MMP-inducing substrata, complexes of beta1 integrin with MT1-MMP are formed, that contain integrin dimers specifically engaged by the substratum, alpha4 and alpha5 chains for cells plated on FN, and alpha2 chain for cells plated on CI and ECM. Induction of MT1-MMP and its expression during osteogenesis pleiotropically regulate alkaline phosphatase (AP) expression. During differentiation, variant clones derived from preosteoblasts and MMPs-over-expressing osteoblasts show high MT1-MMP level associated with high AP level both persisting in time, while inhibition of MMPs is accompanied by inhibition of AP. Up or down modulation of AP, transcriptionally or by inhibition of the enzyme activity, has no effect on level or timing of expression of MT1-MMP and Pro-MMP-2. The persistence in expression of MT1-MMP during differentiation, and the associated persistence in expression of AP, as well as their inhibition, both impair the formation of nodules and mineral deposition. A transient pattern of expression of MT1-MMP is required for the establishment of nodules, and MT1-MMP decrease is permissive for nodule mineralization. The expression of AP is required for nodule formation and its level modulates the mineralization. MT1-MMP has multiple functions and is implicated in multiple steps of the differentiation process, acting to regulate homeostasis of the osteogenic differentiation.
|Regulation of fibronectin matrix assembly and capillary morphogenesis in endothelial cells by Rho family GTPases. |
Samantha Fernandez-Sauze, Dominique Grall, Botond Cseh, Ellen Van Obberghen-Schilling, Samantha Fernandez-Sauze, Dominique Grall, Botond Cseh, Ellen Van Obberghen-Schilling
Experimental cell research 315 2092-104 2009
Fibronectin (FN) fibrillogenesis is an essential biological process mediated by alpha5beta1 integrin and cellular contractile forces. Assembly of a FN matrix by activated endothelial cells occurs during angiogenic blood vessel remodeling and signaling components that control this event represent attractive therapeutic targets. Here we examined the role of individual Rho GTPases in FN matrix remodeling by selectively attenuating their expression in cultured endothelial cells. Whereas pharmacological ablation of myosin-regulated contractility abrogated matrix assembly, no significant decrease was detected in the amount of FN deposited by RhoA, RhoB-, RhoC-, Rac1-, or Cdc42-depleted cells. Rather, distinct differences in fiber arrangement were observed. Most strikingly, RhoA silenced cells assembled a fine FN meshwork beneath alpha5beta1 integrin-based fibrillar adhesions, in the absence of classical focal adhesions and actin stress fibers, indicating that alpha5beta1 integrin translocation and FN fibril elongation can occur in low tension states such as those encountered by newly-forming vessels in tissue. In contrast, highly contractile Cdc42-deficient cells deposited FN globules and Rac-deficient cells assembled long arrays, reflecting their increased motility. We propose that regulation of FN scaffolds by Rho GTPase signaling impacts bidirectional communications and mechanical interactions between endothelial cells and their extracellular matrix during vascular morphogenesis.
|Alpha5beta1-integrin controls ebolavirus entry by regulating endosomal cathepsins. |
Schornberg KL, Shoemaker CJ, Dube D, Abshire MY, Delos SE, Bouton AH, White JM
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United 106 8003-8008 2009
Integrins are involved in the binding and internalization of both enveloped and nonenveloped viruses. By using 3 distinct cell systems-CHO cells lacking expression of alpha(5)beta(1)-integrin, HeLa cells treated with siRNA to alpha(5)-integrin, and mouse beta(1)-integrin knockout fibroblasts, we show that alpha(5)beta(1)-integrin is required for efficient infection by pseudovirions bearing the ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP). These integrins are necessary for viral entry but not for binding or internalization. Given the need for endosomal cathepsins B and L (CatB and CatL) to prime GPs for fusion, we investigated the status of CatB and CatL in integrin-positive and integrin-negative cell lines. Alpha(5)beta(1)-Integrin-deficient cells lacked the double-chain (DC) forms of CatB and CatL, and this correlated with decreased CatL activity in integrin-negative CHO cells. These data indicate that alpha(5)beta(1)-integrin-negative cells-05-be refractory to infection by GP pseudovirions because they lack the necessary priming machinery (the double-chain forms of CatB and CatL). In support of this model, we show that GP pseudovirions that have been preprimed in vitro to generate the 19-kDa form of GP overcome the requirement for alpha(5)beta(1)-integrin for infection. These results provide further support for the requirement for endosomal cathepsins for ebolavirus infection, identify the DC forms of these cathepsins as previously unrecognized factors that contribute to cell tropism of this virus, and reveal a previously undescribed role for integrins during viral entry as regulators of endosomal cathepsins, which are required to prime the entry proteins of ebolavirus and other pathogenic viruses.,
|Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, osteopontin) binds to integrin alpha v beta 6 on porcine trophectoderm cells and integrin alpha v beta 3 on uterine luminal epithelial cells, and promotes trophectoderm cell adhesion and migration. |
Erikson, DW; Burghardt, RC; Bayless, KJ; Johnson, GA
Biology of reproduction 81 814-25 2009
Conceptus implantation involves pregnancy-specific alterations in extracellular matrix at the conceptus-maternal interface. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, osteopontin) is induced just before implantation and is present at the conceptus-maternal interface in mammals. In the present study, we investigated mechanisms by which SPP1 facilitates porcine conceptus and uterine luminal epithelial cell attachment. Native bovine milk and wild-type rat recombinant SPP1 stimulated trophectoderm cell migration. Bovine milk SPP1, ovine uterine SPP1, and recombinant wild-type, but not mutated, rat SPP1 promoted dose- and cation-dependent attachment of porcine trophectoderm and uterine luminal epithelial cells, which was markedly reduced in the presence of a linear Arg-Gly-Asp integrin-blocking peptide. Affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation experiments revealed direct binding of alpha v beta 6 trophectoderm and alpha v beta 3 uterine epithelial cell integrins to SPP1. Immunofluorescence microscopy using SPP1-coated microspheres revealed colocalization of the alpha v integrin subunit and talin at focal adhesions as well as at the apical domain of trophectoderm cells. Similarly, immunofluorescence staining of implantation sites in frozen gravid uterine cross sections localized SPP1 and alpha v integrin to the apical surfaces of trophectoderm and luminal epithelium and beta 3 integrin to the apical surface of luminal epithelium. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate functionally that SPP1 directly binds specific integrins to promote trophectoderm cell migration and attachment to luminal epithelium that may be critical to conceptus elongation and implantation.
