Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||IP, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Application||Anti-IRS1 Antibody is an antibody against IRS1 for use in IP & WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
References | 113 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Class III PI3K regulates organismal glucose homeostasis by providing negative feedback on hepatic insulin signalling. |
Nemazanyy, I; Montagnac, G; Russell, RC; Morzyglod, L; Burnol, AF; Guan, KL; Pende, M; Panasyuk, G
Nature communications 6 8283 2015
Defective hepatic insulin receptor (IR) signalling is a pathogenic manifestation of metabolic disorders including obesity and diabetes. The endo/lysosomal trafficking system may coordinate insulin action and nutrient homeostasis by endocytosis of IR and the autophagic control of intracellular nutrient levels. Here we show that class III PI3K--a master regulator of endocytosis, endosomal sorting and autophagy--provides negative feedback on hepatic insulin signalling. The ultraviolet radiation resistance-associated gene protein (UVRAG)-associated class III PI3K complex interacts with IR and is stimulated by insulin treatment. Acute and chronic depletion of hepatic Vps15, the regulatory subunit of class III PI3K, increases insulin sensitivity and Akt signalling, an effect that requires functional IR. This is reflected by FoxO1-dependent transcriptional defects and blunted gluconeogenesis in Vps15 mutant cells. On depletion of Vps15, the metabolic syndrome in genetic and diet-induced models of insulin resistance and diabetes is alleviated. Thus, feedback regulation of IR trafficking and function by class III PI3K may be a therapeutic target in metabolic conditions of insulin resistance.
|Role of protein farnesylation in burn-induced metabolic derangements and insulin resistance in mouse skeletal muscle. |
Nakazawa, H; Yamada, M; Tanaka, T; Kramer, J; Yu, YM; Fischman, AJ; Martyn, JA; Tompkins, RG; Kaneki, M
PloS one 10 e0116633 2015
Metabolic derangements, including insulin resistance and hyperlactatemia, are a major complication of major trauma (e.g., burn injury) and affect the prognosis of burn patients. Protein farnesylation, a posttranslational lipid modification of cysteine residues, has been emerging as a potential component of inflammatory response in sepsis. However, farnesylation has not yet been studied in major trauma. To study a role of farnesylation in burn-induced metabolic aberration, we examined the effects of farnesyltransferase (FTase) inhibitor, FTI-277, on burn-induced insulin resistance and metabolic alterations in mouse skeletal muscle.A full thickness burn (30% total body surface area) was produced under anesthesia in male C57BL/6 mice at 8 weeks of age. After the mice were treated with FTI-277 (5 mg/kg/day, IP) or vehicle for 3 days, muscle insulin signaling, metabolic alterations and inflammatory gene expression were evaluated.Burn increased FTase expression and farnesylated proteins in mouse muscle compared with sham-burn at 3 days after burn. Simultaneously, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, Akt and GSK-3β was decreased. Protein expression of PTP-1B (a negative regulator of IR-IRS-1 signaling), PTEN (a negative regulator of Akt-mediated signaling), protein degradation and lactate release by muscle, and plasma lactate levels were increased by burn. Burn-induced impaired insulin signaling and metabolic dysfunction were associated with increased inflammatory gene expression. These burn-induced alterations were reversed or ameliorated by FTI-277.Our data demonstrate that burn increased FTase expression and protein farnesylation along with insulin resistance, metabolic alterations and inflammatory response in mouse skeletal muscle, all of which were prevented by FTI-277 treatment. These results indicate that increased protein farnesylation plays a pivotal role in burn-induced metabolic dysfunction and inflammatory response. Our study identifies FTase as a novel potential molecular target to reverse or ameliorate metabolic derangements in burn patients.
|Endoplasmic reticulum stress impairs insulin receptor signaling in the brains of obese rats. |
Liang, L; Chen, J; Zhan, L; Lu, X; Sun, X; Sui, H; Zheng, L; Xiang, H; Zhang, F
PloS one 10 e0126384 2015
The incidence of obesity is increasing worldwide. It was reported that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) could inhibit insulin receptor signaling by activating c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the liver. However, the relationship between ERS and insulin receptor signaling in the brain during obesity remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to assess whether ERS alters insulin receptor signaling through the hyper-activation of JNK in the hippocampus and frontal cortex in the brains of obese rats. Obesity was induced using a high fat diet (HFD). The Morris water maze test was then performed to evaluate decreases in cognitive function, and western blot was used to verify whether abnormal insulin receptor signaling was induced by ERS in HFD rats exhibiting cognitive decline. In addition, to determine whether ERS activated JNK and consequently impaired insulin receptor signaling, SH-SY5Y cells were treated with the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, followed by tunicamycin or thapsigargin, and primary rat hippocampal and cortical neurons were transfected with siRNA against IRE1α and JNK. We found that the expression of phosphorylation of PKR-like kinase (PERK), phosphorylation of α subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), and phosphorylation of inositol-requiring kinase-1α (IRE-1α) were increased in the brains of rats with HFD when compared with control rats. The level of serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) was also increased, while protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) was reduced. ERS was also found to inhibit insulin receptor signaling via the activation of JNK in SH-SY5Y cells, primary rat hippocampal, and cortical neurons. These results indicate that ERS was increased, thereby resulting in impaired insulin receptor signaling in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of obese rats.
|Diet-induced obesity in mice reduces placental efficiency and inhibits placental mTOR signaling. |
Lager, S; Samulesson, AM; Taylor, PD; Poston, L; Powell, TL; Jansson, T
Physiological reports 2 e00242 2014
As in humans, obesity during pregnancy in mice results in elevated maternal insulin levels and metabolic programming of offspring. mTOR signaling regulates amino acid transport and may function as a placental nutrient sensor. Because obesity is a condition with increased nutrient availability, we hypothesized that diet-induced obesity activates placental mTOR signaling. To test this hypothesis, female C57BL/6J mice were fed an obesogenic diet or standard chow prior to and throughout pregnancy. Fetuses and placentas were collected at gestational day 18. Using Western blot analysis, placental mTOR activity was determined along with energy, inflammatory, and insulin signaling pathways (upstream modulators of mTOR). At gestational day 18, fetal and placental weights did not differ, however, in obese dams, the fetal/placental weight ratio was lower (P less than 0.01). In placentas from obese dams, mTOR signaling was inhibited, as determined by decreased Rheb and S6K1 expression, and lower rpS6 phosphorylation (P less than 0.05). In contrast, energy, inflammatory, and insulin signaling pathways were unaffected. Contrary to our hypothesis, diet-induced obesity in pregnant mice was associated with inhibition of placental mTOR signaling. However, this finding is consistent with the lower fetal/placental weight ratio, indicating reduced placental efficiency.
|Oxidative stress and altered lipid homeostasis in the programming of offspring fatty liver by maternal obesity. |
Alfaradhi, MZ; Fernandez-Twinn, DS; Martin-Gronert, MS; Musial, B; Fowden, A; Ozanne, SE
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 307 R26-34 2014
Changes in the maternal nutritional environment during fetal development can influence offspring's metabolic risk in later life. Animal models have demonstrated that offspring of diet-induced obese dams develop metabolic complications, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study we investigated the mechanisms in young offspring that lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Female offspring of C57BL/6J dams fed either a control or obesogenic diet were studied at 8 wk of age. We investigated the roles of oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in contributing to fatty liver in offspring. There were no differences in body weight or adiposity at 8 wk of age; however, offspring of obese dams were hyperinsulinemic. Oxidative damage markers were significantly increased in their livers, with reduced levels of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1. Mitochondrial complex I and II activities were elevated, while levels of mitochondrial cytochrome c were significantly reduced and glutamate dehydrogenase was significantly increased, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Offspring of obese dams also had significantly greater hepatic lipid content, associated with increased levels of PPARγ and reduced triglyceride lipase. Liver glycogen and protein content were concomitantly reduced in offspring of obese dams. In conclusion, offspring of diet-induced obese dams have disrupted liver metabolism and develop NAFLD prior to any differences in body weight or body composition. Oxidative stress may play a mechanistic role in the progression of fatty liver in these offspring.
|PTEN is a protein tyrosine phosphatase for IRS1. |
Shi, Y; Wang, J; Chandarlapaty, S; Cross, J; Thompson, C; Rosen, N; Jiang, X
Nature structural & molecular biology 21 522-7 2014
The biological function of the PTEN tumor suppressor is mainly attributed to its lipid phosphatase activity. This study demonstrates that mammalian PTEN is a protein tyrosine phosphatase that selectively dephosphorylates insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1), a mediator of insulin and IGF signals. IGF signaling was defective in cells lacking NEDD4, a PTEN ubiquitin ligase, whereas AKT activation triggered by EGF or serum was unimpaired. Defective IGF signaling caused by NEDD4 deletion, including phosphorylation of IRS1 and AKT, was rescued by PTEN ablation. We demonstrate the nature of PTEN as an IRS1 phosphatase by direct biochemical analysis and cellular reconstitution, showing that NEDD4 supports insulin-mediated glucose metabolism and is required for the proliferation of IGF1 receptor-dependent but not EGF receptor-dependent tumor cells. Thus, PTEN is a protein phosphatase for IRS1, and its antagonism by NEDD4 promotes signaling by IGF and insulin.
|In vivo siRNA delivery of Keap1 modulates death and survival signaling pathways and attenuates concanavalin-A-induced acute liver injury in mice. |
González-Rodríguez, Á; Reibert, B; Amann, T; Constien, R; Rondinone, CM; Valverde, ÁM
Disease models & mechanisms 7 1093-100 2014
Oxidative stress contributes to the progression of acute liver failure (ALF). Transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) serves as an endogenous regulator by which cells combat oxidative stress. We have investigated liver damage and the balance between death and survival signaling pathways in concanavalin A (ConA)-mediated ALF using in vivo siRNA delivery targeting Keap1 in hepatocytes. For that goal, mice were injected with Keap1- or luciferase-siRNA-containing liposomes via the tail vein. After 48 hours, ALF was induced by ConA. Liver histology, pro-inflammatory mediators, antioxidant responses, cellular death, and stress and survival signaling were assessed. Keap1 mRNA and protein levels significantly decreased in livers of Keap1-siRNA-injected mice. In these animals, histological liver damage was less evident than in control mice when challenged with ConA. Likewise, markers of cellular death (FasL and caspases 8, 3 and 1) decreased at 4 and 8 hours post-injection. Nuclear Nrf2 and its target, hemoxygenase 1 (HO1), were elevated in Keap1-siRNA-injected mice compared with control animals, resulting in reduced oxidative stress in the liver. Similarly, mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were reduced in livers from Keap1-siRNA-injected mice. At the molecular level, activation of c-jun (NH2) terminal kinase (JNK) was ameliorated, whereas the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGFIR) survival pathway was maintained upon ConA injection in Keap1-siRNA-treated mice. In conclusion, our results have revealed a potential therapeutic use of in vivo siRNA technology targeted to Keap1 to combat oxidative stress by modulating Nrf2-mediated antioxidant responses and IGFIR survival signaling during the progression of ALF.
|Essential role of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B in the modulation of insulin signaling by acetaminophen in hepatocytes. |
Mobasher, MA; de Toro-Martín, J; González-Rodríguez, Á; Ramos, S; Letzig, LG; James, LP; Muntané, J; Álvarez, C; Valverde, ÁM
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 29406-19 2014
Many drugs are associated with the development of glucose intolerance or deterioration in glycemic control in patients with pre-existing diabetes. We have evaluated the cross-talk between signaling pathways activated by acetaminophen (APAP) and insulin signaling in hepatocytes with or without expression of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and in wild-type and PTP1B-deficient mice chronically treated with APAP. Human primary hepatocytes, Huh7 hepatoma cells with silenced PTP1B, mouse hepatocytes from wild-type and PTP1B-deficient mice, and a mouse model of chronic APAP treatment were used to examine the mechanisms involving PTP1B in the effects of APAP on glucose homeostasis and hepatic insulin signaling. In APAP-treated human hepatocytes at concentrations that did not induce death, phosphorylation of JNK and PTP1B expression and enzymatic activity were increased. APAP pretreatment inhibited activation of the early steps of insulin signaling and decreased Akt phosphorylation. The effects of APAP in insulin signaling were prevented by suramin, a PTP1B inhibitor, or rosiglitazone that decreased PTP1B levels. Likewise, PTP1B deficiency in human or mouse hepatocytes protected against APAP-mediated impairment in insulin signaling. These signaling pathways were modulated in mice with chronic APAP treatment, resulting in protection against APAP-mediated hepatic insulin resistance and alterations in islet alpha/beta cell ratio in PTP1B(-/-) mice. Our results demonstrate negative cross-talk between signaling pathways triggered by APAP and insulin signaling in hepatocytes, which is in part mediated by PTP1B. Moreover, our in vivo data suggest that chronic use of APAP may be associated with insulin resistance in the liver.
|Inhibition of Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase 7 by simian virus 40 large T antigen. |
Hartmann, T; Xu, X; Kronast, M; Muehlich, S; Meyer, K; Zimmermann, W; Hurwitz, J; Pan, ZQ; Engelhardt, S; Sarikas, A
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 3371-6 2014
Simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen (LT) triggers oncogenic transformation by inhibition of key tumor suppressor proteins, including p53 and members of the retinoblastoma family. In addition, SV40 transformation requires binding of LT to Cullin 7 (CUL7), a core component of Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase 7 (CRL7). However, the pathomechanistic effects of LT-CUL7 interaction are mostly unknown. Here we report both in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence that SV40 LT suppresses the ubiquitin ligase function of CRL7. We show that SV40 LT, but not a CUL7 binding-deficient mutant (LT(Δ69-83)), impaired 26S proteasome-dependent proteolysis of the CRL7 target protein insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), a component of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling pathway. SV40 LT expression resulted in the accumulation and prolonged half-life of IRS1. In vitro, purified SV40 LT reduced CRL7-dependent IRS1 ubiquitination in a concentration-dependent manner. Expression of SV40 LT, or depletion of CUL7 by RNA interference, resulted in the enhanced activation of IRS1 downstream signaling pathways phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT and Erk mitogen-activated pathway kinase, as well as up-regulation of the downstream target gene c-fos. Finally, SV40 LT-positive carcinoma of carcinoembryonic antigen 424/SV40 LT transgenic mice displayed elevated IRS1 protein levels and activation of downstream signaling. Taken together, these data suggest that SV40 LT protects IRS1 from CRL7-mediated degradation, thereby sustaining high levels of promitogenic IRS1 downstream signaling pathways.
|Liver kinase b1 is required for white adipose tissue growth and differentiation. |
Zhang, W; Wang, Q; Song, P; Zou, MH
Diabetes 62 2347-58 2013
White adipose tissue (WAT) is not only a lipogenic and fat storage tissue but also an important endocrine organ that regulates energy homeostasis, lipid metabolism, appetite, fertility, and immune and stress responses. Liver kinase B1 (LKB1), a tumor suppressor, is a key regulator in energy metabolism. However, the role of LKB1 in adipogenesis is unknown. The current study aimed to determine the contributions of LKB1 to adipogenesis in vivo. Using the Fabp4-Cre/loxP system, we generated adipose tissue-specific LKB1 knockout (LKB1(ad-/-)) mice. LKB1(ad-/-) mice exhibited a reduced amount of WAT, postnatal growth retardation, and early death before weaning. Further, LKB1 deletion markedly reduced the levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Consistent with these results, overexpression of constitutively active AMPK partially ablated IRS1 degradation in LKB1-deficient cells. LKB1 deletion increased the levels of F-box/WD repeat-containing protein (Fbw) 8, the IRS1 ubiquitination E3 ligase. Silencing of Fbw8 increased IRS1 levels. Finally, promoter analysis and DNA chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis identified three sterol regulatory element (SRE) sites in the Fbw8 promoter, where SRE-binding protein 1c binds and induces the expression of Fbw8. Taken together, these data indicate that LKB1 controls IRS1-dependent adipogenesis via AMPK in WAT.
|Akt2 influences glycogen synthase activity in human skeletal muscle through regulation of NH₂-terminal (sites 2 + 2a) phosphorylation. |
Friedrichsen, M; Birk, JB; Richter, EA; Ribel-Madsen, R; Pehmøller, C; Hansen, BF; Beck-Nielsen, H; Hirshman, MF; Goodyear, LJ; Vaag, A; Poulsen, P; Wojtaszewski, JF
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 304 E631-9 2013
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by reduced muscle glycogen synthesis. The key enzyme in this process, glycogen synthase (GS), is activated via proximal insulin signaling, but the exact molecular events remain unknown. Previously, we demonstrated that phosphorylation of Thr³⁰⁸ on Akt (p-Akt-Thr³⁰⁸), Akt2 activity, and GS activity in muscle were positively associated with insulin sensitivity. Here, in the same study population, we determined the influence of several upstream elements in the canonical PI3K signaling on muscle GS activation. One-hundred eighty-one nondiabetic twins were examined with the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with excision of muscle biopsies. Insulin signaling was evaluated at the levels of the insulin receptor, IRS-1-associated PI3K (IRS-1-PI3K), Akt, and GS employing activity assays and phosphospecific Western blotting. The insulin-stimulated GS activity was positively associated with p-Akt-Thr³⁰⁸ (P = 0.01) and Akt2 activity (P = 0.04) but not p-Akt-Ser⁴⁷³ or IRS-1-PI3K activity. Furthermore, p-Akt-Thr³⁰⁸ and Akt2 activity were negatively associated with NH₂-terminal GS phosphorylation (P = 0.001 for both), which in turn was negatively associated with insulin-stimulated GS activity (P less than 0.001). We found no association between COOH-terminal GS phosphorylation and Akt or GS activity. Employing whole body Akt2-knockout mice, we validated the necessity for Akt2 in insulin-mediated GS activation. However, since insulin did not affect NH₂-terminal phosphorylation in mice, we could not use this model to validate the observed association between GS NH₂-terminal phosphorylation and Akt activity in humans. In conclusion, our study suggests that although COOH-terminal dephosphorylation is likely necessary for GS activation, Akt2-dependent NH₂-terminal dephosphorylation may be the site for "fine-tuning" insulin-mediated GS activation in humans.
|Phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307 in response to insulin in human adipocytes is not likely to be catalyzed by p70 ribosomal S6 kinase. |
Rajan, MR; Fagerholm, S; Jönsson, C; Kjølhede, P; Turkina, MV; Strålfors, P
PloS one 8 e59725 2013
The insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) is phosphorylated on serine 307 (human sequence, corresponding to murine serine 302) in response to insulin as part of a feedback loop that controls IRS1 phosphorylation on tyrosine residues by the insulin receptor. This in turn directly affects downstream signaling and is in human adipocytes implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The phosphorylation is inhibited by rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in complex with raptor (mTORC1). The mTORC1-downstream p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1), which is activated by insulin, can phosphorylate IRS1 at serine 307 in vitro and is considered the physiological protein kinase. Because the IRS1 serine 307-kinase catalyzes a critical step in the control of insulin signaling and constitutes a potential target for treatment of insulin resistance, it is important to know whether S6K1 is the physiological serine 307-kinase or not. We report that, by several criteria, S6K1 does not phosphorylate IRS1 at serine 307 in response to insulin in intact human primary adipocytes: (i) The time-courses for phosphorylation of S6K1 and its phosphorylation of S6 are not compatible with the phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307; (ii) A dominant-negative construct of S6K1 inhibits the phosphorylation of S6, without effect on the phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307; (iii) The specific inhibitor of S6K1 PF-4708671 inhibits the phosphorylation of S6, without effect on phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307. mTOR-immunoprecipitates from insulin-stimulated adipocytes contains an unidentified protein kinase specific for phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307, but it is not mTOR or S6K1.
|Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B modulates GSK3β/Nrf2 and IGFIR signaling pathways in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. |
Mobasher, MA; González-Rodriguez, A; Santamaría, B; Ramos, S; Martín, MÁ; Goya, L; Rada, P; Letzig, L; James, LP; Cuadrado, A; Martín-Pérez, J; Simpson, KJ; Muntané, J; Valverde, AM
Cell death & disease 4 e626 2013
Acute hepatic failure secondary to acetaminophen (APAP) poisoning is associated with high mortality. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a negative regulator of tyrosine kinase growth factor signaling. In the liver, this pathway confers protection against injury. However, the involvement of PTP1B in the intracellular networks activated by APAP is unknown. We have assessed PTP1B expression in APAP-induced liver failure in humans and its role in the molecular mechanisms that regulate the balance between cell death and survival in human and mouse hepatocytes, as well as in a mouse model of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. PTP1B expression was increased in human liver tissue removed during liver transplant from patients for APAP overdose. PTP1B was upregulated by APAP in primary human and mouse hepatocytes together with the activation of c-jun (NH2) terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), resulting in cell death. Conversely, Akt phosphorylation and the antiapoptotic Bcl2 family members BclxL and Mcl1 were decreased. PTP1B deficiency in mouse protects hepatocytes against APAP-induced cell death, preventing glutathione depletion, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and activation of JNK and p38 MAPK. APAP-treated PTP1B(-/-) hepatocytes showed enhanced antioxidant defense through the glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)β/Src kinase family (SKF) axis, delaying tyrosine phosphorylation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and its nuclear exclusion, ubiquitination and degradation. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor-mediated signaling decreased in APAP-treated wild-type hepatocytes, but was maintained in PTP1B(-/-) cells or in wild-type hepatocytes with reduced PTP1B levels by RNA interference. Likewise, both signaling cascades were modulated in mice, resulting in less severe APAP hepatotoxicity in PTP1B(-/-) mice. Our results demonstrated that PTP1B is a central player of the mechanisms triggered by APAP in hepatotoxicity, suggesting a novel therapeutic target against APAP-induced liver failure.
|Loss of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B increases IGF-I receptor tyrosine phosphorylation but does not rescue retinal defects in IRS2-deficient mice. |
Arroba, AI; Revuelta-Cervantes, J; Menes, L; González-Rodríguez, Á; Pardo, V; de la Villa, P; Burks, DJ; Valverde, ÁM
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 54 4215-25 2013
Mice with deletion of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) 2 develop type 2 diabetes and photoreceptor degeneration. Loss of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice restores insulin sensitivity and normalizes glucose homeostasis. Since insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-IR promotes survival of photoreceptors and is a substrate of PTP1B, we investigated IGF-IR-mediated survival signaling and visual function in PTP1B(-/-) and double mutant IRS2(-/-)/PTP1B(-/-) mice.IGF-IR-mediated Akt signaling was evaluated in IGF-I-stimulated retinal explants. Histologic and electroretinogram analysis was performed in wild-type (WT), IRS2(-/-), PTP1B(-/-), and the double mutant IRS2(-/-)/PTP1B(-/-) mice.IGF-I stimulated the tyrosine phosphorylation of its receptor and Akt activation in retinal explants of WT mice. In PTP1B(-/-) retinal explants, these responses were enhanced. Conversely, in retinas from IRS2(-/-) mice, expression of PTP1B was increased, coincident with decreased IGF-I-mediated Akt serine 473 phosphorylation. PTP1B deletion in IRS2(-/-) mice also enhanced IGF-IR tyrosine phosphorylation but, unexpectedly, did not rescue Akt activation in response to IGF-I. One potential explanation is that PTEN was increased in retinas of IRS2(-/-) and IRS2(-/-)/PTP1B(-/-) mice. Histologic evaluation revealed alterations in various structures of the retina in IRS2(-/-) and IRS2(-/-)/PTP1B(-/-) mice, specifically in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and retinal outer segments (ROS). Electroretinogram (ERG) analysis confirmed that PTP1B deficiency did not restore visual function in IRS2(-/-) mice.Although loss of PTP1B enhances tyrosine phosphorylation of the IGF-IR in retinal explants of IRS2(-/-) mice, Akt activation remains defective owing to elevated PTEN levels and, thus, structural and functional visual defects persist in this model.
|Effect of lipopolysaccharide on inflammation and insulin action in human muscle. |
Liang, H; Hussey, SE; Sanchez-Avila, A; Tantiwong, P; Musi, N
PloS one 8 e63983 2013
Accumulating evidence from animal studies suggest that chronic elevation of circulating intestinal-generated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (i.e., metabolic endotoxemia) could play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. However, the effect of LPS in human muscle is unclear. Moreover, it is unknown whether blockade/down regulation of toll-like receptor (TLR)4 can prevent the effect of LPS on insulin action and glucose metabolism in human muscle cells. In the present study we compared plasma LPS concentration in insulin resistant [obese non-diabetic and obese type 2 diabetic (T2DM)] subjects versus lean individuals. In addition, we employed a primary human skeletal muscle cell culture system to investigate the effect of LPS on glucose metabolism and whether these effects are mediated via TLR4. Obese non-diabetic and T2DM subjects had significantly elevated plasma LPS and LPS binding protein (LBP) concentrations. Plasma LPS (r = -0.46, P = 0.005) and LBP (r = -0.49, P = 0.005) concentrations negatively correlated with muscle insulin sensitivity (M). In human myotubes, LPS increased JNK phosphorylation and MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expression. This inflammatory response led to reduced insulin-stimulated IRS-1, Akt and AS160 phosphorylation and impaired glucose transport. Both pharmacologic blockade of TLR4 with TAK-242, and TLR4 gene silencing, suppressed the inflammatory response and insulin resistance caused by LPS in human muscle cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that elevations in plasma LPS concentration found in obese and T2DM subjects could play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and that antagonists of TLR4 may improve insulin action in these individuals.
|Interferon regulatory factor 4 regulates obesity-induced inflammation through regulation of adipose tissue macrophage polarization. |
Eguchi, J; Kong, X; Tenta, M; Wang, X; Kang, S; Rosen, ED
Diabetes 62 3394-403 2013
Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) play functionally diverse roles in the transcriptional regulation of the immune system. We have previously shown that several IRFs are regulators of adipogenesis and that IRF4 is a critical transcriptional regulator of adipocyte lipid handling. However, the functional role of IRF4 in adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) remains unclear, despite high expression there. Here we show that IRF4 expression is regulated in primary macrophages and in ATMs of high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Irf4(-/-) macrophages produce higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, in response to fatty acids. In coculture experiments, IRF4 deletion in macrophages leads to reduced insulin signaling and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. To determine the macrophage-specific function of IRF4 in the context of obesity, we generated myeloid cell-specific IRF4 knockout mice, which develop significant insulin resistance on a high-fat diet, despite no difference in adiposity. This phenotype is associated with increased expression of inflammatory genes and decreased insulin signaling in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. Furthermore, Irf4(-/-) ATMs express markers suggestive of enhanced M1 polarization. These findings indicate that IRF4 is a negative regulator of inflammation in diet-induced obesity, in part through regulation of macrophage polarization.
|Variant NKX3.1 and Serum IGF-1: Investigation of Interaction in Prostate Cancer. |
Muhlbradt, E; Ma, J; Severi, G; Ortner, E; Hayes, V; Hoang, HN; Stampfer, M; Giles, G; Pollak, M; Gelmann, EP
Genes & cancer 4 535-45 2013
NKX3.1 is a tumor suppressor down-regulated in early prostate cancers. A SNP (rs2228013), which represents a polymorphic NKX3.1(C154T) coding for a variant protein NKX3.1(R52C), is present in 10% of the population and is related to prostatic enlargement and prostate cancer. We investigated rs2228013 in prostate cancer risk for 937 prostate cancer cases and 1,086 age-matched controls from a nested case-control study within the prospective Physicians' Health Study (PHS) and among 798 cases and 527 controls retrospectively collected in the Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer Study of the Victoria Cancer Council (RFPCS). We also investigated the interaction between serum IGF-I levels and NKX3.1 genotype in the populations from PHS and RFPCS. In the PHS, we found no overall association between the variant T allele in rs2228013 in NKX3.1 and prostate cancer risk (odd ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval = 0.92-1.71). A subgroup analysis for cases diagnosed before age 70 showed an increased risk (relative risk = 1.55; 95% confidence interval = 1.04-2.31) of overall prostate cancer. In this age-group, the risk of metastatic cancer at diagnosis or of fatal cancer was even higher in carriers of the T allele (relative risk = 2.15; 95% confidence interval = 1.00-4.63). These associations were not replicated in the RFPCS. Serum IGF-I levels were found to be a risk factor for prostate cancer in both study populations. The wild type NKX3.1 protein can induce IGFBP-3 expression in vitro. We report that variant NKX3.1 cannot induce IGFBP-3 expression, but the NKX3.1 genotype does not modify the association between serum IGF-I levels and prostate cancer risk.
|IκB kinase β (IKKβ) does not mediate feedback inhibition of the insulin signalling cascade. |
Lancaster, GI; Skiba, B; Yang, C; Nicholls, HT; Langley, KG; Chan, MH; Bruce, CR; Rewcastle, GW; Shepherd, PR; Karin, M; Febbraio, MA
The Biochemical journal 442 723-32 2012
In the present study, we have examined whether IKKβ [IκB (inhibitor of nuclear factor κB) kinase β] plays a role in feedback inhibition of the insulin signalling cascade. Insulin induces the phosphorylation of IKKβ, in vitro and in vivo, and this effect is dependent on intact signalling via PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase), but not PKB (protein kinase B). To test the hypothesis that insulin activates IKKβ as a means of negative feedback, we employed a variety of experimental approaches. First, pharmacological inhibition of IKKβ via BMS-345541 did not potentiate insulin-induced IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate 1) tyrosine phosphorylation, PKB phosphorylation or 2-deoxyglucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. BMS-345541 did not prevent insulin-induced IRS1 serine phosphorylation on known IKKβ target sites. Secondly, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of wild-type IKKβ in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes did not suppress insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake, IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation, IRS1 association with the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K or PKB phosphorylation. Thirdly, insulin signalling was not potentiated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking IKKβ. Finally, insulin treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes did not promote the recruitment of IKKβ to IRS1, supporting our findings that IKKβ, although activated by insulin, does not promote direct serine phosphorylation of IRS1 and does not contribute to the feedback inhibition of the insulin signalling cascade.
|Obesity in mice with adipocyte-specific deletion of clock component Arntl. |
Paschos, GK; Ibrahim, S; Song, WL; Kunieda, T; Grant, G; Reyes, TM; Bradfield, CA; Vaughan, CH; Eiden, M; Masoodi, M; Griffin, JL; Wang, F; Lawson, JA; Fitzgerald, GA
Nature medicine 18 1768-77 2012
Adipocytes store excess energy in the form of triglycerides and signal the levels of stored energy to the brain. Here we show that adipocyte-specific deletion of Arntl (also known as Bmal1), a gene encoding a core molecular clock component, results in obesity in mice with a shift in the diurnal rhythm of food intake, a result that is not seen when the gene is disrupted in hepatocytes or pancreatic islets. Changes in the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate appetite are consistent with feedback from the adipocyte to the central nervous system to time feeding behavior. Ablation of the adipocyte clock is associated with a reduced number of polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipocyte triglycerides. This difference between mutant and wild-type mice is reflected in the circulating concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids and nonesterified polyunsaturated fatty acids in hypothalamic neurons that regulate food intake. Thus, this study reveals a role for the adipocyte clock in the temporal organization of energy regulation, highlights timing as a modulator of the adipocyte-hypothalamic axis and shows the impact of timing of food intake on body weight.
|Pulsatile portal vein insulin delivery enhances hepatic insulin action and signaling. |
Matveyenko, AV; Liuwantara, D; Gurlo, T; Kirakossian, D; Dalla Man, C; Cobelli, C; White, MF; Copps, KD; Volpi, E; Fujita, S; Butler, PC
Diabetes 61 2269-79 2012
Insulin is secreted as discrete insulin secretory bursts at ~5-min intervals into the hepatic portal vein, these pulses being attenuated early in the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Intraportal insulin infusions (pulsatile, constant, or reproducing that in T2DM) indicated that the pattern of pulsatile insulin secretion delivered via the portal vein is important for hepatic insulin action and, therefore, presumably for hepatic insulin signaling. To test this, we examined hepatic insulin signaling in rat livers exposed to the same three patterns of portal vein insulin delivery by use of sequential liver biopsies in anesthetized rats. Intraportal delivery of insulin in a constant versus pulsatile pattern led to delayed and impaired activation of hepatic insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 signaling, impaired activation of downstream insulin signaling effector molecules AKT and Foxo1, and decreased expression of glucokinase (Gck). We further established that hepatic Gck expression is decreased in the HIP rat model of T2DM, a defect that correlated with a progressive defect of pulsatile insulin secretion. We conclude that the physiological pulsatile pattern of insulin delivery is important in hepatic insulin signaling and glycemic control. Hepatic insulin resistance in diabetes is likely in part due to impaired pulsatile insulin secretion.
|Essential role of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B in obesity-induced inflammation and peripheral insulin resistance during aging. |
González-Rodríguez, A; Más-Gutierrez, JA; Mirasierra, M; Fernandez-Pérez, A; Lee, YJ; Ko, HJ; Kim, JK; Romanos, E; Carrascosa, JM; Ros, M; Vallejo, M; Rondinone, CM; Valverde, AM
Aging cell 11 284-96 2012
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a negative regulator of insulin signaling and a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In this study, we have evaluated the role of PTP1B in the development of aging-associated obesity, inflammation, and peripheral insulin resistance by assessing metabolic parameters at 3 and 16 months in PTP1B(-/-) mice maintained on mixed genetic background (C57Bl/6J × 129Sv/J). Whereas fat mass and adipocyte size were increased in wild-type control mice at 16 months, these parameters did not change with aging in PTP1B(-/-) mice. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, crown-like structures, and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α were observed only in adipose tissue from 16-month-old wild-type mice. Similarly, islet hyperplasia and hyperinsulinemia were observed in wild-type mice with aging-associated obesity, but not in PTP1B(-/-) animals. Leanness in 16-month-old PTP1B(-/-) mice was associated with increased energy expenditure. Whole-body insulin sensitivity decreased in 16-month-old control mice; however, studies with the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp revealed that PTP1B deficiency prevented this obesity-related decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity. At a molecular level, PTP1B expression and enzymatic activity were up-regulated in liver and muscle of 16-month-old wild-type mice as were the activation of stress kinases and the expression of p53. Conversely, insulin receptor-mediated Akt/Foxo1 signaling was attenuated in these aged control mice. Collectively, these data implicate PTP1B in the development of inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity during aging and suggest that inhibition of this phosphatase by therapeutic strategies might protect against age-dependent T2DM.
|Functional genomic analysis unravels a metabolic-inflammatory interplay in adrenoleukodystrophy. |
Schlüter, A; Espinosa, L; Fourcade, S; Galino, J; López, E; Ilieva, E; Morató, L; Asheuer, M; Cook, T; McLaren, A; Reid, J; Kelly, F; Bates, S; Aubourg, P; Galea, E; Pujol, A
Human molecular genetics 21 1062-77 2012
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited disorder characterized by axonopathy and demyelination in the central nervous system and adrenal insufficiency. Main X-ALD phenotypes are: (i) an adult adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) with axonopathy in spinal cords, (ii) cerebral AMN with brain demyelination (cAMN) and (iii) a childhood variant, cALD, characterized by severe cerebral demyelination. Loss of function of the ABCD1 peroxisomal fatty acid transporter and subsequent accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are the common culprits to all forms of X-ALD, an aberrant microglial activation accounts for the cerebral forms, whereas inflammation allegedly plays no role in AMN. How VLCFA accumulation leads to neurodegeneration and what factors account for the dissimilar clinical outcomes and prognosis of X-ALD variants remain elusive. To gain insights into these questions, we undertook a transcriptomic approach followed by a functional-enrichment analysis in spinal cords of the animal model of AMN, the Abcd1(-) null mice, and in normal-appearing white matter of cAMN and cALD patients. We report that the mouse model shares with cAMN and cALD a common signature comprising dysregulation of oxidative phosphorylation, adipocytokine and insulin signaling pathways, and protein synthesis. Functional validation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blots and assays in spinal cord organotypic cultures confirmed the interplay of these pathways through IkB kinase, being VLCFA in excess a causal, upstream trigger promoting the altered signature. We conclude that X-ALD is, in all its variants, a metabolic/inflammatory syndrome, which may offer new targets in X-ALD therapeutics.
|Beneficial effects of fenofibrate in retinal pigment epithelium by the modulation of stress and survival signaling under diabetic conditions. |
Miranda, Soledad, et al.
