|Bral1: its role in diffusion barrier formation and conduction velocity in the CNS. |
Bekku, Y; Vargová, L; Goto, Y; Vorísek, I; Dmytrenko, L; Narasaki, M; Ohtsuka, A; Fässler, R; Ninomiya, Y; Syková, E; Oohashi, T
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
At the nodes of Ranvier, excitable axon membranes are exposed directly to the extracellular fluid. Cations are accumulated and depleted in the local extracellular nodal region during action potential propagation, but the impact of the extranodal micromilieu on signal propagation still remains unclear. Brain-specific hyaluronan-binding link protein, Bral1, colocalizes and forms complexes with negatively charged extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, such as versican V2 and brevican, at the nodes of Ranvier in the myelinated white matter. The link protein family, including Bral1, appears to be the linchpin of these hyaluronan-bound ECM complexes. Here we report that the hyaluronan-associated ECM no longer shows a nodal pattern and that CNS nerve conduction is markedly decreased in Bral1-deficient mice even though there were no differences between wild-type and mutant mice in the clustering or transition of ion channels at the nodes or in the tissue morphology around the nodes of Ranvier. However, changes in the extracellular space diffusion parameters, measured by the real-time iontophoretic method and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), suggest a reduction in the diffusion hindrances in the white matter of mutant mice. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the accumulation of cations due to diffusion barriers around the nodes during saltatory conduction, which further implies the importance of the Bral1-based extramilieu for neuronal conductivity.
|Brevican distinctively assembles extracellular components at the large diameter nodes of Ranvier in the CNS. |
Yoko Bekku,Uwe Rauch,Yoshifumi Ninomiya,Toshitaka Oohashi
Journal of neurochemistry
Brevican is known to be an abundant extracellular matrix component in the adult brain and a structural constituent of perineuronal nets. We herein show that brevican, tenascin-R (TN-R) and phosphacan are present at the nodes of Ranvier on myelinated axons with a particularly large diameter in the central nervous system. A brevican deficiency resulted in a reorganization of the nodal matrices, which was characterized by the shift of TN-R, and concomitantly phosphacan, from an axonal diameter-dependent association with nodes to an axonal diameter independent association. Supported by the co-immunoprecipitation results, these observations indicate that the presence of TN-R and phosphacan at nodes is normally brevican-dependent, while in the absence of brevican these molecules can also be recruited by versican V2. The versican V2 and Bral1 distribution was not affected, thus indicating a brevican-independent role of these two molecules for establishing hyaluronan-binding matrices at the nodes. Our results revealed that brevican plays a crucial role in determining the specialization of the hyaluronan-binding nodal matrix assemblies in large diameter nodes.