|Beta1-6 branching of cell surface glycoproteins may contribute to uveal melanoma progression by up-regulating cell motility. |
Przybyło, M; Pocheć, E; Link-Lenczowski, P; Lityńska, A
Molecular vision 14 625-36 2008
This study investigated the influence of integrin expression as well as the oligosaccharide structure of surface N-glycoproteins on cell behavior of two primary uveal (92-1 and Mel202) and two primary cutaneous (FM55P and IGR-39) melanoma cell lines.Cell adhesion to fibronectin and cell migration on fibronectin (wound healing) were selected as the studied cell behavior parameters. The percentage of cells positive for expression of selected integrins was estimated by flow cytometric analysis. The influence of beta1-6 branched complex-type N-oligosaccharides on wound healing on fibronectin was investigated. Cell surface beta1-6 branched N-oligosaccharides were measured by their specific binding to PHA-L followed by flow cytometry, and the fibronectin receptors bearing beta1-6 GlcNAc branched N-linked glycans were identified. In addition, the transcript of GnT-V (the enzyme that catalyzes the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to the core mannose of di- and tri-antennary N-glycans through a beta1-6 linkage) was analyzed by semiquantitative RT-PCR.Unlike the two examined cutaneous melanoma cell lines, neither of the uveal melanoma cells adhered to fibronectin. The adhesion efficiency of IGR-39 cells was twice that of FM55P cells. In contrast, uveal melanoma cells repaired scratch wounds on fibronectin-coated surfaces twice as fast as cutaneous melanoma cells did. The expression of alpha(3)beta(1), alpha(4)beta(1), alpha(5)beta(1), and alpha(v)beta(3) integrins, acting as fibronectin receptors, differed between the tested cell lines, and no distinct pattern distinguished uveal melanoma from cutaneous melanoma except for high expression of alpha(4)beta(1) integrin on both FM55P and IGR-39 cells. The results also demonstrated that the high levels of alpha(3)beta(1), alpha(4)beta(1), and alpha(5)beta(1) integrin expression on IGR-39 cells promoted their strong attachment to fibronectin-coated surfaces. In addition, 92-1, Mel202, and FM55P cells showed no or low adhesion to fibronectin, perhaps the result of low expression of fibronectin receptors excluding high expression of alpha(4)beta(1) integrin in FM55P cells. Cell migration was significantly decreased in three out of four PHA-L-treated cell lines, suggesting that beta1-6 branched complex type N-oligosaccharides are critical for 92-1, Mel202, and FM55P cell motility. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the tested cells did not differ in mRNA levels of beta1-6 -N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V. However, FACS analysis showed that 92-1, Mel202 and IGR-39 cells expressed significantly higher amounts of beta1-6 branched N-oligosaccharides on the cell surface than FM55P cells did. All examined alpha(3), alpha(5), alpha(v), and beta(1) integrin subunits were shown to bear beta1-6 branched N-linked glycans.The role of integrins and their N-glycosylation in the regulation of uveal melanoma growth and progression is largely unknown. These results reveal that cell surface complex-type N-glycans with GlcNAc beta1-6 branches are important factors determining the migration of primary uveal melanoma cells on fibronectin.
|Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)||18385798|
|Caveolin-1-dependent beta1 integrin endocytosis is a critical regulator of fibronectin turnover. |
Shi, F; Sottile, J
Journal of cell science 121 2360-71 2008
beta1 integrins are major cell surface receptors for fibronectin. Some integrins, including beta1 integrins, are known to undergo constitutive endocytosis and recycling. Integrin endocytosis/recycling has been implicated in the regulation of cell migration. However, the mechanisms by which integrin endocytosis/recycling regulates cell migration, and other biological consequences of integrin trafficking are not completely understood. We previously showed that turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) fibronectin occurs via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Here, we investigate the biological relevance of beta1 integrin endocytosis to fibronectin matrix turnover. First, we demonstrate that beta1 integrins, including alpha5beta1 play an important role in endocytosis and turnover of matrix fibronectin. Second, we show that caveolin-1 constitutively regulates endocytosis of alpha5beta1 integrins, and that alpha5beta1 integrin endocytosis can occur in the absence of fibronectin and fibronectin matrix. We also show that downregulation of caveolin-1 expression by siRNA results in marked reduction of beta1 integrin and fibronectin endocytosis. Hence, caveolin-1-dependent beta1 integrin and fibronectin endocytosis plays a critical role in fibronectin matrix turnover, and may contribute to abnormal ECM remodeling that occurs in fibrotic disorders.Full Text Article
|Long-term survival of transplanted stem cells in immunocompetent mice with muscular dystrophy. |
Gregory Q Wallace, Karen A Lapidos, Jordan S Kenik, Elizabeth M McNally, Gregory Q Wallace, Karen A Lapidos, Jordan S Kenik, Elizabeth M McNally
The American journal of pathology 173 792-802 2008
Satellite cells refer to resident stem cells in muscle that are activated in response to damage or disease for the regeneration and repair of muscle fibers. The use of stem cell transplantation to treat muscular diseases has been limited by impaired donor cell survival attributed to rejection and an unavailable stem cell niche. We isolated a population of adult muscle mononuclear cells (AMMCs) from normal, strain-matched muscle and transplanted these cells into delta-sarcoglycan-null dystrophic mice. Distinct from other transplant studies, the recipient mice were immunocompetent with an intact endogenous satellite cell pool. We found that AMMCs were 35 times more efficient at restoring sarcoglycan compared with cultured myoblasts. Unlike cultured myoblasts, AMMC-derived muscle fibers expressed sarcoglycan protein throughout their entire length, consistent with enhanced migratory ability. We examined the capacity of single injections of AMMCs to provide long-term benefit for muscular dystrophy and found persistent regeneration after 6 months, consistent with augmentation of the endogenous stem cell pool. Interestingly, AMMCs were more effectively engrafted into aged dystrophic mice for the regeneration of large clusters of sarcoglycan-positive muscle fibers, which were protected from damage, suggesting that the stem cell niche in older muscle remains permissive.Full Text Article