J. Cell. Physiol., 227: 2352-62 (2012) 2012
In this study, we found an imbalance between stress-mediated and survival signaling and elevated apoptotic markers in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) from diabetic patients. Since fenofibric acid (FA) treatment reduces the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR), we investigated the effect of hyperglycemia and hypoxia, two components of the diabetic milieu, on stress, apoptosis, and survival pathways in ARPE-19 cells (immortalized human RPE cell line) and whether FA is able to prevent the deleterious effects induced by these conditions. ARPE-19 cells cultured in high-glucose (HG) medium or under hypoxia (1% oxygen)-induced phosphorylation of the stress-activated kinases JNK and p38 MAPK. This effect was increased by the combination of both conditions. Likewise, hyperglycemia and hypoxia triggered the phosphorylation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers PERK and eIF2α and the induction of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor CHOP. Under these experimental conditions, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were elevated and the integrity of tight junctions was disrupted. Conversely, ARPE-19 cells treated with FA were protected against these deleterious effects induced by hyperglycemia and hypoxia. FA increased insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR)-mediated survival signaling in cells cultured under hyperglycemia and hypoxia, thereby suppressing caspase-3 activation and down-regulation of BclxL. Moreover, FA increased LC3-II, an autophagy marker. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that FA elicits a dual protective effect in RPE by down-regulation of stress-mediated signaling and induction of autophagy and survival pathways. These molecular mechanisms could be involved in the beneficial effects of fenofibrate reported in clinical trials.
|Adipocyte expression of PU.1 transcription factor causes insulin resistance through upregulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression and ROS production. |
Lin, L; Pang, W; Chen, K; Wang, F; Gengler, J; Sun, Y; Tong, Q
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 302 E1550-9 2012
We have reported previously that ETS family transcription factor PU.1 is expressed in mature adipocytes of white adipose tissue. PU.1 expression is increased greatly in mouse models of genetic or diet-induced obesity. Here, we show that PU.1 expression is increased only in visceral but not subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese mice, and the adipocytes are responsible for this increase in PU.1 expression. To further address PU.1's physiological function in mature adipocytes, PU.1 was knocked down in 3T3-L1 cells using retroviral-mediated expression of PU.1-targeting shRNA. Consistent with previous findings that PU.1 regulates its target genes, such as NADPH oxidase subunits and proinflammatory cytokines in myeloid cells, the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6) and cytosolic components of NADPH oxidase (p47phox and p40phox) were downregulated significantly in PU.1-silenced adipocytes. NADPH oxidase is a main source for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Indeed, silencing PU.1 suppressed NADPH oxidase activity and attenuated ROS in basal or hydrogen peroxide-treated adipocytes. Silencing PU.1 in adipocytes suppressed JNK1 activation and IRS-1 phosphorylation at Ser(307). Consequently, PU.1 knockdown improved insulin signaling and increased glucose uptake in basal and insulin-stimulated conditions. Furthermore, knocking down PU.1 suppressed basal lipolysis but activated stimulated lipolysis. Collectively, these findings indicate that obesity induces PU.1 expression in adipocytes to upregulate the production of ROS and proinflammatory cytokines, both of which lead to JNK1 activation, insulin resistance, and dysregulation of lipolysis. Therefore, PU.1 might be a mediator for obesity-induced adipose inflammation and insulin resistance.
|Insulin-induced serine phosphorylation of IRS-2 via ERK1/2 and mTOR: studies on the function of Ser675 and Ser907. |
Fritsche, L; Neukamm, SS; Lehmann, R; Kremmer, E; Hennige, AM; Hunder-Gugel, A; Schenk, M; Häring, HU; Schleicher, ED; Weigert, C
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 300 E824-36 2011
The identity of specific serine phosphorylation residues of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2 and their impact on insulin signal transduction are largely unknown. Ser(675) and Ser(907) of mouse IRS-2 are adjacent to PI 3-kinase or Grb2 binding domains, respectively. Using monoclonal phosphosite-specific antibodies, we demonstrated the phosphorylation of both serines after stimulation of Fao hepatoma cells with insulin, anisomycin, or phorbol esters. Phosphorylation of both sites was a late and prolonged event during insulin treatment and was also detected in liver tissue of insulin-treated as well as refed mice. Inhibition and siRNA-mediated knockdown of ERK1/2 indicated that the insulin-induced phosphorylation of Ser(907) was ERK dependent. Phosphorylation of Ser(907) did not prevent the insulin-induced association of IRS-2 with Grb2, but phosphorylation of the adjacent Tyr(911) was proved to be crucial in HEK 293 cells expressing IRS-2 Ala mutants. The insulin-induced phosphorylation of Ser(675) was prevented by inhibition and siRNA-mediated knockdown of mTOR but not of p70(S6K1). Mutation of Ser(675) to Ala did not affect downstream insulin signaling but increased the half-life of the protein, suggesting an involvement of phospho-Ser(675) in an accelerated degradation of IRS-2. Moreover, the insulin-induced degradation of IRS-2 was blocked by inhibition of mTOR. We conclude that the two novel insulin-dependent serine phosphorylation sites of IRS-2 were not involved in the regulation of the adjacent PI 3-kinase and Grb2 binding domains but might be implicated in the ERK- and mTOR-mediated negative feedback control.
|Decreased IGF type 1 receptor signaling in mammary epithelium during pregnancy leads to reduced proliferation, alveolar differentiation, and expression of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2. |
Sun, Z; Shushanov, S; LeRoith, D; Wood, TL
Endocrinology 152 3233-45 2011
The IGFs and the IGF type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) are essential mediators of normal mammary gland development in mice. IGF-I and the IGF-1R have demonstrated functions in formation and proliferation of terminal end buds and in ductal outgrowth and branching during puberty. To study the functions of IGF-1R during pregnancy and lactation, we established transgenic mouse lines expressing a human dominant-negative kinase dead IGF-1R (dnhIGF-1R) under the control of the whey acidic protein promoter. We provide evidence that the IGF-1R pathway is necessary for normal epithelial proliferation and alveolar formation during pregnancy. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the whey acidic protein-dnhIGF-1R transgene causes a delay in alveolar differentiation including lipid droplet formation, lumen expansion, and β-casein protein expression. Analysis of IGF-1R signaling pathways showed a decrease in P-IGF-1R and P-Akt resulting from expression of the dnhIGF-1R. We further demonstrate that disruption of the IGF-1R decreases mammary epithelial cell expression of the signaling intermediates insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2. No alterations were observed in downstream signaling targets of prolactin and progesterone, suggesting that activation of the IGF-1R may directly regulate expression of IRS-1/2 during alveolar development and differentiation. These data show that IGF-1R signaling is necessary for normal alveolar proliferation and differentiation, in part, through induction of signaling intermediates that mediate alveolar development.
|AKT down-regulates insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor as a negative feedback. |
Qin L, Wang Y, Tao L, Wang Z
Journal of biochemistry 150 151-6. Epub 2011 May 25. 2011
As a member of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) receptor (IGF1R) activates several downstream pathways to transmit proliferative signals from extracellular stimulation. AKT as a major effector plays a pivotal role in integrating various survival signalling cascades. Our data here show that hyperactive AKT leads to the decrease of IGF1R at the transcriptional level, which could be partly restored by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitors including wortmannin and LY294002. Moreover, the decrease of IGF1R impairs the sensitivity of IRS1 to the stimulation by IGF1. mTOR as a main downstream target of AKT is not involved in the AKT-mediated down-regulation of IGF1R.
|Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K(p110alpha)) directly regulates key components of the Z-disc and cardiac structure. |
Waardenberg, AJ; Bernardo, BC; Ng, DC; Shepherd, PR; Cemerlang, N; Sbroggiò, M; Wells, CA; Dalrymple, BP; Brancaccio, M; Lin, RC; McMullen, JR
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 30837-46 2011
Maintenance of cardiac structure and Z-disc signaling are key factors responsible for protecting the heart in a setting of stress, but how these processes are regulated is not well defined. We recently demonstrated that PI3K(p110α) protects the heart against myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to determine whether PI3K(p110α) directly regulates components of the Z-disc and cardiac structure. To address this question, a unique three-dimensional virtual muscle model was applied to gene expression data from transgenic mice with increased or decreased PI3K(p110α) activity under basal conditions (sham) and in a setting of myocardial infarction to display the location of structural proteins. Key findings from this analysis were then validated experimentally. The three-dimensional virtual muscle model visually highlighted reciprocally regulated transcripts associated with PI3K activation that encoded key components of the Z-disc and costamere, including melusin. Studies were performed to assess whether PI3K and melusin interact in the heart. Here, we identify a novel melusin-PI3K interaction that generates lipid kinase activity. The direct impact of PI3K(p110α) on myocyte structure was assessed by treating neonatal rat ventricular myocytes with PI3K(p110α) inhibitors and examining the myofiber morphology of hearts from PI3K transgenic mice. Results demonstrate that PI3K is critical for myofiber maturation and Z-disc alignment. In summary, PI3K regulates the expression of genes essential for cardiac structure and Z-disc signaling, interacts with melusin, and is critical for Z-disc alignment.
|Masked excitatory crosstalk between the ON and OFF visual pathways in the mammalian retina. |
Farajian R, Pan F, Akopian A, Völgyi B, Bloomfield SA
The Journal of physiology 589 4473-89. Epub 2011 Jul 18. 2011
Abstract A fundamental organizing feature of the visual system is the segregation of ON and OFF responses into parallel streams to signal light increment and decrement. However, we found that blockade of GABAergic inhibition unmasks robust ON responses in OFF α-ganglion cells (α-GCs). These ON responses had the same centre-mediated structure as the classic OFF responses of OFF α-GCs, but were abolished following disruption of the ON pathway with l-AP4. Experiments showed that both GABA(A) and GABA(C) receptors are involved in the masking inhibition of this ON response, located at presynaptic inhibitory synapses on bipolar cell axon terminals and possibly amacrine cell dendrites. Since the dendrites of OFF α-GCs are not positioned to receive excitatory inputs from ON bipolar cell axon terminals in sublamina-b of the inner plexiform layer (IPL), we investigated the possibility that gap junction-mediated electrical synapses made with neighbouring amacrine cells form the avenue for reception of ON signals. We found that the application of gap junction blockers eliminated the unmasked ON responses in OFF α-GCs, while the classic OFF responses remained. Furthermore, we found that amacrine cells coupled to OFF α-GCs display processes in both sublaminae of the IPL, thus forming a plausible substrate for the reception and delivery of ON signals to OFF α-GCs. Finally, using a multielectrode array, we found that masked ON and OFF signals are displayed by over one-third of ganglion cells in the rabbit and mouse retinas, suggesting that masked crossover excitation is a widespread phenomenon in the inner mammalian retina.
|Inhibition of Notch signaling ameliorates insulin resistance in a FoxO1-dependent manner. |
Pajvani, UB; Shawber, CJ; Samuel, VT; Birkenfeld, AL; Shulman, GI; Kitajewski, J; Accili, D
Nature medicine 17 961-7 2011
Transcription factor FoxO1 promotes hepatic glucose production. Genetic inhibition of FoxO1 function prevents diabetes in experimental animal models, providing impetus to identify pharmacological approaches to modulate this function. Altered Notch signaling is evident in tumorigenesis, and Notch antagonists are in clinical testing for application in cancer. Here we report that FoxO1 and Notch coordinately regulate hepatic glucose metabolism. Combined haploinsufficiency of FoxO1 and Notch1 markedly raises insulin sensitivity in diet-induced insulin resistance, as does liver-specific knockout of the Notch transcriptional effector Rbp-Jκ. Conversely, Notch1 gain-of-function promotes insulin resistance in a FoxO1-dependent manner and induces glucose-6-phosphatase expression. Pharmacological blockade of Notch signaling with γ-secretase inhibitors raises insulin sensitivity after in vivo administration in lean mice and in obese, insulin-resistant mice. The data identify a heretofore unknown metabolic function of Notch and suggest that Notch inhibition is beneficial in diabetes treatment, in part by helping to offset excessive FoxO1-driven hepatic glucose production.
|UDCA slows down intestinal cell proliferation by inducing high and sustained ERK phosphorylation. |
Krishna-Subramanian S, Hanski ML, Loddenkemper C, Choudhary B, Pagès G, Zeitz M, Hanski C
International journal of cancer Journal international du cancer 2011
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) attenuates colon carcinogenesis in humans and in animal models by an unknown mechanism. We investigated UDCA effects on normal intestinal epithelium in vivo and in vitro in order to identify the potential chemopreventive mechanism. Feeding of mice with 0.4% UDCA reduced cell proliferation to 50% and suppressed several potential proproliferatory genes including insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs-1). A similar transcriptional response was observed in the rat intestinal cell line IEC-6 which was then used as an in vitro model. UDCA slowed down the proliferation of IEC-6 cells and induced sustained hyperphosphorylation of ERK1/ERK2 kinases which completely inhibited the proproliferatory effects of EGF and IGF-1. The hyperphosphorylation of ERK1 led to a transcriptional suppression of the Irs-1 gene. Both, the hyperphosphorylation of ERK as well as the suppression of Irs-1 were sufficient to inhibit proliferation of IEC-6 cells. ERK1/ERK2 inhibition in vitro or ERK1 elimination in vitro or in vivo abrogated the antiproliferatory effects of UDCA. We show that UDCA inhibits proliferation of nontransformed intestinal epithelial cells by inducing a sustained hyperphosphorylation of ERK1 kinase which slows down the cell cycle and reduces expression of Irs-1 protein. These data extend our understanding of the physiological and potentially chemopreventive effects of UDCA and identify new targets for chemoprevention.Copyright © 2011 UICC.
|Global IRS-1 phosphorylation analysis in insulin resistance. |
Langlais, P; Yi, Z; Finlayson, J; Luo, M; Mapes, R; De Filippis, E; Meyer, C; Plummer, E; Tongchinsub, P; Mattern, M; Mandarino, LJ
Diabetologia 54 2878-89 2011
IRS-1 serine phosphorylation is often elevated in insulin resistance models, but confirmation in vivo in humans is lacking. We therefore analysed IRS-1 phosphorylation in human muscle in vivo.We used HPLC-electrospray ionisation (ESI)-MS/MS to quantify IRS-1 phosphorylation basally and after insulin infusion in vastus lateralis muscle from lean healthy, obese non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic volunteers.Basal Ser323 phosphorylation was increased in type 2 diabetic patients (2.1 ± 0.43, p ≤ 0.05, fold change vs lean controls). Thr495 phosphorylation was decreased in type 2 diabetic patients (p ≤ 0.05). Insulin increased IRS-1 phosphorylation at Ser527 (1.4 ± 0.17, p ≤ 0.01, fold change, 60 min after insulin infusion vs basal) and Ser531 (1.3 ± 0.16, p ≤ 0.01, fold change, 60 min after insulin infusion vs basal) in the lean controls and suppressed phosphorylation at Ser348 (0.56 ± 0.11, p ≤ 0.01, fold change, 240 min after insulin infusion vs basal), Thr446 (0.64 ± 0.16, p ≤ 0.05, fold change, 60 min after insulin infusion vs basal), Ser1100 (0.77 ± 0.22, p ≤ 0.05, fold change, 240 min after insulin infusion vs basal) and Ser1142 (1.3 ± 0.2, p ≤ 0.05, fold change, 60 min after insulin infusion vs basal).We conclude that, unlike some aspects of insulin signalling, the ability of insulin to increase or suppress certain IRS-1 phosphorylation sites is intact in insulin resistance. However, some IRS-1 phosphorylation sites do not respond to insulin, whereas other Ser/Thr phosphorylation sites are either increased or decreased in insulin resistance.
|Myo1c regulates glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle. |
Toyoda, T; An, D; Witczak, CA; Koh, HJ; Hirshman, MF; Fujii, N; Goodyear, LJ
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 4133-40 2011
Contraction and insulin promote glucose uptake in skeletal muscle through GLUT4 translocation to cell surface membranes. Although the signaling mechanisms leading to GLUT4 translocation have been extensively studied in muscle, the cellular transport machinery is poorly understood. Myo1c is an actin-based motor protein implicated in GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes; however, the expression profile and role of Myo1c in skeletal muscle have not been investigated. Myo1c protein abundance was higher in more oxidative skeletal muscles and heart. Voluntary wheel exercise (4 weeks, 8.2 ± 0.8 km/day), which increased the oxidative profile of the triceps muscle, significantly increased Myo1c protein levels by ∼2-fold versus sedentary controls. In contrast, high fat feeding (9 weeks, 60% fat) significantly reduced Myo1c by 17% in tibialis anterior muscle. To study Myo1c regulation of glucose uptake, we expressed wild-type Myo1c or Myo1c mutated at the ATPase catalytic site (K111A-Myo1c) in mouse tibialis anterior muscles in vivo and assessed glucose uptake in vivo in the basal state, in response to 15 min of in situ contraction, and 15 min following maximal insulin injection (16.6 units/kg of body weight). Expression of wild-type Myo1c or K111A-Myo1c had no effect on basal glucose uptake. However, expression of wild-type Myo1c significantly increased contraction- and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, whereas expression of K111A-Myo1c decreased both contraction-stimulated and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Neither wild-type nor K111A-Myo1c expression altered GLUT4 expression, and neither affected contraction- or insulin-stimulated signaling proteins. Myo1c is a novel mediator of both insulin-stimulated and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.
|The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor and resistance to DACH1. |
Tiziana DeAngelis,Kongming Wu,Richard Pestell,Renato Baserga
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 10 2011
The mammalian homolog of the Drosophila dachshund gene (DACH1) has been reported as a tumor suppressor in human breast and prostate cancers. It downregulates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cyclin D1. The signaling pathway of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) is known to be responsible for the development of resistance to treatment of human cancer with antibodies to the EGFR. We have asked whether DACH1 still exerts its tumor suppressor activity in cells dependent on the IGF-IR for growth. We find that in cells growing in IGF-1 (and unresponsive to EGF), DACH1 is devoid of tumor suppressor activity.
