|Macrophage Ablation Reduces M2-Like Populations and Jeopardizes Tumor Growth in a MAFIA-Based Glioma Model. |
Gabrusiewicz, K; Hossain, MB; Cortes-Santiago, N; Fan, X; Kaminska, B; Marini, FC; Fueyo, J; Gomez-Manzano, C
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
Monocytes/macrophages are an influential component of the glioma microenvironment. However, understanding their diversity and plasticity constitute one of the most challenging areas of research due to the paucity of models to study these cells' inherent complexity. Herein, we analyzed the role of monocytes/macrophages in glioma growth by using a transgenic model that allows for conditional ablation of this cell population. We modeled glioma using intracranial GL261-bearing CSF-1R-GFP(+) macrophage Fas-induced apoptosis (MAFIA) transgenic mice. Conditional macrophage ablation was achieved by exposure to the dimerizer AP20187. Double immunofluorescence was used to characterize M1- and M2-like monocytes/macrophages during tumor growth and after conditional ablation. During glioma growth, the monocyte/macrophage population consisted predominantly of M2 macrophages. Conditional temporal depletion of macrophages reduced the number of GFP(+) cells, targeting mainly the repopulation of M2-polarized cells, and altered the appearance of M1-like monocytes/macrophages, which suggested a shift in the M1/M2 macrophage balance. Of interest, compared with control-treated mice, macrophage-depleted mice had a lower tumor mitotic index, microvascular density, and reduced tumor growth. These results demonstrated the possibility of studying in vivo the role and phenotype of macrophages in gliomas and suggested that transitory depletion of CSF-1R(+) population influences the reconstitutive phenotypic pool of these cells, ultimately suppressing tumor growth. The MAFIA model provides a much needed advance in defining the role of macrophages in gliomas.
|Role of spinal P2Y6 and P2Y11 receptors in neuropathic pain in rats: possible involvement of glial cells. |
Barragán-Iglesias, P; Pineda-Farias, JB; Cervantes-Durán, C; Bravo-Hernández, M; Rocha-González, HI; Murbartián, J; Granados-Soto, V
The participation of spinal P2X receptors in neuropathic pain is well recognized. However, the role of P2Y receptors has been less studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of spinal P2Y6,11 receptors following peripheral nerve damage induced by spinal nerve ligation. In addition, we determined the expression of P2Y6,11 receptors in the dorsal spinal cord in presence of the selective P2Y6,11 receptors antagonists. Furthermore, we evaluated the participation of spinal microglia and astrocytes in the pronociceptive role of P2Y6,11 receptors.Spinal administration of the selective P2Y6 (MRS2578, 10-100 μM) and P2Y11 (NF340, 0.3-30 μM) receptor antagonists reduced tactile allodynia in spinal nerve ligated rats. Nerve injury increased the expression of P2Y6,11 receptors at 7, 14 and 21 days after injury. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of MRS2578 (100 μM/day) and NF340 (30 μM/day) for 3 days significantly reduced spinal nerve injury-induced increase in P2Y6,11 receptors expression, respectively. Spinal treatment (on day 14 after injury) with minocycline (100 μg/day) or fluorocitrate (1 nmol/day) for 7 days reduced tactile allodynia and spinal nerve injury-induced up-regulation in Iba-1 and GFAP, respectively. In addition, minocycline reduced nerve injury-induced up-regulation in P2Y6,11 receptors whereas that fluorocitrate diminished P2Y11, but not P2Y6, receptors up-regulation. Intrathecal treatment (on day 21 after injury) with the selective P2Y6 (PSB0474, 3-30 μM) and P2Y11 (NF546, 1-10 μM) receptor agonists produced remarkable tactile allodynia in nerve ligated rats previously treated with minocycline or fluorocitrate for 7 days.Our data suggest that spinal P2Y6 is present in spinal microglia while P2Y11 receptors are present in both spinal microglia and astrocytes, and both receptors are up-regulated in rats subjected to spinal nerve injury. In addition, our data suggest that the spinal P2Y6 and P2Y11 receptors participate in the maintenance of neuropathic pain.