|Bi-potential behaviour of cytotrophoblasts in first trimester chorionic villi. |
D Baczyk, C Dunk, B Huppertz, C Maxwell, F Reister, D Giannoulias, J C P Kingdom
Placenta 27 367-74 2006
Murine trophoblast stem (TS) cells express fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) and are maintained in their proliferative state by fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4). We show in this report that in the first trimester human placenta FGFR2 expression is similarly found in a subset of villous cytotrophoblast and in proximal anchoring columns. Western analysis demonstrated declining FGFR2 protein expression as gestation advanced, suggesting a similar role for FGF in early human trophoblast proliferation. Mouse TS cell differentiation is known to occur along two distinct transcriptionally-regulated pathways; extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells invade the uterine wall to promote maternal blood flow whilst syncytiotrophoblast lines chorionic villi in the labyrinth. Similar differentiation steps occur in the human placenta though the fate of human trophoblast stem cells is presently unknown. To investigate the mechanisms underlying human cytotrophoblast differentiation we have developed a novel cultured floating first trimester villous explant model in which denuded first trimester villi spontaneously regenerate syncytiotrophoblast following 48 h of culture. Addition of FGF4 and heparin inhibited syncytiotrophoblast regeneration in favor of forming clumps of cytotrophoblast. Proximal cells in these clumps were FGFR2 immuno-reactive and proliferative, intermediate parts expressed alpha5beta1-integrin, while the distal portion expressed HLA-G and the invasive integrin alpha1beta1 indicating differentiation to the EVT phenotype. In contrast, non-denuded villi exposed to FGF4 exhibited similar proliferation of the cytotrophoblast; however, these cells did not express any of the invasive EVT markers. We conclude that FGFR2-positive chorionic cytotrophoblasts exhibit bi-potential behaviour, being capable of forming either syncytiotrophoblast or EVT. We suggest bipotential trophoblast progenitor cells persist during first trimester human placental development.
|Expression of alpha5 integrin (Itga5) is elevated in the rat myometrium during late pregnancy and labor: implications for development of a mechanical syncytium. |
Williams, SJ; White, BG; MacPhee, DJ
Biology of reproduction 72 1114-24 2005
The underlying mechanisms controlling uterine contractions during labor are still poorly understood. Integrins are heterodimeric, transmembrane receptors composed of alpha and beta subunits that can be found in focal adhesions. Because these structures play an important role in the regulation of smooth muscle contractility and cell adhesion, we hypothesized that alpha5 integrin mRNA (Itga5) and protein (ITGA5) expression would be induced in the rat myometrium during late pregnancy and labor. Itga5 mRNA expression was significantly increased (P less than 0.05) from Day 17 to labor, noticeably decreasing 1 day postpartum (PP). Immunoblot analysis illustrated a continual increase in ITGA5 levels during pregnancy, labor, and PP, with levels reaching significance at labor (P less than 0.05). Analysis of ITGA5 expression by immunocytochemistry demonstrated that it is primarily localized to myometrial cell membranes in the longitudinal muscle layer of the myometrium from before pregnancy to Day 6, and in both the longitudinal and circular muscle layers from Day 15 to PP. Treatment of late-pregnant rats with progesterone blocked labor and resulted in sustained expression of Itga5 mRNA expression to Day 24. In addition, immunocytochemistry experiments showed ITGA5 was detectable at higher levels in cell membranes of both myometrial layers in progesterone-treated animals on Days 23 and 24, compared with vehicle controls. We propose that ITGA5, with its sole known partner, ITGB1, may be important in promoting cellular cohesion during late pregnancy. This process may aid the development of a mechanical syncytium for efficient force transduction during the sustained, coordinated, and powerful contractions of labor.
|Molecular consequences of silencing mutant K-ras in pancreatic cancer cells: justification for K-ras-directed therapy. |
Fleming, JB; Shen, GL; Holloway, SE; Davis, M; Brekken, RA
Molecular cancer research : MCR 3 413-23 2005
Mutation of the K-ras gene is an early event in the development of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and, therefore, RNA interference (RNAi) directed toward mutant K-ras could represent a novel therapy. In this study, we examine the phenotypic and molecular consequences of exposure of pancreatic tumor cells to mutant-specific K-ras small interfering RNA. Specific reduction of activated K-ras via RNAi in Panc-1 and MiaPaca-2 cells resulted in cellular changes consistent with a reduced capacity to form malignant tumors. These changes occur through distinct mechanisms but likely reflect an addiction of each cell line to oncogene stimulation. Both cell lines show reduced proliferation after K-ras RNAi, but only MiaPaca-2 cells showed increased apoptosis. Both cell lines showed reduced migration after K-ras knockdown, but changes in integrin levels were not consistent between the cell lines. Both cell lines showed alteration of the level of GLUT-1, a metabolism-associated gene that is downstream of c-myc, with Panc-1 cells demonstrating decreased GLUT-1 levels, whereas MiaPaca-2 cells showed increased levels of expression after K-ras knockdown. Furthermore, after K-ras RNAi, there was a reduction in angiogenic potential of both Panc-1 and MiaPaca-2 cells. Panc-1 cells increased the level of expression of thrombospondin-1, an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, whereas MiaPaca-2 cells decreased the production of vascular endothelial growth factor, a primary stimulant of angiogenesis in pancreatic tumors. We have found that silencing mutant K-ras through RNAi results in alteration of tumor cell behavior in vitro and suggests that targeting mutant K-ras specifically might be effective against pancreatic cancer in vivo.