|Nuclear IRS-1 predicts tamoxifen response in patients with early breast cancer. |
Migliaccio, I; Wu, MF; Gutierrez, C; Malorni, L; Mohsin, SK; Allred, DC; Hilsenbeck, SG; Osborne, CK; Weiss, H; Lee, AV
Breast cancer research and treatment 123 651-60 2010
Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is a cytoplasmic scaffolding protein that is phosphorylated by insulin-like growth factor-I receptor and recruits downstream effectors. Recent evidence suggests that IRS-1 has a nuclear localization and function. Here we investigated whether nuclear and cytoplasmic IRS-1 levels are associated with clinico-pathological characteristics and clinical outcome in breast cancer patients. Tissue microarrays from 1,097 patients with stage I-II breast cancer were stained by immunohistochemistry for IRS-1. Nuclear and cytoplasmic IRS-1 were scored separately according to the Allred score. Nuclear IRS-1 showed a positive association with estrogen receptor (ER) (r = 0.09, P = 0.003) and progesterone receptor (PR) (r = 0.08, P = 0.008) status and a negative correlation with lymph node involvement (r = -0.10, P = 0.001). Cytoplasmic IRS-1 did not correlate with ER or PR but showed a positive correlation with tumor size (r = 0.10, P = 0.001) and S-phase fraction (r = 0.16, P less than 0.001). In univariate analysis, tamoxifen-treated patients with tumors showing positive nuclear IRS-1 had a better recurrence-free survival (RFS) (P = 0.009) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0.0007), while no association was shown between cytoplasmic IRS-1 and RFS or OS in the same group of patients. In multivariate analysis of patients receiving tamoxifen, negative nuclear IRS-1 showed a significantly reduced RFS (P = 0.046) and OS (P = 0.018). Combining both PR and nuclear IRS-1, tamoxifen-treated patients with PR+/IRS-1+ tumors had a better RFS (P = 0.0003) and OS (P less than 0.0001) when compared with patients with PR-/IRS-1- tumors. In conclusion, nuclear IRS-1 may be a useful marker to predict tamoxifen response in patients with early breast cancer, particularly when assessed in combination with PR.
|Insulin Sensitization of Human Preadipocytes through Glucocorticoid Hormone Induction of Forkhead Transcription Factors. |
Tomlinson JJ, Boudreau A, Wu D, Abdou Salem H, Carrigan A, Gagnon A, Mears AJ, Sorisky A, Atlas E, HachÃ© RJ
Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 24 104-13 2010
Glucocorticoids are synthesized locally in adipose tissue and contribute to metabolic disease through the facilitation of adipose tissue expansion. Here we report that exposure of human primary preadipocytes to glucocorticoids increases their sensitivity to insulin and enhances their subsequent response to stimuli that promote differentiation. This effect was observed in primary human preadipocytes but not in immortalized 3T3-L1 murine preadipocytes or in fully differentiated primary human adipocytes. Stimulation of insulin signaling was mediated through induction of insulin receptor (IR), IR substrate protein 1 (IRS1), IRS2, and the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide-3-3-kinase, which led to enhanced insulin-mediated activation of Akt. Although induction of IRS2 was direct, induction of IR and IRS1 by glucocorticoids occurred subsequent to primary induction of the forkhead family transcription factors FoxO1A and FoxO3A. These results reveal a new role for glucocorticoids in preparing preadipocytes for differentiation.
|IGF-I stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibits insulin-dependent glucose uptake via ROS in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. |
Fukuoka H, Iida K, Nishizawa H, Imanaka M, Takeno R, Iguchi G, Takahashi M, Okimura Y, Kaji H, Chihara K, Takahashi Y
Growth Horm IGF Res 20 212-9. Epub 2010 Feb 24. 2010
OBJECTIVE: IGF-I is known to enhance insulin sensitivity in whole body mainly via the IGF-I receptors in muscles. However, the effect of IGF-I on the regulation of insulin sensitivity in the adipose tissue is yet unclear. Insulin sensitivity was found to be higher in the IGF-I receptor-deficient adipocytes than that in wild-type adipocytes, suggesting that IGF-I signaling induces insulin resistance in adipocytes. However, the underlying mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In addition, the effect of superphysiological levels of IGF-I, as is observed in patients with acromegaly, on insulin sensitivity remains unclear. DESIGN: To clarify the role of IGF-I on insulin sensitivity in adipocytes, we determined insulin-induced glucose uptake and IRS-1 status in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with IGF-I. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) are causally related to insulin resistance, we investigated the effect of IGF-I on ROS production to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying insulin resistance. RESULTS: Preincubation of the adipocytes with IGF-I attenuated insulin-dependent glucose uptake. Interestingly, we found that IGF-I significantly stimulated ROS production. Furthermore, preincubation of adipocytes with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) restored the IGF-I-induced attenuation of insulin-dependent glucose uptake; this indicates that IGF-I induces insulin resistance via ROS. Serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 was strongly induced and the insulin-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 was suppressed by preincubating the adipocytes with IGF-I. Further, NAC restored these changes induced by IGF-I on both serine and tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that IGF-I inhibited insulin activity in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes via ROS production, which affects IRS-1 phosphorylation status. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|An IGF1/insulin receptor substrate-1 pathway stimulates a mitotic kinase (cdk1) in the uterine epithelium during the proliferative response to estradiol. |
Walker, MP; Diaugustine, RP; Zeringue, E; Bunger, MK; Schmitt, M; Archer, TK; Richards, RG
The Journal of endocrinology 207 225-35 2010
Estrogens are potent mitogens for some target organs, such as the uterus, and cancers that develop in this organ might be linked to the proliferative action of these hormones. However, the mechanism by which estrogens influence the cell cycle machinery is not known. We found that a null mutation for the insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, a docking protein that is important for IGF1 signaling, compromised hormone-induced mitosis in the uterine epithelium; BrdU incorporation was not affected. This selective effect on mitosis was associated with a reduction in uterine cyclin B-associated kinase activity; cyclin A-associated kinase activity was not changed. The null mutation also reduced the extent of hormone-induced phosphorylation of endogenous uterine histone H1, as determined with phospho-specific antiserum. Uterine epithelial cyclin dependent kinase (cdk)1 was induced in response to hormone, but the level of the kinase protein, as determined by immunoblotting, was noticeably less in the irs1 null mutant than that in the wild-type (WT) mouse, especially around the time of peak mitosis (24 h). Since IRS-1 binds/activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), the absence of this docking protein could impair signaling of a known pathway downstream of AKT that stimulates translation of cell cycle components. Indeed, we found that phosphorylation of uterine AKT (Ser473) in irs1 null mutants was less than that in WTs following treatment. Based on earlier studies, it is also possible that an IGF1/IRS-1/PI3K/AKT pathway regulates posttranslational changes in cdk1. This model may provide insights as to how a growth factor pathway can mediate hormone action on cell proliferation.
|Effect of collagen I and aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein on 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. |
Gusinjac A, Gagnon A, Sorisky A
Aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein (ACLP) is a secreted protein expressed in preadipocytes and down-regulated during adipogenesis. Results from previous studies on the influence of ACLP overexpression on adipogenesis vary from no effect to complete inhibition. We hypothesized that ACLP may modulate adipogenesis in the presence of collagen I, a protein to which it binds. We compared control (pLXSN) 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with 3T3-L1 preadipocytes stably overexpressing ACLP (pLXSN-ACLP) that were grown in standard vs collagen I-coated dishes. Aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein overexpression, via retroviral transduction, resulted in a 3.2-fold increase in ACLP cellular levels and a 2.1-fold increase in ACLP levels released into medium. Aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein overexpression did not inhibit differentiation in standard dishes. In collagen I-coated dishes compared with standard dishes, control preadipocytes, when induced to differentiate, exhibited the same increase in triacylglycerol accumulation, but showed a significantly higher induction of fatty acid synthase (1.6-fold more), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (1.4-fold more), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (1.4-fold more). Aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein overexpression significantly reduced this enhanced induction of fatty acid synthase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha by 65%, 59%, and 66%, respectively, but had no effect on the accumulation of triacylglycerol during differentiation. Finally, studies on proadipogenic insulin signaling in ACLP-overexpressing preadipocytes demonstrated that insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation was significantly decreased by 27% in cells cultured in collagen I-coated dishes vs standard dishes. Our data suggest that ACLP inhibits certain aspects of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis in a collagen I-rich environment.
|Fibroblast growth factor-19, a novel factor that inhibits hepatic fatty acid synthesis. |
Bhatnagar, S; Damron, HA; Hillgartner, FB
The Journal of biological chemistry 284 10023-33 2009
Previous studies have shown that administration of fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF-19) reverses diabetes, hepatic steatosis, hyperlipidemia, and adipose accretion in animal models of obesity. To investigate the mechanism for this effect, we determined whether FGF-19 modulated hepatic fatty acid synthesis, a key process controlling glucose tolerance and triacylglycerol accumulation in liver, blood, and adipose tissue. Incubating primary hepatocyte cultures with recombinant FGF-19 suppressed the ability of insulin to stimulate fatty acid synthesis. This effect was associated with a reduction in the expression of lipogenic enzymes. FGF-19 also suppressed the insulin-induced expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), a key transcriptional activator of lipogenic genes. FGF-19 inhibition of lipogenic enzyme expression was not mediated by alterations in the activity of the insulin signal transduction pathway or changes in the activity of ERK, p38 MAPK, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In contrast, FGF-19 increased the activity of STAT3, an inhibitor of SREBP-1c expression and decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1beta (PGC-1beta), an activator of SREBP-1c activity. FGF-19 also increased the expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP), a transcriptional repressor that inhibits lipogenic enzyme expression via a SREBP-1c-independent mechanism. Inhibition of SREBP-1c activity by changes in STAT3 and PGC-1beta activity and inhibition of gene transcription by an elevation in SHP expression can explain the inhibition of lipogenesis caused by FGF-19. In summary, the inhibitory effect of FGF-19 on insulin activation of hepatic fatty acid synthesis constitutes a mechanism that would explain the beneficial effect of FGF-19 on metabolic syndrome.
|NKX3.1 activates expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 to mediate insulin-like growth factor-I signaling and cell proliferation. |
Muhlbradt, E; Asatiani, E; Ortner, E; Wang, A; Gelmann, EP
Cancer research 69 2615-22 2009
NKX3.1 is a homeobox gene that codes for a haploinsufficient prostate cancer tumor suppressor. NKX3.1 protein levels are down-regulated in the majority of primary prostate cancer tissues. NKX3.1 expression in PC-3 cells increased insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) mRNA expression 10-fold as determined by expression microarray analysis. In both stably and transiently transfected PC-3 cells and in LNCaP cells, NKX3.1 expression increased IGFBP-3 mRNA and protein expression. In prostates of Nkx3.1 gene-targeted mice Igfbp-3 mRNA levels correlated with Nkx3.1 copy number. NKX3.1 expression in PC-3 cells attenuated the ability of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) to induce phosphorylation of type I IGF receptor (IGF-IR), insulin receptor substrate 1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and AKT. The effect of NKX3.1 on IGF-I signaling was not seen when cells were exposed to long-R3-IGF-I, an IGF-I variant peptide that does not bind to IGFBP-3. Additionally, small interfering RNA-induced knockdown of IGFBP-3 expression partially reversed the attenuation of IGF-IR signaling by NKX3.1 and abrogated NKX3.1 suppression of PC-3 cell proliferation. Thus, there is a close relationship in vitro and in vivo between NKX3.1 and IGFBP-3. The growth-suppressive effects of NKX3.1 in prostate cells are mediated, in part, by activation of IGFBP-3 expression.
|Increased expression of both insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 confers increased sensitivity to IGF-1 stimulated cell migration. |
de Blaquière, GE; May, FE; Westley, BR
Endocrine-related cancer 16 635-47 2009
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are thought to promote tumour progression and metastasis in part by stimulating cell migration. Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and IRS-2 are multisite docking proteins positioned immediately downstream from the type I IGF and insulin receptors. IRS-2 but not IRS-1 has been reported to be involved in the migratory response of breast cancer cells to IGFs. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if IRS-1 is involved in, and to assess the contributions of IRS-1 and IRS-2 to, the migratory response of breast cancer cells to IGFs. The expression of IRS-1 and IRS-2 varied considerably between ten breast cancer cell lines. Oestrogen increases expression of the type I IGF receptor, IRS-1 and IRS-2 in MCF-7 and ZR-75 cells. Oestrogens may control the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to IGFs by regulating the expression of components of the IGF signal transduction pathway. The migratory response to a range of IGF-1 concentrations was measured in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in which IRS-1 and IRS-2 levels were modulated using a doxycycline-inducible expression system. Induction of both IRS-1 and IRS-2 expression increased the sensitivity of the migratory response to IGF-1 but did not increase the magnitude of the response stimulated at higher concentrations of IGF-1. Knockdown of IRS-1, IRS-2 and the type I IGF receptor in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-2231 cells decreased sensitivity to IGF-1. We conclude that both IRS-1 and IRS-2 control the migratory response of breast cancer cells to IGF-1 and may, therefore, be key molecules in determining breast cancer spread.
|High-fat feeding increases insulin receptor and IRS-1 coimmunoprecipitation with SOCS-3, IKKalpha/beta phosphorylation and decreases PI-3 kinase activity in muscle. |
Yaspelkis, BB; Kvasha, IA; Figueroa, TY
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 296 R1709-15 2009
Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins and/or activation of the proinflammatory pathway have been postulated as possible mechanisms that may contribute to skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Thus, the aims of the present investigation were to determine in high-fat-fed skeletal muscle: 1) whether SOCS-3 protein concentration is increased, 2) whether coimmunoprecipitation of SOCS-3 with the insulin receptor-beta subunit and/or IRS-1 is increased, and 3) whether select components of the proinflammatory pathway are altered. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to either control (CON, n = 16) or high-fat-fed (HF, n = 16) dietary groups for 12 wk and then subjected to hind limb perfusions in the presence (n = 8/group) or absence (n = 8/group) of insulin. Insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle 3-MG transport rates and PI-3 kinase activity were greater (P less than 0.05) in CON. IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation was decreased (P less than 0.05), and IRS-1 serine 307 phosphorylation was increased (P less than 0.05) in HF. Insulin receptor-beta (IR-beta) subunit coimmunoprecipitation with IRS-1 was reduced in HF. SOCS-3 protein concentration and SOCS-3 coimmunoprecipitation with both the IR-beta subunit and IRS-1 was increased (P less than 0.05) in HF. IKKalpha/beta serine phosphorylation was increased (P less than 0.05), IkappaBalpha protein concentration was decreased (P less than 0.05) and IkappaBalpha serine phosphorylation was increased (P less than 0.05) in HF. Increased colocalization of SOCS-3 with both the IR-beta subunit and IRS-1 may provide steric hindrance that prevents IRS-1 from interacting with IR-beta, while increased IKKbeta serine phosphorylation may contribute to increasing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation, both of which independently can have deleterious effects on insulin-stimulated PI-3 kinase activation in high-fat-fed rodent skeletal muscle.
|Physical and functional interaction between polyoma virus middle T antigen and insulin and IGF-I receptors is required for oncogene activation and tumour initiation. |
Novosyadlyy, R; Vijayakumar, A; Lann, D; Fierz, Y; Kurshan, N; LeRoith, D
Oncogene 28 3477-86 2009
Polyoma virus middle T antigen (PyVmT) is a powerful viral oncogene; however, the mechanisms of PyVmT activation are poorly understood. The insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) and the insulin receptor (IR) are known to be implicated in the development of many cancers. Furthermore, PyVmT-overexpressing mouse mammary carcinoma Met-1 cells are highly responsive to IGF-I and insulin. Herein, we demonstrate that PyVmT physically interacts with IGF-IR and IR in Met-1 cells. Insulin and IGF-I increase association of the IR and IGF-IR with PyVmT, enhance tyrosine phosphorylation of PyVmT and augment the recruitment of Src and PLCgamma(1) to PyVmT. This is accompanied by robust and sustained phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2, which are implicated in both PyVmT and IGF-IR/IR signalling. Both ligands significantly increase proliferation, survival, migration and invasion of Met-1 cells. Furthermore, orthotopic inoculation of Met-1 cells with shRNAmir-mediated knockdown of IR or IGF-IR fails to initiate tumour growth in recipient mice. In conclusion, our data indicate that the physical and functional interaction between PyVmT and cellular receptor tyrosine kinases, including IR and IGF-IR, is critical for PyVmT activation and tumour initiation. These results also provide a novel mechanism for oncogene activation in the host cell.Full Text Article
|Multiple abnormalities of myocardial insulin signaling in a porcine model of diet-induced obesity. |
Lee J, Xu Y, Lu L, Bergman B, Leitner JW, Greyson C, Draznin B, Schwartz GG
American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology 298 H310-9 2009
Heightened cardiovascular risk among patients with systemic insulin resistance is not fully explained by the extent of atherosclerosis. It is unknown whether myocardial insulin resistance accompanies systemic insulin resistance and contributes to increased cardiovascular risk. This study utilized a porcine model of diet-induced obesity to determine if myocardial insulin resistance develops in parallel with systemic insulin resistance and investigated potential mechanisms for such changes. Micropigs (n = 16) were assigned to control (low fat, no added sugars) or intervention (25% wt/wt coconut oil and 20% high-fructose corn syrup) diet for 7 mo. Intervention diet resulted in obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Systemic insulin resistance was manifest by elevated fasting glucose and insulin, abnormal response to intravenous glucose tolerance testing, and blunted skeletal muscle phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activation and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation in response to insulin. In myocardium, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, PI 3-kinase activation, and Akt phosphorylation were also blunted in the intervention diet group. These findings were explained by increased myocardial content of p85alpha (regulatory subunit of PI 3-kinase), diminished association of PI 3-kinase with insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 in response to insulin, and increased serine-307 phosphorylation of IRS-1. Thus, in a porcine model of diet-induced obesity that recapitulates many characteristics of insulin-resistant patients, myocardial insulin resistance develops along with systemic insulin resistance and is associated with multiple abnormalities of insulin signaling.
|Extracellular matrix controls insulin signaling in mammary epithelial cells through the RhoA/Rok pathway. |
Lee, Yi-Ju, et al.