|Striking reduction of amyloid plaque burden in an Alzheimer's mouse model after chronic administration of carmustine. |
Hayes, CD; Dey, D; Palavicini, JP; Wang, H; Patkar, KA; Minond, D; Nefzi, A; Lakshmana, MK
Currently available therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) do not treat the underlying cause of AD. Anecdotal observations in nursing homes from multiple studies strongly suggest an inverse relationship between cancer and AD. Therefore, we reasoned that oncology drugs may be effective against AD.We screened a library of all the FDA-approved oncology drugs and identified bis-chloroethylnitrosourea (BCNU or carmustine) as an effective amyloid beta (Aβ) reducing compound. To quantify Aβ levels, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing amyloid precursor protein 751WT (APP751WT) called 7WD10 cells were exposed to different concentrations of BCNU for 48 hours and the conditioned media were collected. To detect Aβ the conditioned media were immunoprecipitated with Ab9 antibody and subjected to immunoblot detection. Amyloid plaques were quantified in the brains of a mouse model of AD after chronic exposure to BCNU by thoflavin S staining.BCNU decreased normalized levels of Aβ starting from 5 μM by 39% (P less than 0.05), 10 μM by 51% (P less than 0.01) and 20 μM by 63% (P less than 0.01) in CHO cells compared to a control group treated with butyl amine, a structural derivative of BCNU. Interestingly, soluble amyloid precursor protein α (sAPPα) levels were increased to 167% (P less than 0.01) at 0.5 μM, 186% (P less than 0.05) at 1 μM, 204% (P less than 0.01) at 5 μM and 152% (P less than 0.05) at 10 μM compared to untreated cells. We also tested the effects of 12 structural derivatives of BCNU on Aβ levels, but none of them were as potent as BCNU. BCNU treatment at 5 μM led to an accumulation of immature APP at the cell surface resulting in an increased ratio of surface to total APP by 184% for immature APP, but no change in mature APP. It is also remarkable that BCNU reduced Aβ generation independent of secretases which were not altered up to 40 μM. Interestingly, levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) were increased at 5 μM (43%, P less than 0.05), 10 μM (73%, P less than 0.01) and 20 μM (92%, P less than 0.001). Most significantly, cell culture results were confirmed in vivo after chronic administration of BCNU at 0.5 mg/kg which led to the reduction of Aβ40 by 75% and amyloid plaque burden by 81%. Conversely, the levels of sAPPα were increased by 45%.BCNU reduces Aβ generation and plaque burden at non-toxic concentrations possibly through altered intracellular trafficking and processing of APP. Taken together these data provided unequivocal evidence that BCNU is a potent secretase-sparing anti-Aβ drug. See related commentary article here http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/82.
|Rod microglia: elongation, alignment, and coupling to form trains across the somatosensory cortex after experimental diffuse brain injury. |
Ziebell, JM; Taylor, SE; Cao, T; Harrison, JL; Lifshitz, J
Journal of neuroinflammation
Since their discovery, the morphology of microglia has been interpreted to mirror their function, with ramified microglia constantly surveying the micro-environment and rapidly activating when changes occur. In 1899, Franz Nissl discovered what we now recognize as a distinct microglial activation state, microglial rod cells (Stäbchenzellen), which he observed adjacent to neurons. These rod-shaped microglia are typically found in human autopsy cases of paralysis of the insane, a disease of the pre-penicillin era, and best known today from HIV-1-infected brains. Microglial rod cells have been implicated in cortical 'synaptic stripping' but their exact role has remained unclear. This is due at least in part to a scarcity of experimental models. Now we have noted these rod microglia after experimental diffuse brain injury in brain regions that have an associated sensory sensitivity. Here, we describe the time course, location, and surrounding architecture associated with rod microglia following experimental diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI).Rats were subjected to a moderate midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI), which resulted in transient suppression of their righting reflex (6 to 10 min). Multiple immunohistochemistry protocols targeting microglia with Iba1 and other known microglia markers were undertaken to identify the morphological activation of microglia. Additionally, labeling with Iba1 and cell markers for neurons and astrocytes identified the architecture that surrounds these rod cells.We identified an abundance of Iba1-positive microglia with rod morphology in the primary sensory barrel fields (S1BF). Although present for at least 4 weeks post mFPI, they developed over the first week, peaking at 7 days post-injury. In the absence of contusion, Iba1-positive microglia appear to elongate with their processes extending from the apical and basal ends. These cells then abut one another and lay adjacent to cytoarchitecture of dendrites and axons, with no alignment with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Iba1-positive rod microglial cells differentially express other known markers for reactive microglia including OX-6 and CD68.Diffuse traumatic brain injury induces a distinct rod microglia morphology, unique phenotype, and novel association between cells; these observations entice further investigation for impact on neurological outcome.