|The fibronectin receptor alpha5 integrin subunit is upregulated by cell-cell adhesion via a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism: implications for human trophoblast migration. |
Christos Coutifaris, Akinyinka Omigbodun, George Coukos
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 192 1240-53; discussion 1253-5 2005
Cell adhesion molecules are implicated in the mechanisms regulating trophoblast migration during human embryo implantation and placentation. We investigated the expression and subcellular organization of the fibronectin receptor alpha5 integrin subunit during the differentiation of human trophoblasts in vitro, and the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the process. Human trophoblasts isolated from chorionic villi expressed no alpha5 integrin, but the molecule was upregulated as cells aggregated in vitro. Low levels of expression of alpha5 integrin subunit and a diffuse cellular distribution pattern were seen in migrating mononuclear trophoblasts. Formation of cell aggregates was accompanied by increased expression of the alpha5 integrin, which translocated to the cytoskeleton-bound pool of proteins and clustered within focal adhesion plaques on the cell surface. This coincided with increased binding to fibronectin. In the absence of cell-cell adhesion, trophoblasts did not display an increase in alpha5 integrin messenger RNA or protein and there was no alpha5 integrin in focal adhesion plaques, suggesting that cell-cell contacts specifically trigger the upregulation of alpha5 integrin subunit and its subcellular translocation. Cyclic AMP is the second messenger mediating the aggregation-induced increase in alpha5 integrin: cAMP increased the de novo synthesis of alpha5 integrin protein, particularly in mononuclear cells, whereas the aggregation-induced increase in alpha5 integrin was strongly inhibited by the antagonist Rp-cAMP in aggregating cells. Our data provide evidence that the alpha5 integrin mediates binding of human trophoblasts to fibronectin and is implicated in the regulation of trophoblast migration. This integrin's expression is specifically triggered by cell-cell adhesion and regulated via cAMP-mediated pathway(s). It is hypothesized that these mechanisms may play an important role in the molecular events controlling human placentation.
|Expression of alphav, alpha4, alpha5 and beta3 integrin subunits, fibronectin and vitronectin in goat peri-implantation |
Garcia, P. et al.
Anim. Reprod. Sci., 80(1-2):91-100 (2004) 2004
|Effects of angiogenesis inhibitors on vascular network formation by human endothelial and melanoma cells. |
van der Schaft, DW; Seftor, RE; Seftor, EA; Hess, AR; Gruman, LM; Kirschmann, DA; Yokoyama, Y; Griffioen, AW; Hendrix, MJ
Journal of the National Cancer Institute 96 1473-7 2004
Endothelial cells involved in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis are key targets in cancer therapy. Recent evidence suggests that tumor cells can express some genes typically expressed by endothelial cells and form extracellular matrix-rich tubular networks, phenomena known as vasculogenic mimicry. We examined the effects of three angiogenesis inhibitors (i.e., anginex, TNP-470, and endostatin) on vasculogenic mimicry in human melanoma MUM-2B and C8161 cells and compared them with their effects in human endothelial HMEC-1 and HUVEC cells. Anginex, TNP-470, and endostatin markedly inhibited vascular cord and tube formation by HMEC-1 and HUVEC cells in vitro, whereas tubular network formation by MUM-2B and C8161 cells was relatively unaffected. Endothelial cells expressed higher mRNA and protein levels for two putative endostatin receptors, alpha5 integrin and heparin sulfate proteoglycan 2, than melanoma cells, suggesting a mechanistic basis for the differential response of the two cell types to angiogenesis inhibitors. These findings may contribute to the development of new antivascular therapeutic agents that target both angiogenesis and tumor cell vasculogenic mimicry.
|Cranial neural crest recycle surface integrins in a substratum-dependent manner to promote rapid motility. |
Strachan, LR; Condic, ML
The Journal of cell biology 167 545-54 2004
Cell migration is essential for proper development of numerous structures derived from embryonic neural crest cells (NCCs). Although the migratory pathways of NCCs have been determined, the molecular mechanisms regulating NCC motility remain unclear. NCC migration is integrin dependent, and recent work has shown that surface expression levels of particular integrin alpha subunits are important determinants of NCC motility in vitro. Here, we provide evidence that rapid cranial NCC motility on laminin requires integrin recycling. NCCs showed both ligand- and receptor-specific integrin regulation in vitro. On laminin, NCCs accumulated internalized laminin but not fibronectin receptors over 20 min, whereas on fibronectin neither type of receptor accumulated internally beyond 2 min. Internalized laminin receptors colocalized with receptor recycling vesicles and were subsequently recycled back to the cell surface. Blocking receptor recycling with bafilomycin A inhibited NCC motility on laminin, indicating that substratum-dependent integrin recycling is essential for rapid cranial neural crest migration.
|Fibronectin matrix assembly regulates alpha5beta1-mediated cell cohesion. |
Robinson, EE; Foty, RA; Corbett, SA
Molecular biology of the cell 15 973-81 2004
Integrin-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions in two-dimensional (2D) culture systems are widely studied (Goldstein and DiMilla, 2002. J Biomed. Mater. Res. 59, 665-675; Koo et al., 2002. J. Cell Sci. 115, 1423-1433). Less understood is the role of the ECM in promoting intercellular cohesion in three-dimensional (3D) environments. We have demonstrated that the alpha5beta1-integrin mediates strong intercellular cohesion of 3D cellular aggregates (Robinson et al., 2003. J. Cell Sci. 116, 377-386). To further investigate the mechanism of alpha5beta1-mediated cohesivity, we used a series of chimeric alpha5beta1-integrin-expressing cells cultured as multilayer cellular aggregates. In these cell lines, the alpha5 subunit cytoplasmic domain distal to the GFFKR sequence was truncated, replaced with that of the integrin alpha4, the integrin alpha2, or maintained intact. Using these cells, alpha5beta1-integrin-mediated cell aggregation, compaction and cohesion were determined and correlated with FN matrix assembly. The data presented demonstrate that cells cultured in the absence of external mechanical support can assemble a FN matrix that promotes integrin-mediated aggregate compaction and cohesion. Further, inhibition of FN matrix assembly blocks the intercellular associations required for compaction, resulting in cell dispersal. These results demonstrate that FN matrix assembly contributes significantly to tissue cohesion and represents an alternative mechanism for regulating tissue architecture.Full Text Article
|Chondrocyte phenotypes on different extracellular matrix monolayers. |
K R Brodkin, A J García, M E Levenston
Biomaterials 25 5929-38 2004
Chondrocytes undergo a process of dedifferentiation in monolayer culture that is characterized by a transition to a fibroblast-like phenotype. This behavioral change poses a challenge for tissue-engineered cartilage constructs, as approaches using autologous cells require expansion in vitro. Because chondrocytes express a variety of integrin receptors specific to different adhesive proteins, we hypothesized that chondrocytes expanded on various underlying protein monolayers would have different phenotypic responses. Bovine articular chondrocytes were cultured for up to 2 weeks on tissue culture plastic, fibronectin, collagen type I or collagen type II substrate in the presence or absence of ascorbate. Contrary to our hypothesis, the extracellular matrix protein substrates used in this study did not significantly alter the changes in chondrocyte morphology, gene expression, matrix formation, or cytoskeletal organization. Cells on all substrates assembled equivalent matrices, which may have subsequently regulated cell behavior. In cultures with ascorbate, populations of round and spread cells emerged after 1 week, with round cells expressing collagen type II and the differentiated phenotype and spread cells dedifferentiating. In cultures without ascorbate, chondrocytes rapidly adhered and spread onto organized fibronectin matrices via the alpha5beta1 integrin, which has been associated with survival and proliferation of chondrocytes in vitro. These findings indicate that expanding chondrocytes on protein monolayers may not be an effective solution to preventing dedifferentiation and improving autologous chondrocyte transplantation.