J. Cell. Physiol., 220: 476-84 (2009) 2009
Cellular responses are determined by a number of signaling cues in the local microenvironment, such as growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM). In cultures of mammary epithelial cells (MECs), functional differentiation requires at least two types of signal, lactogenic hormones (i.e., prolactin, insulin, and hydrocortisone) and the specialized ECM, basement membrane (BM). Our previous work has shown that ECM affects insulin signaling in mammary cells. Cell adhesion to BM promotes insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and association of PI3K with IRS-1, whereas cells cultured on stromal ECM are inefficient in transducing these post-receptor events. Here we examine the mechanisms underlying ECM control of IRS phosphorylation. Compared to cells cultured on BM, cells on plastic exhibit higher level of RhoA activity. The amount and the activity of Rho kinase (Rok) associated with IRS-1 are greater in these cells, leading to serine phosphorylation of IRS-1. Expression of dominant negative RhoA and the application of Rok inhibitor Y27632 in cells cultured on plastic augment tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1. Conversely, expression of constitutively active RhoA in cells cultured on BM impedes insulin signaling. These data indicate that RhoA/Rok is involved in substratum-mediated regulation of insulin signaling in MECs, and under the conditions where proper adhesion to BM is missing, such as after wounding and during mammary gland involution, insulin-mediated cellular differentiation and survival would be defective.
|The effect of exercise and insulin on AS160 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding capacity in human skeletal muscle. |
Howlett, KF; Mathews, A; Garnham, A; Sakamoto, K
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 294 E401-7 2008
AS160 is an Akt substrate of 160 kDa implicated in the regulation of both insulin- and contraction-mediated GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake. The effects of aerobic exercise and subsequent insulin stimulation on AS160 phosphorylation and the binding capacity of 14-3-3, a novel protein involved in the dissociation of AS160 from GLUT4 vesicles, in human skeletal muscle are unknown. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed on seven men at rest and immediately and 3 h after a single bout of cycling exercise. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken before and after the clamps. The insulin sensitivity index calculated during the final 30 min of the clamp was 8.0 +/- 0.8, 9.1 +/- 0.5, and 9.2 +/- 0.8 for the rest, postexercise, and 3-h postexercise trials, respectively. AS160 phosphorylation increased immediately after exercise and remained elevated 3 h after exercise. In contrast, the 14-3-3 binding capacity of AS160 and phosphorylation of Akt and AMP-activated protein kinase were only increased immediately after exercise. Insulin increased AS160 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding capacity and insulin receptor substrate-1 and Akt phosphorylation, but the response to insulin was not enhanced by prior exercise. In conclusion, the 14-3-3 binding capacity of AS160 is increased immediately after acute exercise in human skeletal muscle, but this is not maintained 3 h after exercise completion despite sustained AS160 phosphorylation. Insulin increases AS160 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding capacity, but prior exercise does not appear to enhance the response to insulin.
|Interaction between simian virus 40 large T antigen and insulin receptor substrate 1 is disrupted by the K1 mutation, resulting in the loss of large T antigen-mediated phosphorylation of Akt. |
Yu, Y; Alwine, JC
Journal of virology 82 4521-6 2008
The cellular kinase Akt is a key controller of cellular metabolism, growth, and proliferation. Many viruses activate Akt due to its beneficial effects on viral replication. We previously showed that wild-type (WT) simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (TAg) inhibits apoptosis via the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling. Here we show that WT TAg expressed from recombinant adenoviruses in U2OS cells induced the phosphorylation of Akt at both T308 and S473. In contrast, Akt phosphorylation was eliminated by the K1 mutation (E107K) within the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) binding motif of TAg. This suggested that Akt phosphorylation may depend on TAg binding to Rb or one of its family members. However, in Rb-negative SAOS2 cells depleted of p107 and p130 by using small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), WT TAg still mediated Akt phosphorylation. These results suggested that the K1 mutation affects another TAg function. WT-TAg-mediated phosphorylation of Akt was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor, suggesting that the effects of TAg originated upstream of PI3K; thus, we examined the requirement for insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), which binds and activates PI3K. Depletion of IRS1 by shRNAs abolished the WT-TAg-mediated phosphorylation of Akt. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that the known interaction between TAg and IRS1 is significantly weakened by the K1 mutation. These data indicate that the K1 mutation disrupts not only Rb binding but also IRS1 binding, contributing to the loss of activation of PI3K/Akt signaling.
|Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase abolishes insulin-mediated myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. |
Chai, W; Wu, Y; Li, G; Cao, W; Yang, Z; Liu, Z
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 294 E183-9 2008
Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. Insulin decreases myocardial infarct size in animals and the rate of apoptosis in cultured cells. Ischemia-reperfusion activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which regulates cellular apoptosis. To examine whether p38 MAPK affects insulin's cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, we studied overnight-fasted adult male rats by use of an in vivo rat model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. A euglycemic clamp (3 mU.min(-1).kg(-1)) was begun either 10 min before ischemia (InsulinBI), 5 min before reperfusion (InsulinBR), or 30 min after the onset of reperfusion (InsulinAR), and continued until the end of the study. Compared with saline control, insulin decreased the infarct size in both InsulinBI (P less than 0.001) and InsulinBR (P less than 0.02) rats but not in InsulinAR rats. The ischemic area showed markedly increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK compared with the nonischemic area in saline animals. Acute activation of p38 MAPK with anisomycin (2 mg/kg iv 10 min before ischemia) had no effect on infarct size in saline rats. However, it completely abolished insulin's protective effect in InsulinBI and InsulinBR rats. Activation of p38 MAPK by anisomycin was associated with marked and persistent elevation in IRS-1 serine phosphorylation. Treatment of animals with SB-239063, a potent and specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, 10 min before reperfusion enabled insulin-mediated myocardial protection in InsulinAR rats. We conclude that insulin protects myocardium against ischemia-reperfusion injury when given prior to ischemia or reperfusion, and activation of p38 MAPK abolishes insulin's cardioprotective effect.
|Interplay and effects of temporal changes in the phosphorylation state of serine-302, -307, and -318 of insulin receptor substrate-1 on insulin action in skeletal muscle cells. |
Weigert, C; Kron, M; Kalbacher, H; Pohl, AK; Runge, H; Häring, HU; Schleicher, E; Lehmann, R
Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 22 2729-40 2008
Transduction of the insulin signal is mediated by multisite Tyr and Ser/Thr phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrates (IRSs). Previous studies on the function of single-site phosphorylation, particularly phosphorylation of Ser-302, -307, and -318 of IRS-1, showed attenuating as well as enhancing effects on insulin action. In this study we investigated a possible cross talk of these opposedly acting serine residues in insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle cells by monitoring phosphorylation kinetics, and applying loss of function, gain of function, and combination mutants of IRS-1. The phosphorylation at Ser-302 was rapid and transient, followed first by Ser-318 phosphorylation and later by phosphorylation of Ser-307, which remained elevated for 120 min. Mutation of Ser-302 to alanine clearly reduced the subsequent protein kinase C-zeta-mediated Ser-318 phosphorylation. The Ser-307 phosphorylation was independent of Ser-302 and/or Ser-318 phosphorylation status. The functional consequences of these phosphorylation patterns were studied by the expression of IRS-1 mutants. The E302A307E318 mutant simulating the early phosphorylation pattern resulted in a significant increase in Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, glucose uptake was enhanced. Because the down-regulation of the insulin signal was not affected, this phosphorylation pattern seems to be involved in the enhancement but not in the termination of the insulin signal. This enhancing effect was completely absent when Ser-302 was unphosphorylated and Ser-307 was phosphorylated as simulated by the A302E307E318 mutant. Phospho-Ser-318, sequentially phosphorylated at least by protein kinase C-zeta and a mammalian target of rapamycin/raptor-dependent kinase, was part of the positive as well as of the subsequent negative phosphorylation pattern. Thus we conclude that insulin stimulation temporally generates different phosphorylation statuses of the same residues that exert different functions in insulin signaling.
|Exercise reverses high-fat diet-induced impairments on compartmentalization and activation of components of the insulin-signaling cascade in skeletal muscle. |
Yaspelkis, BB; Lessard, SJ; Reeder, DW; Limon, JJ; Saito, M; Rivas, DA; Kvasha, I; Hawley, JA
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 293 E941-9 2007
The aims of this investigation were 1) to determine whether endurance exercise training could reverse impairments in insulin-stimulated compartmentalization and/or activation of aPKCzeta/lambda and Akt2 in skeletal muscle from high-fat-fed rodents and 2) to assess whether the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone could reverse impairments in skeletal muscle insulin signaling typically observed after high-fat feeding. Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on chow (NORCON, n = 16) or high-fat (n = 64) diets for 4 wk. During a subsequent 4-wk experimental period, high-fat-fed rats were allocated (n = 16/group) to either sedentary control (HFC), exercise training (HFX), rosiglitazone treatment (HFRSG), or a combination of both exercise training and rosiglitazone (HFRX). Following the 4-wk experimental period, animals underwent hindlimb perfusions. Insulin-stimulated plasma membrane-associated aPKCzeta and -lambda protein concentration, aPKCzeta/lambda activity, GLUT4 protein concentration, cytosolic Akt2, and aPKCzeta/lambda activities were reduced (P less than 0.05) in HFC compared with NORCON. Cytosolic Akt2, aPKCzeta, and aPKClambda protein concentrations were not affected in HFC compared with NORCON. Exercise training reversed the deleterious effects of the high-fat diet such that insulin-stimulated compartmentalization and activation of components of the insulin-signaling cascade in HFX were normalized to NORCON. High-fat diet-induced impairments to skeletal muscle glucose metabolism were not reversed by rosiglitazone administration, nor did rosiglitazone augment the effect of exercise. Our findings indicate that chronic exercise training, but not rosiglitazone, reverses high-fat diet induced impairments in compartmentalization and activation of components of the insulin-signaling cascade in skeletal muscle.
|In vitro simulation of calorie restriction-induced decline in glucose and insulin leads to increased insulin-stimulated glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle. |
Arias, EB; Cartee, GD
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 293 E1782-8 2007
In vivo calorie restriction [CR; consuming 60% of ad libitum (AL) intake] induces elevated insulin-stimulated glucose transport (GT) in skeletal muscle. The mechanisms triggering this adaptation are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether physiological reductions in extracellular glucose and/or insulin, similar to those found with in vivo CR, were sufficient to elevate GT in isolated muscles. Epitrochlearis muscles dissected from rats were incubated for 24 h in media with glucose (8 mM) and insulin (80 microU/ml) at levels similar to plasma values of AL-fed rats and compared with muscles incubated with glucose (5.5 mM) and/or insulin (20 microU/ml) at levels similar to plasma values of CR rats. Muscles incubated with CR levels of glucose and insulin for 24 h had a subsequently greater (P less than 0.005) GT with 80 microU/ml insulin and 8 mM [(3)H]-3-O-methylglucose but unchanged GT without insulin. Reducing only glucose or insulin for 24 h or both glucose and insulin for 6 h did not induce altered GT. Increased GT after 24-h incubation with CR levels of glucose and insulin was not attributable to increased insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, Akt serine phosphorylation, or Akt substrate of 160 kDa phosphorylation. Nor did 24-h incubation with CR levels of glucose and insulin alter the abundance of insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, GLUT1, or GLUT4 proteins. These results provide the proof of principle that reductions in extracellular glucose and insulin, similar to in vivo CR, are sufficient to induce an increase in insulin-stimulated glucose transport comparable to the increase found with in vivo CR.
|Oxygen tension regulates the stability of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) through caspase-mediated cleavage. |
Kang, SG; Brown, AL; Chung, JH
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 6090-7 2007
The insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors mediate signaling for energy uptake and growth through insulin receptor substrates (IRSs), which interact with these receptors as well as with downstream effectors. Oxygen is essential not only for ATP production through oxidative phosphorylation but also for many cellular processes, particularly those involved in energy homeostasis. The oxygen tension in vivo is significantly lower than that in the air and can vary widely depending on the tissue as well as on perfusion and oxygen consumption. How oxygen tension affects IRSs and their functions is poorly understood. Our findings indicate that transient hypoxia (1% oxygen) leads to caspase-mediated cleavage of IRS-1 without inducing cell death. The IRS-1 protein level rebounds rapidly upon return to normoxia. Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) appear to be important for the IRS-1 cleavage because tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor was decreased in hypoxia and IRS-1 cleavage could be blocked either with H(2)O(2) or with vanadate, each of which inhibits PTPs. Activity of Akt, a downstream effector of insulin and IGF-1 signaling that is known to suppress caspase activation, was suppressed in hypoxia. Overexpression of dominant-negative Akt led to IRS-1 cleavage even in normoxia, and overexpression of constitutively active Akt partially suppressed IRS-1 cleavage in hypoxia, suggesting that hypoxia-mediated suppression of Akt may induce caspase-mediated IRS-1 cleavage. In conclusion, our study elucidates a mechanism by which insulin and IGF-1 signaling can be matched to the oxygen level that is available to support growth and energy metabolism.
|Nuclear forkhead box O1 controls and integrates key signaling pathways in hepatocytes. |
Naïmi, M; Gautier, N; Chaussade, C; Valverde, AM; Accili, D; Van Obberghen, E
Endocrinology 148 2424-34 2007
Insulin inhibits forkhead O class (FoxO) transcription factors, which down-regulate the expression of genes involved in metabolism, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. After being phosphorylated by protein kinase B (PKB) on S253 in its DNA-binding domain, Foxo1 is phosphorylated on T24 and additional sites, which overall triggers its nuclear exclusion. During this process, Foxo1 is thought to retain some transcriptional activity and signaling potential. To evaluate this Foxo1 action, we used a Foxo1-ADA mutant that is constitutively nuclear due to mutation of T24 and S316 to A and harbors a mutation of S253 to D. Adenoviral-mediated expression of Foxo1-ADA in hepatocytes activates PKB and MAPK pathways more than expression of wild-type or of a transactivation domain-deleted mutant (Delta256). PKB activation cannot be accounted for by a Foxo1-mediated increase in upstream signaling components such as insulin receptor substrate 1 or 2 or by Foxo1-mediated down-regulation of Tribbles homolog 3. In contrast, Foxo1-ADA increases p38 activity, and p38 is required for effects of Foxo1 on PKB, at least in part. We propose that Foxo1 turns on a feed-forward loop, relayed by p38 and acting to amplify both PKB activation and Foxo1 inhibition. To conclude, key signaling pathways are activated in hepatocytes through nuclear Foxo1.
|Developmental switch from prolonged insulin action to increased insulin sensitivity in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B-deficient hepatocytes. |
Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A; Clampit, JE; Escribano, O; Benito, M; Rondinone, CM; Valverde, AM
Endocrinology 148 594-608 2007
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a negative regulator of insulin signaling and a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in insulin sensitivity between neonate and adult hepatocytes lacking PTP1B. Immortalized neonatal hepatocytes and primary neonatal and adult hepatocytes have been generated from PTP1B(-/-) and wild-type mice. PTP1B deficiency in immortalized neonatal hepatocytes prolonged insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and IR substrates (IRS) -1, -2 compared with wild-type control cells. Endogenous IR and IRS-2 were down-regulated, whereas IRS-1 was up-regulated in PTP1B(-/-) neonatal hepatocytes and livers of PTP1B(-/-) neonates. Insulin-induced activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway was prolonged in PTP1B(-/-) immortalized neonatal hepatocytes. However, insulin sensitivity was comparable to wild-type hepatocytes. Rescue of PTP1B in deficient cells suppressed the prolonged insulin signaling, whereas RNA interference in wild-type cells promoted prolonged signaling. In primary neonatal PTP1B(-/-) hepatocytes, insulin prolonged the inhibition of gluconeogenic mRNAs, but the sensitivity to this inhibition was similar to wild-type cells. By contrast, in adult PTP1B-deficient livers, p85alpha was down-regulated compared with the wild type. Moreover, primary hepatocytes from adult PTP1B(-/-) mice displayed enhanced Akt phosphorylation and a more pronounced inhibition of gluconeogenic mRNAs than wild-type cells. Hepatic insulin sensitivity due to PTP1B deficiency is acquired through postnatal development. Thus, changes in IR and IRS-2 expression and in the balance between regulatory and catalytic subunits of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase are necessary to achieve insulin sensitization in adult PTP1B(-/-) hepatocytes.
|Crosstalk between the p190-B RhoGAP and IGF signaling pathways is required for embryonic mammary bud development. |
Heckman, BM; Chakravarty, G; Vargo-Gogola, T; Gonzales-Rimbau, M; Hadsell, DL; Lee, AV; Settleman, J; Rosen, JM
Developmental biology 309 137-49 2007
P190-B RhoGAP (p190-B, also known as ARHGAP5) has been shown to play an essential role in invasion of the terminal end buds (TEBs) into the surrounding fat pad during mammary gland ductal morphogenesis. Here we report that embryos with a homozygous p190-B gene deletion exhibit major defects in embryonic mammary bud development. Overall, p190-B-deficient buds were smaller in size, contained fewer cells, and displayed characteristics of impaired mesenchymal proliferation and differentiation. Consistent with the reported effects of p190-B deletion on IGF-1R signaling, IGF-1R-deficient embryos also displayed a similar small mammary bud phenotype. However, unlike the p190-B-deficient embryos, the IGF-1R-deficient embryos exhibited decreased epithelial proliferation and did not display mesenchymal defects. Because both IGF and p190-B signaling affect IRS-1/2, we examined IRS-1/2 double knockout embryonic mammary buds. These embryos displayed major defects similar to the p190-B-deficient embryos including smaller bud size. Importantly, like the p190-B-deficient buds, proliferation of the IRS-1/2-deficient mesenchyme was impaired. These results indicate that IGF signaling through p190-B and IRS proteins is critical for mammary bud formation and ensuing epithelial-mesenchymal interactions necessary to sustain mammary bud morphogenesis.
|Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin induces phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent and Mnk-mediated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E phosphorylation. |
Wang, Xuerong, et al.