|Glucose-induced changes in integrins and matrix-related functions in cultured human glomerular epithelial cells. |
Kitsiou, Paraskevi V, et al.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol., 284: F671-9 (2003) 2003
In cultured human glomerular epithelial cells (HGEC), 25 mM glucose resulted in decreased expression of alpha(3)-, alpha(2)-, and beta(1)-integrins and increased expression of alpha(5)- and alpha(v)beta(3)-integrins. This change was accompanied by decreased binding of HGEC to type IV collagen. In the presence of normal (5 mM) glucose concentration, cell binding to type IV collagen was primarily mediated by alpha(2)beta(1)- and alpha(5)beta(1)-integrins, as indicated by experiments in which cell adhesion to type IV collagen was competed by specific anti-integrin monoclonal antibodies. In the presence of high (25 mM) glucose, the upregulated alpha(5)- and alpha(v)beta(3)-integrins were mainly involved in cell binding to type IV collagen. Furthermore, high glucose decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), a collagenase regulated in part by alpha(3)beta(1)-integrin, as suggested by the use of ligand-mimicking antibodies against these integrins, which resulted in release of increased amounts of MMP-2 in the culture medium. Finally, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2, the specific inhibitor of MMP-2, was upregulated in high glucose and could contribute to matrix accumulation. These changes could help explain basement membrane thickening in diabetes.
|Effect of quiescence on integrin alpha5beta1 expression in human retinal pigment epithelium. |
Proulx, Stephanie, et al.
Mol. Vis., 9: 473-81 (2003) 2003
PURPOSE: The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is differentiated and mitotically inactive in the normal eye, but several pathologies such as proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) cause RPE cells to dedifferentiate and resume proliferation. Integrins, a family of cell surface glycoproteins that mediate cell proliferation and differentiation, are thought to play fundamental roles in PVR. The aim of this study was to evaluate protein expression and gene regulation of the integrin alpha5 subunit in proliferating and quiescent RPE cells. METHODS: Protein expression was studied in situ by immunohistochemistry and in vitro at different cell confluences by immunoprecipitation. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and transient transfections were used to determine whether increasing cell confluence also affected alpha5 subunit mRNA levels and promoter activity, respectively. RESULTS: We demonstrated that the integrin alpha5 subunit is present at the RPE cell surface both in situ and in vitro, and that alpha5 protein level is influenced by confluence. Levels of integrin alpha5 transcripts are similar for sub-confluent and confluent cells, and a small increase in the promoter activity was observed between sub-confluent and confluent cells. However, both the integrin alpha5 subunit transcript and the alpha5 promoter activity decreased when cells reached post-confluence. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that cell confluence affected protein and gene expression of the integrin alpha5 subunit. Proliferating RPE cells expressed high levels of both the alpha5 protein and mRNA transcripts and showed a high promoter activity. However, when cells reached quiescence, alpha5 gene expression was substantially reduced and RPE cells expressed little alpha5 protein at their cell surface.
|Decrease in expression of alpha 5 beta 1 integrin during neuronal differentiation of cortical progenitor cells. |
Naoko Yoshida, Sohei Hishiyama, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Masaaki Hashiguchi, Yusei Miyamoto, Shuichi Kaminogawa, Tatsuhiro Hisatsune
Experimental cell research 287 262-71 2003
Neuronal differentiation of embryonic neural progenitor cells is regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Since dynamic changes in cell shape typify neuronal differentiation, cell adhesion molecules could be relevant to this process. Although it has been reported that fibronectin-integrin interactions are important for the proliferation of neural progenitor cells, little is known about the contribution of integrins to neuronal differentiation. In order to address this shortfall, we examined integrin expression on cortical progenitor cells by using immunohistochemistry and FACS analysis of cells in which GFP expression was driven by regulatory (promoter) regions of the nestin gene (nestin-GFP(+)). We here report that high levels of nestin promoter activity correlated with high expression levels of alpha(5)beta(1) integrin (alpha(5)beta(1)(high) cells). FACS analysis of nestin-GFP(+) cortical cells revealed an additional subpopulation with reduced expression of alpha(5)beta(1) integrin (alpha(5)beta(1)(low) cells). The size of the alpha(5)beta(1)(low) subpopulation increased during cortical development. To investigate the correlation between integrin and neuronal differentiation, nestin-GFP(+) cortical progenitor cells were sorted into alpha(5)beta(1)(high) or alpha(5)beta(1)(low) populations, and each potential to differentiate was analyzed. We show that the nestin-GFP(+) alpha(5)beta(1)(high) population corresponded to broadly multipotential neural progenitor cells, whereas nestin-GFP(+) alpha(5)beta(1)(low) cells appeared to be committed to a neuronal fate. These findings suggest that alpha(5)beta(1) expression on cortical progenitor cells is developmentally regulated and its downregulation is involved in the process of neuronal differentiation.
|Integrin requirement for hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory. |
Chi-Shing Chan, Edwin J Weeber, Sindhu Kurup, J David Sweatt, Ronald L Davis
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 23 7107-16 2003
The establishment of memory requires coordinated signaling between presynaptic and postsynaptic terminals in the CNS. The integrins make up a large family of cell adhesion receptors that are known to mediate bidirectional signaling between cells or between cells and their external environment. We show here that many different integrins, including alpha3 and alpha5, are expressed broadly in the adult mouse brain and are associated with synapses. Mice with genetically reduced expression of alpha3 integrin fail to maintain long-term potentiation (LTP) generated in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Mice with reduced expression of the alpha3 and alpha5 integrins exhibit a defect in paired-pulse facilitation. Mice with reduced expression of alpha3, alpha5, and alpha8 are defective in hippocampal LTP and spatial memory in the water maze but have normal fear conditioning. These results demonstrate that several different integrins are involved in physiological plasticity and provide the first evidence of their requirement for behavioral plasticity in vertebrates.
|Sensory neuron subtypes have unique substratum preference and receptor expression before target innervation. |
Wei Guan, Manojkumar A Puthenveedu, Maureen L Condic, Wei Guan, Manojkumar A Puthenveedu, Maureen L Condic
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 23 1781-91 2003
The factors controlling the specification and subsequent differentiation of sensory neurons are poorly understood. Data from embryological manipulations suggest that either sensory neuron fates are specified by the targets they encounter or sensory neurons are considerably more plastic with respect to specification than are neurons of the CNS. The prevailing view that sensory neurons are specified late in development is not consistent, however, with the directed outgrowth of sensory neurons to their targets and the characteristic spatial distribution of sensory neuron fates within the peripheral ganglia. To address when in development different classes of sensory neurons can first be distinguished, we investigated the interactions of early dorsal root ganglia neurons with the extracellular matrix before neurite outgrowth to targets. We found that subclasses of sensory neurons in early dorsal root ganglia show different patterns of neurite outgrowth and integrin expression that are predictive of their fates. In the absence of neurotrophins, presumptive proprioceptive neurons extend neurites robustly on both laminin and fibronectin, whereas presumptive cutaneous neurons show a strong preference for laminin. Cutaneous afferents that have innervated targets show a similar strong preference for laminin and show higher levels of integrin alpha7beta1 than do proprioceptive neurons. Finally, presumptive proprioceptive neurons express fibronectin receptors, integrin alpha3beta1, alpha4beta1, and alpha5beta1, at higher levels than do presumptive cutaneous neurons. Our results indicate that subtypes of sensory neurons have unique patterns of neurite outgrowth and receptor expression before target innervation.
|Integrins alpha(6A)beta 1 and alpha(6B)beta 1 promote different stages of chondrogenic cell differentiation. |
Segat, Daniela, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 277: 31612-22 (2002) 2002
The differentiation of chondrocytes and of several other cell types is associated with a switch from the alpha(6B) to the alpha(6A) isoform of the laminin alpha(6)beta(1) integrin receptor. To define whether this event plays a functional role in cell differentiation, we used an in vitro model system that allows chick chondrogenic cells to remain undifferentiated when cultured in monolayer and to differentiate into chondrocytes when grown in suspension culture. We report that: (i) upon over-expression of the human alpha(6B), adherent chondrogenic cells differentiate to stage I chondrocytes (i.e. increased type II collagen, reduced type I collagen, fibronectin, alpha(5)beta(1) and growth rate, loss of fibroblast morphology); (ii) the expression of type II collagen requires the activation of p38 MAP kinase; (iii) the over-expression of alpha(6A) induces an incomplete differentiation to stage I chondrocytes, whereas no differentiation was observed in alpha(5) and mock-transfected control cells; (iv) a prevalence of the alpha(6A) subunit is necessary to stabilize the differentiated phenotype when cells are transferred to suspension culture. Altogether, these results indicate a functional role for the alpha(6B) to alpha(6A) switch in chondrocyte differentiation; the former promotes chondrocyte differentiation, and the latter is necessary in stabilizing the differentiated phenotype.
|Role of alpha(v)beta(3)-integrin in TNF-alpha-induced endothelial cell migration. |
Gao, B; Saba, TM; Tsan, MF
American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 283 C1196-205 2002
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), one of the major inflammatory cytokines, is known to influence endothelial cell migration. In this study, we demonstrate that exposure of calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells to TNF-alpha caused an increase in the formation of membrane protrusions and cell migration. Fluorescence microscopy revealed an increase in alpha(v)beta(3) focal contacts but a decrease in alpha(5)beta(1) focal contacts in TNF-alpha-treated cells. In addition, both cell-surface and total cellular expression of alpha(v)beta(3)-integrins increased significantly, whereas the expression of alpha(5)beta(1)-integrins was unaltered. Only focal contacts containing alpha(v)beta(3)- but not alpha(5)beta(1)-integrins were present in membrane protrusions of cells at the migration front. In contrast, robust focal contacts containing alpha(5)beta(1)-integrins were present in cells behind the migration front. A blocking antibody to alpha(v)beta(3), but not a blocking antibody to alpha(5)-integrins, significantly inhibited TNF-alpha-induced cell migration. These results indicate that in response to TNF-alpha, endothelial cells may increase the activation and ligation of alpha(v)beta(3) while decreasing the activation and ligation of alpha(5)beta(1)-integrins to facilitate cell migration, a process essential for vascular wound healing and angiogenesis.
|Evidence that absence of endometrial gland secretions in uterine gland knockout ewes compromises conceptus survival and elongation. |
C A Gray, R C Burghardt, G A Johnson, F W Bazer, T E Spencer
Reproduction (Cambridge, England) 124 289-300 2002
Endometrial glands are necessary for conceptus implantation and growth. In the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model, blastocysts hatch normally but fail to survive or elongate. This peri-implantation defect in UGKO ewes may be due to the absence of endometrial glands or, alternatively, to the lack of certain epithelial adhesion molecules or the inability of the endometrium to respond to signals from the conceptus. Two studies were performed to examine these hypotheses. In study one, normal (n = 8) and UGKO (n = 12) ewes were mated at oestrus (day 0) with intact rams and their uteri were flushed 14 days after oestrus. Normal ewes (n = 4) were also flushed on 14 days after oestrus. Uterine flushes from bred normal ewes contained filamentous conceptuses (n = 7 of 8), whereas those from UGKO ewes contained no conceptus (n = 5 of 12), a growth-retarded, tubular conceptus (n = 6 of 12), or a fragmented, filamentous conceptus (n = 1 of 12). In all groups, expression of mucin 1 and integrin alpha(v), alpha(5), beta(3) and beta(5) was localized at the apical surface of the endometrial luminal epithelium with no detectable differences between normal and UGKO ewes. Uterine flushes from pregnant ewes, but not cyclic or UGKO ewes, contained abundant immunoreactive interferon tau and the cell adhesion proteins, osteopontin and glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule one. In study two, UGKO ewes were fitted with uterine catheters 5 days after oestrus, infused with recombinant ovine interferon tau or control proteins from 11 to 15 days after oestrus, and underwent hysterectomy 16 days after oestrus. Expression of several interferon tau-stimulated genes (ISG17, STAT1, STAT2 and IRF-1) was increased in the endometrium from interferon tau-infused UGKO ewes. These results support the hypothesis that the defects in conceptus elongation and survival in UGKO ewes are due to the absence of endometrial glands and their secretions rather than to alterations in expression of anti-adhesive or adhesive molecules on the endometrial luminal epithelium or to the responsiveness of the endometrium to the conceptus pregnancy recognition signal.