Mol. Cell. Biol., 27: 7405-13 (2007) 2007
The initiation factor eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) plays a critical role in initiating translation of mRNAs, including those encoding oncogenic proteins. Therefore, eIF4E is considered a survival protein involved in cell cycle progression, cell transformation, and apoptotic resistance. Phosphorylation of eIF4E (usually at Ser209) increases its binding affinity for the cap of mRNA and may also favor its entry into initiation complexes. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors suppress cap-dependent translation through inhibition of the phosphorylation of eIF4E-binding protein 1. Paradoxically, we have shown that inhibition of mTOR signaling increases eIF4E phosphorylation in human cancer cells. In this study, we focused on revealing the mechanism by which mTOR inhibition increases eIF4E phosphorylation. Silencing of either mTOR or raptor could mimic mTOR inhibitors' effects to increase eIF4E phosphorylation. Moreover, knockdown of mTOR, but not rictor or p70S6K, abrogated rapamycin's ability to increase eIF4E phosphorylation. These results indicate that mTOR inhibitor-induced eIF4E phosphorylation is secondary to mTOR/raptor inhibition and independent of p70S6K. Importantly, mTOR inhibitors lost their ability to increase eIF4E phosphorylation only in cells where both Mnk1 and Mnk2 were knocked out, indicating that mTOR inhibitors increase eIF4E phosphorylation through a Mnk-dependent mechanism. Given that mTOR inhibitors failed to increase Mnk and eIF4E phosphorylation in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-deficient cells, we conclude that mTOR inhibition increases eIF4E phosphorylation through a PI3K-dependent and Mnk-mediated mechanism. In addition, we also suggest an effective therapeutic strategy for enhancing mTOR-targeted cancer therapy by cotargeting mTOR signaling and Mnk/eIF4E phosphorylation.
|Activation of the insulin receptor by insulin and a synthetic peptide leads to divergent metabolic and mitogenic signaling and responses. |
Maja Jensen,Bente Hansen,Pierre De Meyts,Lauge Schäffer,Birgitte Ursø
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 2007
Recently, single chain peptides have been designed that target the insulin receptor and mimic insulin action. The aim of this study is to explore if activation of the insulin receptor with such an optimized peptide (S597) leads to the same activation of signaling pathways and biological endpoints i.e. stimulation of glycogen synthesis and cell proliferation as stimulation with insulin. We find that surface activation of the insulin receptor A-isoform with S597 leads to activation of protein kinase B (PKB) and glycogen synthesis comparable to activation by insulin, even though the level of insulin receptor phosphorylation is lower. In contrast, both Src homology 2/alpha collagen-related (Shc) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 2 activation are virtually absent upon stimulation with S597. Cell proliferation is only stimulated slightly by S597, suggesting that it depends on signals from Shc and ERK. The differences in signaling response could explain both the earlier reported differences in gene expression, and the reported differences in cell proliferation and glycogen synthesis induced by insulin and S597. In conclusion, despite binding equipotency, insulin, and S597 initiate different signaling and biological responses through the same insulin receptor isoform. We show for the first time that it is possible to design insulin receptor ligand mimetics with metabolic equipotency but low mitogenicity.
|Role of insulin receptor in the regulation of glucose uptake in neonatal hepatocytes. |
Nevado, C; Valverde, AM; Benito, M
Endocrinology 147 3709-18 2006
The liver plays a major role in the regulation of glucose homoeostasis. Evidence from liver-specific insulin receptor knockout mice (LIRKO) suggested that insulin's direct and indirect effects on glucose utilization by the liver both require the presence of hepatic insulin receptors (IR). To address this issue, we have generated immortalized neonatal hepatocytes bearing (HIR LoxP) or not (HIR KO) IR. The lack of IR significantly decreased basal glucose uptake in neonatal hepatocytes from 3- to 14-d-old mice, and the expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), GLUT2, and glucokinase (GK) remained unchanged throughout development. HIR KO reconstituted hepatocytes with IRA but not with IRB isoform and restored basal glucose uptake up to the levels observed in HIR LoxP cells. However, both IR isoforms associated with GLUT1 or GLUT2. Overexpression of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) increased basal glucose uptake in neonatal hepatocytes lacking or not IR. This effect was also accompanied by its association with GLUT1 or GLUT2. Exogenous expression of GLUT4 had no effect on basal glucose uptake in neonatal hepatocytes. However, HIR LoxP hepatocytes expressing exogenous GLUT4 increased glucose uptake in the presence of insulin without showing association between GLUT4 and IR. Our data clearly indicate that IR plays a direct role in the regulation of basal glucose uptake/transport by the hepatocytes, and either type A IR or IGF-IR works on glucose uptake as a GLUT1- or GLUT2-associated cotransporter. Thus, IR mediates glucose uptake through its specific association with endogenous, but not with exogenous, glucose transporters in neonatal hepatocytes.
|Partial rescue of in vivo insulin signalling in skeletal muscle by impaired insulin clearance in heterozygous carriers of a mutation in the insulin receptor gene. |
Højlund, K; Wojtaszewski, JF; Birk, J; Hansen, BF; Vestergaard, H; Beck-Nielsen, H
Diabetologia 49 1827-37 2006
Recently we reported the coexistence of postprandial hypoglycaemia and moderate insulin resistance in heterozygous carriers of the Arg1174Gln mutation in the insulin receptor gene (INSR). Controlled studies of in vivo insulin signalling in humans with mutant INSR are unavailable, and therefore the cellular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in Arg1174Gln carriers remain to be clarified.We studied glucose metabolism and insulin signalling in skeletal muscle from six Arg1174Gln carriers and matched control subjects during a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp.Impaired clearance of exogenous insulin caused four-fold higher clamp insulin levels in Arg1174Gln carriers compared with control subjects (pless than 0.05). In Arg1174Gln carriers insulin increased glucose disposal and non-oxidative glucose metabolism (pless than 0.05), but to a lower extent than in controls (pless than 0.05). Insulin increased Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308, inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3alpha activity, reduced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase at sites 3a+3b, and increased glycogen synthase activity in Arg1174Gln carriers (all pless than 0.05). In the insulin-stimulated state, Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 and glycogen synthase activity were reduced in Arg1174Gln carriers compared with controls (pless than 0.05), whereas glycogen synthase kinase-3alpha activity and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase at sites 3a+3b were similar in the two groups.In vivo insulin signalling in skeletal muscle of patients harbouring the Arg1174Gln mutation is surprisingly intact, with modest impairments in insulin-stimulated activity of Akt and glycogen synthase explaining the moderate degree of insulin resistance. Our data suggest that impaired insulin clearance in part rescues in vivo insulin signalling in muscle in these carriers of a mutant INSR, probably by increasing insulin action on the non-mutated insulin receptors.
|Castration rapidly decreases local insulin-like growth factor-1 levels and inhibits its effects in the ventral prostate in mice. |
Nina Ohlson, Anders Bergh, Malin Lindhagen Persson, Pernilla Wikström
The Prostate 66 1687-97 2006
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which castration induces prostate involution are largely unknown. METHODS: Early responses to castration in mouse ventral prostate (VP) were explored by quantitative microscopy, cDNA array expression, quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis. As several changes occurred in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system this was studied in more detail. Laser micro-dissection was used to localize sites of IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-R1) production. IGF-1 protein levels and IGF-R1 mediated signaling via insulin regulated substrate 1 and 2 (IRS-1 and 2) were examined. IGF-1 was injected into the VP in intact, and castrated mice and effects studied 1 day later. RESULTS: IGF-1 and IGF binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) mRNA were rapidly reduced whereas IGFBP-3 and IGF-R1 mRNA were increased after castration. IGF-1 was principally produced in the stromal compartment, while IGF-R1 was produced in both epithelial and stromal cells. IGF-1 and IRS-1 protein levels were decreased 1 and 3 days after castration, respectively, while IRS-2 was unchanged. Inactivating phosphorylation of IRS-1 at serine 307 was increased 1 day after castration, and activating phosphorylation at tyrosine 612 was decreased 2 days later. These changes were accompanied by decreased cell proliferation and increased cell death in the glandular and vascular compartment. Local injection of IGF-1 increased vascular density and epithelial cell proliferation in intact mice, but had no effect in castrated animals. CONCLUSION: Decreased IGF-1 levels and action may mediate some of the key features of castration-induced prostate involution.
|Leptin down-regulates insulin action through phosphorylation of serine-318 in insulin receptor substrate 1. |
Hennige, AM; Stefan, N; Kapp, K; Lehmann, R; Weigert, C; Beck, A; Moeschel, K; Mushack, J; Schleicher, E; Häring, HU
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 20 1206-8 2006
Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is found in obesity and type 2 diabetes. A mechanism for impaired insulin signaling in peripheral tissues is the inhibition of insulin action through serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (Irs) proteins that abolish the coupling of Irs proteins to the activated insulin receptor. Recently, we described serine-318 as a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation site in Irs1 (Ser-318) activated by hyperinsulinemia. Here we show in various cell models that the adipose hormone leptin, a putative mediator in obesity-related insulin resistance, promotes phosphorylation of Ser-318 in Irs1 by a janus kinase 2, Irs2, and PKC-dependent pathway. Mutation of Ser-318 to alanine abrogates the inhibitory effect of leptin on insulin-induced Irs1 tyrosine phosphorylation and glucose uptake in L6 myoblasts. In C57Bl/6 mice, Ser-318 phosphorylation levels in muscle tissue were enhanced by leptin and insulin administration in lean animals while in diet-induced obesity Ser-318 phosphorylation levels were already up-regulated in the basal state, and further stimulation was diminished. In analogy, in lymphocytes of obese hyperleptinemic human subjects basal Ser-318 phosphorylation levels were increased compared to lean individuals. During a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, the increment in Ser-318 phosphorylation observed in lean individuals was absent in obese. In summary, these data suggest that phosphorylation of Ser-318 in Irs1 mediates the inhibitory signal of leptin on the insulin-signaling cascade in obese subjects.
|Modulation of insulin signalling by insulin sensitizers. |
Jiang, G and Zhang, B B
Biochem. Soc. Trans., 33: 358-61 (2005) 2005
Insulin resistance is a hallmark of Type II diabetes. It is well documented that insulin sensitizers such as peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists and aspirin improve insulin action in vivo. The detailed mechanisms by which the insulin sensitizers promote insulin signalling, however, are not completely understood and remain somewhat controversial. In the present review, we summarize our studies attempting to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of insulin sensitizers in cells and in animal models of insulin resistance. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes and/or in HEK-293 cells stably expressing recombinant IRS1 protein (insulin receptor substrate protein 1), the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist rosiglitazone and aspirin promote insulin signalling by decreasing inhibitory IRS1 serine phosphorylation. Increased IRS1 Ser-307 phosphorylation and concomitant decreased insulin signalling as measured by insulin-stimulated IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation and Akt threonine phosphorylation were observed in adipose tissues of Zucker obese rats compared with lean control rats. Treatment with rosiglitazone for 24 and 48 h increased insulin signalling and decreased IRS1 Ser-307 phosphorylation concomitantly. Treatment of the Zucker obese rats with rosiglitazone for 24 h also reversed the high circulating levels of free fatty acids, which have been shown to correlate with increased IRS1 serine phosphorylation. Taken together, the results suggest that IRS1 inhibitory serine phosphorylation is a key component of insulin resistance and its reversal may be physiologically relevant to insulin sensitization in vivo.
|IRS-1 and vascular complications in diabetes mellitus. |
Andrade Ferreira, I and Akkerman, J W N
Vitam. Horm., 70: 25-67 (2005) 2005
|Positive and negative regulation of insulin signaling through IRS-1 phosphorylation. |
Gual, Philippe, et al.
Biochimie, 87: 99-109 (2005) 2005
This review will provide insight on the current understanding of the regulation of insulin signaling in both physiological and pathological conditions through modulations that occur with regards to the functions of the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1). While the phosphorylation of IRS1 on tyrosine residue is required for insulin-stimulated responses, the phosphorylation of IRS1 on serine residues has a dual role, either to enhance or to terminate the insulin effects. The activation of PKB in response to insulin propagates insulin signaling and promotes the phosphorylation of IRS1 on serine residue in turn generating a positive-feedback loop for insulin action. Insulin also activates several kinases and these kinases act to induce the phosphorylation of IRS1 on specific sites and inhibit its functions. This is part of the negative-feedback control mechanism induced by insulin that leads to termination of its action. Agents such as free fatty acids, cytokines, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, amino acids, cellular stress and hyperinsulinemia, which induce insulin resistance, lead to both activation of several serine/threonine kinases and phosphorylation of IRS1. These agents negatively regulate the IRS1 functions by phosphorylation but also via others molecular mechanisms (SOCS expression, IRS degradation, O-linked glycosylation) as summarized in this review. Understanding how these agents inhibit IRS1 functions as well as identification of kinases involved in these inhibitory effects may provide novel targets for development of strategies to prevent insulin resistance.
|Deficiency of inducible nitric oxide synthase exacerbates hepatic fibrosis in mice fed high-fat diet. |
Yi Chen, Shigenari Hozawa, Sadaaki Sawamura, Shinkichi Sato, Naoto Fukuyama, Chizuko Tsuji, Tetsuya Mine, Yasunori Okada, Ryuzaburo Tanino, Yoichi Ogushi, Hiroe Nakazawa
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 326 45-51 2005
The role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the progression of fibrosis during nonalcoholic steatohepatitis remains to be elucidated. This study examined the role of iNOS in the progression of fibrosis during steatohepatitis by comparing iNOS knockout (iNOS(-/-)) and wild-type (iNOS(+/+)) mice that were fed a high-fat diet. Severe fatty metamorphosis developed in the liver of iNOS(+/+) and iNOS(-/-) mice. Fibrotic changes were marked in iNOS(-/-) mice. Gelatin zymography showed that pro MMP-2 and pro MMP-9 protein expressions were more highly induced in iNOS(+/+) mice than in iNOS(-/-) mice. Active forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were clearly present only in the liver tissue of iNOS(+/+) mice. In situ zymography showed strong gelatinolytic activities in the liver tissue of iNOS(+/+) mice, but only spotty activity in iNOS(-/-)mice. iNOS may attenuate the progression of liver fibrosis in steatohepatitis, in part by inducing MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and augmenting their activity.
|Epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent and -independent pathways in hydrogen peroxide-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in cardiomyocytes and heart fibroblasts. |
Purdom, S; Chen, QM
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 312 1179-86 2005
Mild doses of oxidative stress in the heart correlate with the induction of apoptosis or hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes (CMCs) and fibrosis or proliferation of fibroblasts. Three branches of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), i.e., c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), extracellular signal-related kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and p38, are activated by oxidants in a variety of cell types, including CMCs. However, the initiation process of these signaling pathways remains unsolved. We explored the role of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in H(2)O(2)-induced MAPK activation using two different cell types from the same organ: CMCs and heart fibroblasts (HFs). Pretreatment of each cell type with EGF revealed differences in how CMCs and HFs responded to subsequent treatment with H(2)O(2): in CMCs, the second treatment resulted in little further activation of JNKs and ERK1/2, whereas HFs retained the full response of JNKs and ERK1/2 activation by H(2)O(2) regardless of EGF pretreatment. AG-1478 [4-(3'-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxy-quinazoline], a pharmacologic inhibitor of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase, inhibited JNK and ERK1/2 activations but not p38 in both cell types. The data using the Src inhibitor PP2 [4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine] resemble those found when using AG-1478 in either cell type. Pharmacologic inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) further illustrated the difference between the two cell types. In HFs, MMP inhibitors GM6001 [N-[(2R)-2-(hydroxamidocarbonylmethyl)-4-methylpentanoyl]-l-tryptophan methylamide] and BB2516 [[2S-[N4(R(*)),2R(*),3S(*)]]-N4-[2,2-dimethyl-1-[(methylamino)carbonyl]propyl]-N1,2-dihydroxy-3-(2-methylpropyl)butanediamide, marimastat] inhibited JNKs and ERK1/2 activation without affecting p38 activation by H(2)O(2) inhibitors. In contrast, these MMP failed to significantly inhibit the activation of JNKs, ERKs, or p38 in CMCs. These data suggest the complexity of the cell type-dependent signaling web initiated by oxidants in the heart.
|Calorie restriction increases the ratio of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic to regulatory subunits in rat skeletal muscle. |
McCurdy, CE; Davidson, RT; Cartee, GD
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 288 E996-E1001 2005
Calorie restriction [CR; 60% of ad libitum (AL) intake] improves insulin-stimulated glucose transport, concomitant with enhanced phosphorylation of Akt. The mechanism(s) for the CR-induced increase in Akt phosphorylation of insulin-stimulated muscle is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether CR increased the ratio of catalytic to regulatory subunits favoring enhanced phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase signaling, which may contribute to increases in Akt phosphorylation and glucose transport in insulin-stimulated muscles. We measured the PI 3-kinase regulatory (p85alpha/beta, p50alpha, and p55alpha) and catalytic (p110) subunits abundance in skeletal muscle from male F344B/N rats after 8 wk of AL or CR treatment. In CR compared with AL muscles, regulatory isoforms, p50alpha and p55alpha abundance were approximately 40% lower (P less than 0.01) with unchanged p85alpha/beta levels. There was no diet-related change in catalytic subunit abundance. Despite lower IRS-1 levels ( approximately 35%) for CR vs. AL, IRS-1-p110 association in insulin-stimulated muscles was significantly (P less than 0.05) enhanced by approximately 50%. Downstream of PI 3-kinase, CR compared with AL significantly enhanced Akt serine phosphorylation by 1.5-fold higher (P = 0.01) and 3-O-methylglucose transport by approximately 20% in muscles incubated with insulin. The increased ratio of PI 3-kinase catalytic to regulatory subunits favors enhanced insulin signaling, which likely contributes to greater Akt phosphorylation and improved insulin sensitivity associated with CR in skeletal muscle.
|Alteration in insulin action: role of IRS-1 serine phosphorylation in the retroregulation of insulin signalling. |
Tanti, J F, et al.
Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris), 65: 43-8 (2004) 2004
Insulin resistance, when combined with impaired insulin secretion, contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance is characterised by a decrease in insulin effect on glucose transport in muscle and adipose tIssue. Tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and its binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) are critical events in the insulin signalling cascade leading to insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Modification of IRS-1 by serine phosphorylation could be one of the mechanisms leading to a decrease in IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, PI 3-kinase activity and glucose transport. Recent findings demonstrate that "diabetogenic" factors such as FFA, TNFalpha, hyperinsulinemia and cellular stress, increase the serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and identified Ser307/612/632 as phosphorylated sites. Moreover, several kinases able to phosphorylate these serine residues have been identified. These exciting results suggest that serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 is a possible hallmark of insulin resistance in biologically insulin responsive cells or tIssues. Identifying the pathways by which "diabetogenic" factors activate IRS-1 kinases and defining the precise role of serine phosphorylation events in IRS-1 regulation represent important goals. Such studies may enable rational drug design to selectively inhibit the activity of the relevant enzymes and generate a novel class of therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes.
|Tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibits cyclin A expression and retinoblastoma hyperphosphorylation triggered by insulin-like growth factor-I induction of new E2F-1 synthesis. |
Shen, WH; Yin, Y; Broussard, SR; McCusker, RH; Freund, GG; Dantzer, R; Kelley, KW
The Journal of biological chemistry 279 7438-46 2004
Cyclin A is required for cell cycle S phase entry, and its overexpression contributes to tumorigenesis. Release of pre-existing E2Fs from inactive complexes of E2F and hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma (RB) is the prevailing dogma for E2F transcriptional activation of target genes such as cyclin A. Here we explored the hypothesis that new synthesis of E2F-1 is required for insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) to induce cyclin A accumulation and RB hyperphosphorylation, events that are targeted by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) to arrest cell cycle progression. We first established that IGF-I increases expression of cyclin A, causes hyperphosphorylation of RB, and augments the mass of E2F-1 in a time-dependent manner. As expected, E2F-1 small interfering RNA blocks the ability of IGF-I to increase synthesis of E2F-1. Most important, this E2F-1 small interfering RNA also blocks the ability of IGF-I to increase cyclin A accumulation and to hyperphosphorylate RB. We next established that TNFalpha dose-dependently inhibits IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of both RB and histone H1 by cyclin A-dependent cyclin-dependent kinases. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) mediates this suppression because co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that TNFalpha reduces the amount of IGF-I-induced cyclin A that binds Cdk2, leading to a reduction in Cdk2 enzymatic activity. TNFalpha antagonizes the ability of IGF-I to increase mass of both E2F-1 and cyclin A but not cyclin E or D1. The cytostatic property of TNFalpha is also shown by its ability to block IGF-I-stimulated luciferase activity of a cyclin A promoter reporter. Deletion of an E2F recognition site from this reporter eliminates the regulatory effects of both IGF-I and TNFalpha on cyclin A transcription, indicating the essential role of E2F-1 in mediating their cross-talk. Collectively, these results establish that TNFalpha targets IGF-I-induced E2F-1 synthesis, leading to inhibition of the subsequent accumulation in cyclin A, formation of cyclin A-Cdk2 complexes, hyperphosphorylation of RB, and cell cycle arrest.
|Control of cell size through phosphorylation of upstream binding factor 1 by nuclear phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. |
Drakas, R; Tu, X; Baserga, R
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101 9272-6 2004
The insulin-like growth factor I/insulin receptor substrate 1 axis controls, in a nonredundant way, approximately 50% of cell and body size in animals from Drosophila to mice and in cells in culture. Although other factors may also intervene, cell size is strongly dependent on ribosome biogenesis, which is under the control of RNA polymerase I activity. We have previously shown that insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) translocates to the nuclei and nucleoli, where it binds to the upstream binding factor (UBF) 1, a regulator of RNA polymerase I activity. Activation of UBF1 requires its phosphorylation. However, IRS-1 is not a kinase, and we searched for an intermediate kinase that can phosphorylate UBF1. We demonstrate here that IRS-1 binds also to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) subunits in nuclear extracts, and that the p110 subunit of PI3-K directly phosphorylates and activates UBF1, an exclusively nucleolar protein. The interaction of IRS-1, PI3-K, and UBF1 in the nucleoli provides one of the mechanisms for the effects of IRS-1 on cell and body size.
|Acetylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 is permissive for tyrosine phosphorylation. |
Kaiser, C; James, SR
BMC biology 2 23 2004
Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins are key moderators of insulin action. Their specific regulation determines downstream protein-protein interactions and confers specificity on growth factor signalling. Regulatory mechanisms that have been identified include phosphorylation of IRS proteins on tyrosine and serine residues and ubiquitination of lysine residues. This study investigated other potential molecular mechanisms of IRS-1 regulation.Using the sos recruitment yeast two-hybrid system we found that IRS-1 and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) interact in the cytoplasmic compartment of yeast cells. The interaction mapped to the C-terminus of IRS-1 and was confirmed through co-immunoprecipitation in vitro of recombinant IRS-1 and HDAC2. HDAC2 bound to IRS-1 in mammalian cells treated with phorbol ester or after prolonged treatment with insulin/IGF-1 and also in the livers of ob/ob mice but not PTP1B knockout mice. Thus, the association occurs under conditions of compromised insulin signalling. We found that IRS-1 is an acetylated protein, of which the acetylation is increased by treatment of cells with Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of HDAC activity. TSA-induced increases in acetylation of IRS-1 were concomitant with increases in tyrosine phosphorylation in response to insulin. These effects were confirmed using RNA interference against HDAC2, indicating that HDAC2 specifically prevents phosphorylation of IRS-1 by the insulin receptor.Our results show that IRS-1 is an acetylated protein, a post-translational modification that has not been previously described. Acetylation of IRS-1 is permissive for tyrosine phosphorylation and facilitates insulin-stimulated signal transduction. Specific inhibition of HDAC2 may increase insulin sensitivity in otherwise insulin resistant conditions.
|Insulin-induced cell cycle progression is impaired in chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing insulin receptor substrate-3. |
Kaburagi, Y; Yamashita, R; Ito, Y; Okochi, H; Yamamoto-Honda, R; Yasuda, K; Sekihara, H; Sasazuki, T; Kadowaki, T; Yazaki, Y
Endocrinology 145 5862-74 2004
To analyze the roles of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins in insulin-stimulated cell cycle progression, we examined the functions of rat IRS-1 and IRS-3 in Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing the human insulin receptor. In this type of cell overexpressing IRS-1 or IRS-3, we showed that: 1) overexpression of IRS-3, but not IRS-1, suppressed the G1/S transition induced by insulin; 2) IRS-3 was more preferentially localized to the nucleus than IRS-1; 3) phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 and MAPK/ERK was unaffected by IRS-3 overexpression, whereas that of protein kinase B was enhanced by either IRS; 4) overexpressed IRS-3 suppressed cyclin D1 expression in response to insulin; 5) among the signaling molecules regulating cyclin D1 expression, activation of the small G protein Ral was unchanged, whereas insulin-induced gene expression of c-myc, a critical component for growth control and cell cycle progression, was suppressed by overexpressed IRS-3; and 6) insulin-induced expression of p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, was decreased by overexpressed IRS-3. These findings imply that: 1) IRS-3 may play a unique role in mitogenesis by inhibiting insulin-stimulated cell cycle progression via a decrease in cyclin D1 and p21 expressions as well as suppression of c-myc mRNA induction in a manner independent of the activation of MAPK, protein kinase B, glycogen synthase kinase 3 and Ral; and 2) the interaction of IRS-3 with nuclear proteins may be involved in this process.
|Strength training increases insulin-mediated glucose uptake, GLUT4 content, and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle in patients with type 2 diabetes. |
Mads K Holten, Morten Zacho, Michael Gaster, Carsten Juel, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Flemming Dela
Diabetes 53 294-305 2004
Strength training represents an alternative to endurance training for patients with type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the effect on insulin action and key proteins in skeletal muscle, and the necessary volume of strength training is unknown. A total of 10 type 2 diabetic subjects and 7 healthy men (control subjects) strength-trained one leg three times per week for 6 weeks while the other leg remained untrained. Each session lasted no more than 30 min. After strength training, muscle biopsies were obtained, and an isoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with arterio-femoral venous catheterization of both legs was carried out. In general, qualitatively similar responses were obtained in both groups. During the clamp, leg blood flow was higher (P 0.05) in trained versus untrained legs, but despite this, arterio-venous extraction glucose did not decrease in trained legs. Thus, leg glucose clearance was increased in trained legs (P 0.05) and more than explained by increases in muscle mass. Strength training increased protein content of GLUT4, insulin receptor, protein kinase B-alpha/beta, glycogen synthase (GS), and GS total activity. In conclusion, we found that strength training for 30 min three times per week increases insulin action in skeletal muscle in both groups. The adaptation is attributable to local contraction-mediated mechanisms involving key proteins in the insulin signaling cascade.
|Insulin receptor substrate 1 regulation of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 3 in insulin-secreting beta-cells. |
Borge, PD; Wolf, BA
The Journal of biological chemistry 278 11359-68 2003
We have previously characterized an insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1)-overexpressing beta-cell line. These beta-cells demonstrated elevated fractional insulin secretion and elevated cytosolic Ca(2+) levels compared with wild-type and vector controls. This effect of IRS-1 may be mediated via an interaction with the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA). Here we demonstrate that IRS-1 and IRS-2 localize to an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-enriched fraction in beta-cells using subcellular fractionation. We also observe co-localization of both IRS-1 and IRS-2 with ER marker proteins using immunofluorescent confocal microscopy. Furthermore, immuno-electron microscopy studies confirm that IRS-1 and SERCA3b localize to vesicles derived from the ER. In Chinese hamster ovary-T (CHO-T) cells transiently transfected with SERCA3b alone or together with IRS-1, SERCA3b co-immunoprecipitates with IRS-1. This interaction is enhanced with insulin treatment. SERCA3b also co-immunoprecipitates with IRS-1 in wild-type and IRS-1-overexpressing beta-cell lines. Ca(2+) uptake in ER-enriched fractions prepared from wild-type and IRS-1-overexpressing cell lines shows no significant difference, indicating that the previously observed decrease in Ca(2+) uptake by IRS-1-overexpressing cells is not the result of a defect in SERCA. Treatment of wild-type beta-cells with thapsigargin, an inhibitor of SERCA, resulted in an increase in glucose-stimulated fractional insulin secretion similar to that observed in IRS-1-overexpressing cells. The colocalization of IRS proteins and SERCA in the ER of beta-cells increases the likelihood that these proteins can interact with one another. Co-immunoprecipitation of IRS-1 and SERCA in CHO-T cells and beta-cells confirms that these proteins do indeed interact directly. Pharmacological inhibition of SERCA in beta-cells results in enhanced secretion of insulin. Taken together, our data suggest that interaction between IRS proteins and SERCA is an important regulatory step in insulin secretion.
|Insulin-induced up-regulated uncoupling protein-1 expression is mediated by insulin receptor substrate 1 through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in fetal brown adipocytes. |
Valverde, AM; Arribas, M; Mur, C; Navarro, P; Pons, S; Cassard-Doulcier, AM; Kahn, CR; Benito, M
The Journal of biological chemistry 278 10221-31 2003
To investigate the role of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and its downstream signaling in insulin-induced thermogenic differentiation of brown adipocytes, we have reconstituted IRS-1-deficient fetal brown adipocytes (IRS-1(-/-)) with wild-type IRS-1 (IRS-1(wt)). The lack of IRS-1 resulted in the inability of insulin to induce IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity and Akt phosphorylation in IRS-1(-/-) brown adipocytes. In addition, these cells showed an impairment in activating alpha-Akt, beta-Akt, and gamma-Akt isoforms upon insulin stimulation. Reconstitution of IRS-1(-/-) brown adipocytes with IRS-1(wt) restored the IRS-1/PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Treatment of wild-type brown adipocytes with insulin for 24 h up-regulated uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) expression and transactivated the UCP-1 promoter; this effect was abolished in the absence of IRS-1 or in the presence of an Akt inhibitor and further recovered after IRS-1(wt) reconstitution. Neither UCP-2 nor UCP-3 was up-regulated by insulin in wild-type and IRS-1-deficient brown adipocytes. Insulin stimulated the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) and its DNA binding activity in wild-type brown adipocytes but not in IRS-1(-/-) cells. However, insulin stimulation of both C/EBPalpha expression and binding activity was restored after IRS-1(wt) reconstitution of deficient cells. Retrovirus-mediated expression of C/EBPalpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in IRS-1(-/-) brown adipocytes up-regulated UCP-1 protein content and transactivated UCP-1 promoter regardless of insulin stimulation. Both C/EBPalpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma reconstituted FAS mRNA expression, but only C/EBPalpha restored insulin sensitivity in the absence of IRS-1. Finally, reconstitution of IRS-1(-/-) brown adipocytes with the IRS-1 mutants IRS-1(Phe-895), which lacks IRS-1/growth factor receptor binding protein 2 binding but not IRS-1/p85-PI 3-kinase binding, or with IRS-1(Tyr-608/Tyr-628/Tyr-658), which only binds p85-PI 3-kinase, induced UCP-1 expression and transactivated the UCP-1 promoter. These data provide strong evidence for an essential role of IRS-1 through the PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway inducing UCP-1 gene expression by insulin.
|High-fat diet and leptin treatment alter skeletal muscle insulin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and glucose transport. |
Mohenish K Singh, Adam D Krisan, Andrew M Crain, Dale E Collins, Ben B Yaspelkis
Metabolism: clinical and experimental 52 1196-205 2003
The aim of this investigation was to evaluate if leptin treatment enhances insulin-stimulated glucose transport in normal (experimental group [EXP]-1) and insulin-resistant skeletal muscle (EXP-2) by altering components of the insulin-signaling cascade and/or glucose transport pathway. In EXP-1, Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to control-chow fed (CON-CF) or leptin treated-chow fed (LEP-CF) groups. Animals were implanted with miniosmotic pumps, which delivered 0.5 mg leptin/kg/d to the LEP-CF animals and vehicle to CON-CF animals for 14 days. For EXP-2, Sprague-Dawley rats consumed normal (CON) or high-fat diets for 3 months. After the dietary lead in, the high-fat diet group was further subdivided into high-fat (HF) and high-fat, leptin-treated (HF-LEP) animals. HF-LEP animals were injected with leptin (0.5 mg leptin/kg/d) for 12 days, while the CON and HF animals were injected with vehicle. After the treatment periods, all animals were prepared for and subjected to hind limb perfusion. In EXP-1, leptin treatment increased insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose transporter (GLUT4) translocation, which appeared to be due to increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) activation and Akt phosphorylation. In EXP-2, the high-fat diet reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport, in part, by impairing insulin-stimulated PI3-K activation and glucose transporter translocation. Leptin treatment reversed high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle by restoring insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1-associated PI3-K activity, total GLUT4 protein concentration, and glucose transporter translocation. Collectively, these findings suggest that leptin treatment will enhance components of both the insulin-signaling cascade and glucose transport effector system in normal and insulin-resistant skeletal muscle.
|Assaying tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrates. |
Eileen L Whiteman, Morris J Birnbaum
Methods in molecular medicine 83 119-26 2003
|Comparison of alterations in insulin signalling pathway in adipocytes from Type II diabetic pregnant women and women with gestational diabetes mellitus |
Tomazic, M., et al
Diabetologia, 45:502-8 (2002) 2002
|Insulin receptor substrate 4 associates with the protein IRAS. |
Sano, H; Liu, SC; Lane, WS; Piletz, JE; Lienhard, GE
The Journal of biological chemistry 277 19439-47 2002
The insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) are key components in signaling from the insulin receptor, and consequently any proteins that interact with them are expected to participate in insulin signaling. In this study we have searched for proteins that interact with IRS-4 by identifying the proteins that coimmunoprecipitated with IRS-4 from human embryonic kidney 293 cells by microsequencing through mass spectrometry. A group of proteins was found. These included phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, a protein previously identified as an IRS-4 interactor, and several proteins for which there was no previous evidence of IRS-4 association. One of these proteins, named IRAS, that had been found earlier in another context was examined in detail. The results from the overexpression of IRAS, where its amount was about the same as that of IRS-4, indicated that IRAS associated directly with IRS-4 and showed that the increased complexation of IRS-4 with IRAS did not alter the insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-4 or the association of IRS-4 with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or Grb2. On the other hand, overexpression of IRAS enhanced IRS-4-dependent insulin stimulation of the extracellularly regulated kinase. The domains of IRAS and IRS-4 responsible for the association of these two proteins were identified, and it was shown that IRAS also associates with IRS-1, IRS-2, and IRS-3.
|Nuclear translocation of insulin receptor substrate-1 by oncogenes and Igf-I. Effect on ribosomal RNA synthesis. |
Tu, X; Batta, P; Innocent, N; Prisco, M; Casaburi, I; Belletti, B; Baserga, R
The Journal of biological chemistry 277 44357-65 2002
The insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is one of the major substrates of both the insulin and IGF-I receptors and is generally localized in the cytosol/membrane fraction of the cell. We show here that a substantial fraction of IRS-1 is translocated to the nucleus in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) expressing the simian virus 40 T antigen. Nuclear translocation of IRS-1 occurs also in MEF stimulated with IGF-I or in MEF expressing the oncogene v-src. Nuclear translocation of IRS-1 can be demonstrated by confocal microscopy, immunohistochemistry, or subcellular fractionation. An antibody to IRS-1 immunoprecipitates from nuclear fractions (but not from cytosolic fractions) the upstream binding factor, which is a key regulator of RNA polymerase I activity and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis. In agreement with this finding, in 32D murine hemopoietic cells, nuclear translocation of IRS-1 correlates with a markedly increased rRNA synthesis. Our experiments suggest that nuclear IRS-1 may play a specialized role in rRNA synthesis and/or processing.
|Anti-apoptotic signaling of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor through mitochondrial translocation of c-Raf and Nedd4 |
Peruzzi, F., et al
J Biol Chem, 276:25990-6 (2001) 2001
|The antihyperglycemic drug alpha-lipoic acid stimulates glucose uptake via both GLUT4 translocation and GLUT4 activation: potential role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in GLUT4 activation. |
Konrad, D, et al.