|A biochemical approach reveals cell-surface molecules utilised by Picornaviridae: Human Parechovirus 1 and Echovirus 1. |
K Triantafilou, M Triantafilou
Journal of cellular biochemistry 80 373-81 2001
Although receptor virus interactions of several Picornaviridae have been studied in the past, it is becoming apparent that these interactions might be more complex than previously thought. In this study, we have chosen to identify the cell-surface molecules involved in the infectious cycle of two common human pathogens and members of the Piconaviridae family, Echovirus 1 (Echo1) and Human Parechovirus 1 (HPEV1) also known as Echovirus 22. In order to identify the specific cell-surface protein molecules involved in Echo1 and HPEV1 infectious cycles, we have deviced a method, by which free virions were used as an affinity surface, allowing either Echo1 or HPEV1 to bind to solubilised proteins from cells susceptible to the virus infection. The virus-cell-surface protein complexes were then analysed by SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Echo1 was shown to bind to two integrin-like proteins of 150 and 120 kDa. While HPEV1 attached to two integrin-like proteins of 120 and 100 kDa. The identity of these proteins was identified via Western blotting. Thus, overall we can conclusively report that Echo1 utilises integrin alpha2beta1, whereas HPEV1 utilises integrin alphavbeta3 on the cell surface.
|Polarized distribution of alpha5 integrin in dendrites of hippocampal and cortical neurons. |
X Bi, G Lynch, J Zhou, C M Gall, X Bi, G Lynch, J Zhou, C M Gall
The Journal of comparative neurology 435 184-93 2001
The distribution of immunoreactivity for the alpha5 subunit of the fibronectin receptor was evaluated in adult rat brain with particular interest in the cellular localization of immunostaining in the hippocampal formation and neocortex. Beyond localization to neuronal perikarya and short dendritic fragments within most brain areas, alpha5 immunoreactivity (-ir) was particularly dense within primary apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in both hippocampus and neocortex and within the dendritic arbors of cerebellar Purkinje cells. In hippocampal and cortical pyramidal cells, immunostaining was clearly polarized: alpha5-ir was not detectable in basal dendrites in hippocampal neurons and was limited to proximal arbors or absent from basal dendrites in pyramidal cells in superficial and deep layers of neocortex. Beyond this, alpha5-ir was distributed within the dendritic ramifications of the dentate gyrus granule cells and within perikarya and dendrites of occasional nonpyramidal neurons. Developmental studies demonstrated that, in both hippocampus and neocortex, alpha5-ir appears first within perikarya and is distributed to dendrites during the second postnatal week. These results are in accord with the broad hypothesis that integrins contribute to apical-basal differences in dendrites and that the integrin fibronectin (alpha5beta1) receptor, in particular, contributes to some late developing features of dendritic structure or function.
|Localization of alpha integrin subunits in the neural retina of the tiger salamander |
Sherry D.M. and P. Proske
Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol., 239:278-287 (2001) 2001
|Muc-1, integrin, and osteopontin expression during the implantation cascade in sheep. |
G A Johnson, F W Bazer, L A Jaeger, H Ka, J E Garlow, C Pfarrer, T E Spencer, R C Burghardt
Biology of reproduction 65 820-8 2001
The extracellular matrix protein osteopontin (OPN) is a component of histotroph that increases in uterine flushings from pregnant ewes during the peri-implantation period and is localized on the apical surfaces of the uterine luminal epithelium (LE) and conceptus trophectoderm (Tr). The potential involvement of OPN in the implantation adhesion cascade in sheep was investigated by examining temporal, spatial, and potential functional relationships between OPN, Muc-1, and integrin subunits during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Immunoreactive Muc-1 was highly expressed at the apical surfaces of uterine luminal (LE) and glandular epithelium (GE) in both cycling and pregnant ewes but was decreased dramatically on LE by Day 9 and was nearly undetectable by Day 17 of pregnancy when intimate contact between LE and Tr begins. In contrast, integrin subunits alpha(v), alpha(4), alpha(5), beta(1), beta(3), and beta(5) were constitutively expressed on conceptus Tr and at the apical surface of uterine LE and GE in both cyclic and early pregnant ewes. The apical expression of these subunits could contribute to the apical assembly of several OPN receptors including the alpha(v)beta(3), alpha(v)beta(1), alpha(v)beta(5), alpha(4)beta(1), and alpha(5)beta(1) heterodimers on endometrial LE and GE, and conceptus Tr in sheep. Functional analysis of potential OPN interactions with conceptus and endometrial integrins was performed on LE and Tr cells in vitro using beads coated with OPN, poly-L-lysine, or recombinant OPN in which the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence was replaced with RGE or RAD. Transmembrane accumulation of talin or alpha-actinin at the apical surface of uterine LE and conceptus Tr cells in contact with OPN-coated beads revealed functional integrin activation and cytoskeletal reorganization in response to OPN binding. These results provide a physiological framework for the role of OPN, a potential mediator of implantation in sheep, as a bridge between integrin heterodimers expressed by Tr and uterine LE responsible for adhesion for initial conceptus attachment.
|Evidence that integrins contribute to multiple stages in the consolidation of long term potentiation in rat hippocampus. |
D Chun, C M Gall, X Bi, G Lynch
Neuroscience 105 815-29 2001
Three structurally distinct groups of antagonists were used to test the hypothesis that integrin adhesion receptors play an essential role in consolidating (stabilizing) long term potentiation of the Schaffer collaterals in rat hippocampus. Comparisons were made of percent potentiation at antagonist-treated versus control sites within CA1 stratum radiatum of the same hippocampal slice. Function blocking antibodies against the alpha5 subunit of the fibronectin receptor had no effect on baseline responses or initial potentiation but resulted in a >30% reduction, relative to within-slice control long term potentiation, 45 min later. Larger reductions were recorded in separate experiments continued for 4 h after the induction of potentiation. Alpha(v) and alpha2 subunit antibodies did not reliably affect the stabilization of potentiation. An antagonist peptide with preference for beta1 integrins produced a slowly developing decline of the type seen with alpha5 antibodies. A cyclic peptide antagonist reduced potentiation within 10 min of induction and caused an almost 40% decrease over 45 min. Two disintegrins (snake toxins that potently block integrins) were very effective in preventing the consolidation of long term potentiation: echistatin reduced potentiation by >70%, while triflavin caused approximately 50% decrease. The suppressing effects of echistatin were concentration-dependent, obtained with treatment after induction, and much more rapid than the effects of antibodies. Rapid declines in potentiation were particularly evident when the two disintegrins were applied together.These results indicate that hippocampal fibronectin receptors (alpha5/beta1 integrin) contribute importantly to a slowly developing phase of long term potentiation consolidation. They also suggest that other integrins are critical to aspects of consolidation occurring in the first few minutes after induction.
|Delayed pH equilibration in blood during carbonic anhydrase inhibition. |
Crandall ED, Bidani A, Forster RE
Adv Exp Med Biol 99 243-54. 2001
|Anti-invasive, antitumorigenic, and antimetastatic activities of the PHSCN sequence in prostate carcinoma. |
Livant, D L, et al.
Cancer Res., 60: 309-20 (2000) 2000
Using naturally serum-free SU-ECM basement membranes as invasion substrates showed that plasma fibronectin was necessary to stimulate invasion by DU 145 human and metastatic MATLyLu (MLL) rat prostate carcinoma cells. This activity mapped to the PHSRN sequence, which induced invasion through alpha5beta1 integrin. PHSCN, a competitive inhibitor, blocked both PHSRN- and serum-induced invasion. Acetylated, amidated PHSCN (Ac-PHSCN-NH2) was 30-fold more potent; however, Ac-HSPNC-NH2 was inactive. Rats receiving injections s.c. with 100,000 MLL cells were treated systemically by i.v. injection three times weekly with 1 mg of either Ac-PHSCN-NH2 or Ac-HSPNC-NH2 beginning 24 h later, three times weekly with 1 mg of Ac-PHSCN-NH2 beginning only after surgery to remove large (2 cm) MLL tumors, or were left untreated. MLL tumors grew rapidly in Ac-HSPNC-NH2-treated and in untreated rats. MLL tumor growth in rats treated with Ac-PHSCN-NH2 beginning 1 day after MLL cell injection was reduced by 99.9% during the first 16 days of treatment, although subsequent tumor growth occurred. MLL tumor cryosections immunostained with anti-PECAM-1 showed that Ac-PHSCN-NH2 inhibited neovascularization by 12-fold during this time. Whether initiated after MLL cell injection or only after MLL tumor removal, Ac-PHSCN-NH2 treatment reduced the numbers of MLL lung colonies and micrometastases by 40- to >100-fold, whereas Ac-HSPNC-NH2 was inactive. Thus, Ac-PHSCN-NH2 may be a potent antitumorigenic and antimetastatic agent for postsurgical use prior to extensive metastasis.
|Dynamic imaging of neutrophil migration in three dimensions: mechanical interactions between cells and matrix. |
J T Mandeville, M A Lawson, F R Maxfield, J T Mandeville, M A Lawson, F R Maxfield
Journal of leukocyte biology 61 188-200 1997
Fluorescence confocal microscopy was used to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) images of human neutrophils migrating through a 3-D matrix of amniotic membrane with a temporal resolution of 30-60 s and a spatial resolution of approximately 2 microm in the z-dimension. Neutrophils migrating in response to a chemoattractant gradient within a 3-D matrix were apparently able to generate traction by use of lateral pseudopods inserted into footholds in the matrix as evidenced by matrix distortion. Similar anchored pseudopods were seen in cells migrating across polycarbonate membranes with 0.8-microm pores; the presence of these pores increased cell polarization and migration compared with cells on membranes without pores. Expansion of pseudopods distal to narrow constrictions in the matrix and porous filters was observed and appeared to be used to pull cells through the openings. Neutrophils deformed parts of the elastic amnion matrix during migration without permanently altering the substrate. Contact guidance of neutrophils crawling along matrix fibrils was also observed. These observations show that neutrophils migrating in 3-D are able to utilize mechanical structures in the matrix, not present on 2-D surfaces, to generate traction for locomotion.
|Expression of fibronectin and its integrin receptor alpha 5 beta 1 in canine mammary tumours |
Pena, L. et al.
Research in Veterinary Science, 57:358-364 (1994) 1994
|New perspectives in cell adhesion: RGD and integrins. |
Ruoslahti, E and Pierschbacher, M D
Science, 238: 491-7 (1987) 1987
Rapid progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular interactions that result in cell adhesion. Many adhesive proteins present in extracellular matrices and in the blood contain the tripeptide arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) as their cell recognition site. These proteins include fibronectin, vitronectin, osteopontin, collagens, thrombospondin, fibrinogen, and von Willebrand factor. The RGD sequences of each of the adhesive proteins are recognized by at least one member of a family of structurally related receptors, integrins, which are heterodimeric proteins with two membrane-spanning subunits. Some of these receptors bind to the RGD sequence of a single adhesion protein only, whereas others recognize groups of them. The conformation of the RGD sequence in the individual proteins may be critical to this recognition specificity. On the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane, the receptors connect the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton. More than ten proved or suspected RGD-containing adhesion-promoting proteins have already been identified, and the integrin family includes at least as many receptors recognizing these proteins. Together, the adhesion proteins and their receptors constitute a versatile recognition system providing cells with anchorage, traction for migration, and signals for polarity, position, differentiation, and possibly growth.
|Integrins: a family of cell surface receptors. |
Hynes, R O
Cell, 48: 549-54 (1987) 1987
|Anti-Integrin alpha5, C-terminus, intracellular - Data Sheet|