Diabetes, 50: 1464-71 (2001) 2001
The cofactor of mitochondrial dehydrogenase complexes and potent antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to lower blood glucose in diabetic animals. alpha-Lipoic acid enhances glucose uptake and GLUT1 and GLUT4 translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes, mimicking insulin action. In both cell types, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is reduced by inhibitors of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Here we explore the effect of alpha-lipoic acid on p38 MAPK, phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, and Akt1 in L6 myotubes. alpha-Lipoic acid (2.5 mmol/l) increased PI 3-kinase activity (31-fold) and Akt1 (4.9-fold). Both activities were inhibited by 100 nmol/l wortmannin. alpha-Lipoic acid also stimulated p38 MAPK phosphorylation by twofold within 10 min. The phosphorylation persisted for at least 30 min. Like insulin, alpha-lipoic acid increased the kinase activity of the alpha (2.8-fold) and beta (2.1-fold) isoforms of p38 MAPK, measured by an in vitro kinase assay. Treating cells with 10 micromol/l of the p38 MAPK inhibitors SB202190 or SB203580 reduced the alpha-lipoic acid-induced stimulation of glucose uptake by 66 and 55%, respectively. In contrast, SB202474, a structural analog that does not inhibit p38 MAPK, was without effect on glucose uptake. In contrast to 2-deoxyglucose uptake, translocation of GLUT4myc to the cell surface by either alpha-lipoic acid or insulin was unaffected by 20 micromol/l of SB202190 or SB203580. The results suggest that inhibition of 2-deoxyglucose uptake in response to alpha-lipoic acid by inhibitors of p38 MAPK is independent of an effect on GLUT4 translocation. Instead, it is likely that regulation of transporter activity is sensitive to these inhibitors.
|Mammalian target of rapamycin pathway regulates insulin signaling via subcellular redistribution of insulin receptor substrate 1 and integrates nutritional signals and metabolic signals of insulin |
Takano, A., et al
Mol Cell Biol, 21:5050-62 (2001) 2001
|Immunoblotting (Western), Immunoprecipitation||11438661|
|Inducible nitric oxide synthase deficiency does not affect the susceptibility of mice to atherosclerosis but increases collagen content in lesions. |
X L Niu, X Yang, K Hoshiai, K Tanaka, S Sawamura, Y Koga, H Nakazawa, X L Niu, X Yang, K Hoshiai, K Tanaka, S Sawamura, Y Koga, H Nakazawa
Circulation 103 1115-20 2001
BACKGROUND: Although endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is antiatherogenic, the role of inducible NOS (iNOS) in the development of atherosclerosis is not established. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared the susceptibility of iNOS knockout (iNOS(-/-)) and wild-type (iNOS(+/+)) mice to the development of atherosclerosis induced by feeding an atherogenic diet for 15 weeks. Plasma lipid level, atherosclerotic lesion size, and cellular density in the lesions were all similar in the 2 strains (lesion size: iNOS(+/+) 285+/-73x10(3) microm(2), iNOS(-/-) 293+/-82x10(3) microm(2), n=10). iNOS mRNA was detected in the lesions of iNOS(+/+) but not iNOS(-/-) mice through RT-PCR. Immunohistochemically, iNOS(+/+) mice showed iNOS staining in macrophages and medial smooth muscle cells in the lesions. Nitrotyrosine staining showed a similar distribution, whereas it was absent in iNOS(-/-) mice. There was no apparent difference in the intensity or distribution of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 staining in the lesions of the 2 strains. However, the lesions of iNOS(+/+) mice showed a markedly decreased extracellular collagen content compared with those of iNOS(-/-) mice CONCLUSIONS: iNOS induction does not affect the development of atherosclerosis in mice fed an atherogenic diet, but the resulting lesions show decreased levels of extracellular collagen and may be more fragile.
|Exercise training eliminates age-related differences in skeletal muscle insulin receptor and IRS-1 abundance in rats. |
E B Arias, L E Gosselin, G D Cartee
The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences 56 B449-55 2001
Insulin resistance is common in old age, and exercise training can improve insulin sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of age (6 vs 26 months) and exercise training (10 weeks of treadmill running) on insulin signaling protein abundance in skeletal muscle from male Fisher 344 rats. Muscle levels of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt1, a serine-threonine kinase, were determined. IRS-1 was reduced with aging, IR and PI3K abundance was greater in old rats, and Akt1 was unchanged. IRS-1 was increased by training in old but not young rats, and IR was increased by training in young but not old rats. PI3K tended to increase and Akt1 did not change with training, regardless of age. Aging does not uniformly affect insulin signaling protein abundance, and exercise differentially alters IR and IRS-1 in young and old rats, thereby eliminating age-related differences in these proteins.
|Transactivation of the EGF receptor mediates IGF-1-stimulated shc phosphorylation and ERK1/2 activation in COS-7 cells |
Roudabush, F. L., et al
J Biol Chem, 275:22583-9 (2000) 2000
|The IR1152 mutant insulin receptor selectively impairs insulin action in skeletal muscle but not in liver. |
M Caruso, C Miele, A Oliva, G Condorelli, F Oriente, G Riccardi, B Capaldo, F Fiory, D Accili, P Formisano, F Beguinot
Diabetes 49 1194-202 2000
In patients harboring the IR1152 mutant insulin receptor, hepatic glucose production was normally suppressed by insulin. Hepatocytes without the insulin receptor gene and expressing IR1152 (Hep(MUT)) also showed normal insulin suppression of glucose production and full insulin response of glycogen synthase. In contrast, expression of the IR1152 mutant in skeletal muscle maximally increased glucose uptake and storage, preventing further insulin stimulation. IRS-1 phosphorylation was normally stimulated by insulin in both intact Hep(MUT) and L6 skeletal muscle cells expressing the IR1152 mutant (L6(MUT)). At variance, IRS-2 phosphorylation exhibited high basal levels with no further insulin-dependent increase in L6(MUT) but almost normal phosphorylation, both basal and insulin-stimulated, in the Hep(MUT) cells. In vitro, IR1152 mutant preparations from both the L6(MUT) and the Hep(MUT) cells exhibited increased basal and no insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-2 immobilized from either muscle or liver cells. IR1152 internalization in liver and muscle cells closely paralleled the ability of this mutant to phosphorylate IRS-2 in vivo in these cells. Block of receptor internalization (wild-type and mutant) in the liver and muscle cells also inhibited IRS-2, but not IRS-1, phosphorylation. Thus, the mechanisms controlling insulin receptor internalization differ in liver and skeletal muscle cells and may enable IR1152 to control glucose metabolism selectively in liver. In both cell types, receptor internalization seems necessary for IRS-2 but not IRS-1 phosphorylation.
|The matrix metalloproteinase-9 regulates the insulin-like growth factor-triggered autocrine response in DU-145 carcinoma cells |
Manes, S., et al
J Biol Chem, 274:6935-45 (1999) 1999
|Hyperglycemia inhibits insulin activation of Akt/protein kinase B but not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in rat skeletal muscle |
Kurowski, T. G., et al
Diabetes, 48:658-63 (1999) 1999
|Concerted activity of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 and focal adhesion kinase in regulation of cell motility |
Manes, S., et al
Mol Cell Biol, 19:3125-35 (1999) 1999
|Immunoblotting (Western), Immunoprecipitation||10082579|
|An inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase prevents insulin-stimulated glucose transport but not glucose transporter translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes |
Sweeney, G., et al
J Biol Chem, 274:10071-8 (1999) 1999
|Growth and differentiation signals by the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in hemopoietic cells are mediated through different pathways |
Valentinis, B., et al
J Biol Chem, 274:12423-30 (1999) 1999
|Immunoblotting (Western), Immunoprecipitation||10212216|
|Osmotic shock inhibits insulin signaling by maintaining Akt/protein kinase B in an inactive dephosphorylated state |
Chen, D., et al
Mol Cell Biol, 19:4684-94 (1999) 1999
|Early biochemical events in insulin-stimulated fluid phase endocytosis. |
D M Pitterle, R T Sperling, M G Myers, M F White, P J Blackshear
The American journal of physiology 276 E94-E105 1999
We examined the initial molecular mechanisms by which cells nonselectively internalize extracellular solutes in response to insulin. Insulin-stimulated fluid phase endocytosis (FPE) was examined in responsive cells, and the roles of the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI 3'-kinase), Ras, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) were assessed. Active insulin receptors were essential, as demonstrated by the stimulation of FPE by insulin in HIRc-B cells (Rat-1 cells expressing 1.2 x 10(6) normal insulin receptors/cell) but not in untransfected Rat-1 cells or in Rat-1 cells expressing the inactive A/K1018 receptor. IRS-1 expression augmented insulin-stimulated FPE, as assessed in 32D cells, a hematopoietic precursor cell line lacking endogenous IRS-1. Insulin-stimulated FPE was inhibited in mouse brown adipose tissue (BAT) cells expressing the 17N dominant negative mutant Ras and was augmented in cells expressing wild-type Ras. The MEK inhibitor PD-98059 had little effect on insulin-stimulated FPE in BAT cells. In 32D cells, but not in HIRc-B and BAT cells, insulin-stimulated FPE was inhibited by 10 nM wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI 3'-kinase. The results indicate that the insulin receptor, IRS-1, Ras, and, perhaps in certain cell types, PI 3'-kinase are involved in mediating insulin-stimulated FPE.
|Insulin receptor substrate 1-induced inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake in beta-cells. Autocrine regulation of intracellular ca2+ homeostasis and insulin secretion. |
G G Xu, Z Y Gao, P D Borge, B A Wolf
The Journal of biological chemistry 274 18067-74 1999
To understand the role of the insulin receptor pathway in beta-cell function, we have generated stable beta-cells (betaIRS1-A) that overexpress by 2-fold the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and compared them to vector-expressing controls. IRS-1 overexpression dramatically increased basal cytosolic Ca2+ levels from 81 to 278 nM, but it did not affect Ca2+ response to glucose. Overexpression of the insulin receptor also caused an increase in cytosolic Ca2+. Increased cytosolic Ca2+ was due to inhibition of Ca2+ uptake by the endoplasmic reticulum, because endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake and content were reduced in betaIRS1-A cells. Fractional insulin secretion was significantly increased 2-fold, and there was a decrease in betaIRS1-A insulin content and insulin biosynthesis. Steady-state insulin mRNA levels and glucose-stimulated ATP were unchanged. High IRS-1 levels also reduced beta-cell proliferation. These data demonstrate a direct link between the insulin receptor signaling pathway and the Ca2+-dependent pathways regulating insulin secretion of beta-cells. We postulate that during regulated insulin secretion, released insulin binds the beta-cell insulin receptor and activates IRS-1, thus further increasing cytosolic Ca2+ by reducing Ca2+ uptake. We suggest the existence of a novel pathway of autocrine regulation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and insulin secretion in the beta-cell of the endocrine pancreas.
|Increased glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in transgenic skinny mice overexpressing leptin. |
Y Ogawa, H Masuzaki, K Hosoda, M Aizawa-Abe, J Suga, M Suda, K Ebihara, H Iwai, N Matsuoka, N Satoh, H Odaka, H Kasuga, Y Fujisawa, G Inoue, H Nishimura, Y Yoshimasa, K Nakao
Diabetes 48 1822-9 1999
Excess of body fat, or obesity, is a major health problem and confers a higher risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived satiety factor that plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its synthesis and secretion are markedly increased in obese subjects. To explore the metabolic consequences of an increased amount of leptin on a long-term basis in vivo, we generated transgenic skinny mice with elevated plasma leptin concentrations comparable to those in obese subjects. Overexpression of leptin in the liver has resulted in complete disappearance of white and brown adipose tissue for a long period of time in mice. Transgenic skinny mice exhibit increased glucose metabolism accompanied by the activation of insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle and liver. They also show small-sized livers with a marked decrease in glycogen and lipid storage. The phenotypes are in striking contrast to those of recently reported animal models of lipoatrophic diabetes and patients with lipoatrophic diabetes with reduced amount of leptin. The present study provides evidence that leptin is an adipocyte-derived antidiabetic hormone in vivo and suggests its pathophysiologic and therapeutic implications in diabetes.
|Interplay of the proto-oncogene proteins CrkL and CrkII in insulin-like growth factor-I receptor-mediated signal transduction |
Koval, A. P., et al
J Biol Chem, 273:14780-7 (1998) 1998
|Glucosamine-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is caused by depletion of intracellular ATP |
Hresko, R. C., et al
J Biol Chem, 273:20658-68 (1998) 1998
|Interaction of insulin receptor substrate-1 with the sigma3A subunit of the adaptor protein complex-3 in cultured adipocytes |
VanRenterghem, B., et al
J Biol Chem, 273:29942-9 (1998) 1998
|DHEA treatment reduces fat accumulation and protects against insulin resistance in male rats. |
D H Han, P A Hansen, M M Chen, J O Holloszy, D H Han, P A Hansen, M M Chen, J O Holloszy
The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences 53 B19-24 1998
The purpose of this study was to determine whether administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) protects male rats against the accumulation of body fat the development of insulin resistance with advancing age. We found that supplementation of the diet with 0.3% DHEA between the ages of 5 months and approximately 25 months resulted in a significantly lower final body weight (DHEA, 593 +/- 18 g vs control, 668 +/- 12 g, p 0.02), despite no decrease in food intake. Lean body mass was unaffected by the DHEA, and the lower body weight was due to a approximately 25% reduction in body fat. The rate of glucose disposal during a euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp was 30% higher in the DHEA group than in the sedentary controls due to a greater insulin responsiveness. The DHEA administration was as effective in reducing body fat content and maintaining insulin responsiveness as exercise in the form of voluntary wheel running. The DHEA had no significant effect on muscle GLUT4 content. A preliminary experiment provided evidence suggesting that muscle insulin signaling, as reflected in binding of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to the insulin receptor substrate-1, was enhanced in the DHEA-treated and wheel running groups as compared to controls. These results provide evidence that DHEA, like exercise, protects against excess fat accumulation and development of insulin resistance in rats.
|N-Methyl-D-aspartate inhibits apoptosis through activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in cerebellar granule neurons. A role for insulin receptor substrate-1 in the neurotrophic action of n-methyl-D-aspartate and its inhibition by ethanol. |
F X Zhang, R Rubin, T A Rooney
The Journal of biological chemistry 273 26596-602 1998
Primary cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons underwent apoptosis when switched from medium containing 25 mM K+ to one containing 5 mM K+. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) protected granule neurons from apoptosis in medium containing 5 mM K+. Inhibition of apoptosis by NMDA was blocked by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) inhibitor LY294002, but it was unaffected by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD 98059. The antiapoptotic action of NMDA was associated with an increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), an increase in the binding of the regulatory subunit of PI 3-kinase to IRS-1, and a stimulation of PI 3-kinase activity. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, NMDA was unable to prevent apoptosis or to phosphorylate IRS-1 and activate PI 3-kinase. Significant inhibition of NMDA-mediated neuronal survival by ethanol (10-15%) was observed at 1 mM, and inhibition was half-maximal at 45-50 mM. Inhibition of neuronal survival by ethanol corresponded with a marked reduction in the capacity of NMDA to increase the concentration of intracellular Ca2+, phosphorylate IRS-1, and activate PI 3-kinase. These data demonstrate that the neurotrophic action of NMDA and its inhibition by ethanol are mediated by alterations in the activity of a PI 3-kinase-dependent antiapoptotic signaling pathway.
|Insulin receptor substrate-2 is the major 170-kDa protein phosphorylated on tyrosine in response to cytokines in murine lymphohemopoietic cells |
Welham, M. J., et al
J Biol Chem, 272:1377-81 (1997) 1997
|Immunoblotting (Western), Immunoprecipitation||8995447|
|Human ovarian-carcinoma cell lines express IL-4 and IL-13 receptors: comparison between IL-4- and IL-13-induced signal transduction |
Murata, T., et al
Int J Cancer, 70:230-40 (1997) 1997
|Differential regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor gene expression by IGF-I and basic fibroblastic growth factor |
Hernandez-Sanchez, C., et al
J Biol Chem, 272:4663-70 (1997) 1997
|Membrane-associated insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 inhibits insulin-like growth factor-I-induced insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signaling in ishikawa endometrial cancer cells |
Karas, M., et al
J Biol Chem, 272:16514-20 (1997) 1997
|Insulin and interleukin-4 induce desensitization to the mitogenic effects of insulin-like growth factor-I. Pivotal role for insulin receptor substrate-2 |
Haddad, T. C. and Conover, C. A.
J Biol Chem, 272:19525-31 (1997) 1997
|Insulin signal transduction by a mutant human insulin receptor lacking the NPEY sequence. Evidence for an alternate mitogenic signaling pathway that is independent of Shc phosphorylation |
Berhanu, P., et al
J Biol Chem, 272:22884-90 (1997) 1997
|Abnormal protein tyrosine phosphorylation in fibroblasts from hyperapobetalipoproteinemia subjects |
Motevalli, M., et al
J Biol Chem, 272:24703-9 (1997) 1997
|Analysis of thermal injury-induced insulin resistance in rodents. Implication of postreceptor mechanisms |
Ikezu, T., et al
J Biol Chem, 272:25289-95 (1997) 1997
|The role of mGrb10alpha in insulin-like growth factor I-mediated growth. |
Morrione, A, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 272: 26382-7 (1997) 1997
Several isoforms of Grb10 are known to interact with either the insulin receptor or the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor, or both. Inasmuch as the data in the literature on the function of Grb10 are not always concordant, we have investigated the role of one of these isoforms, mGrb10alpha, in cell proliferation. For this purpose, a plasmid expressing mGrb10alpha was stably transfected into p6 cells and other mouse embryo fibroblast cell lines. An overexpressed mGrb10alpha inhibits IGF-I-mediated growth, causes a delay in the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, and partially reverses the transformed phenotype. In contrast, it has no effect on insulin stimulation of cell proliferation. These studies indicate that this isoform of Grb10 has an inhibitory effect on IGF-I signaling of cell proliferation.
|Insulin-like growth factor-I rapidly activates multiple signal transduction pathways in cultured rat cardiac myocytes. |
R Foncea, M Andersson, A Ketterman, V Blakesley, M Sapag-Hagar, P H Sugden, D LeRoith, S Lavandero, R Foncea, M Andersson, A Ketterman, V Blakesley, M Sapag-Hagar, P H Sugden, D LeRoith, S Lavandero
The Journal of biological chemistry 272 19115-24 1997
In response to insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), neonatal rat cardiac myocytes exhibit a hypertrophic response. The elucidation of the IGF-I signal transduction system in these cells remains unknown. We show here that cardiac myocytes present a single class of high affinity receptors (12,446 +/- 3,669 binding sites/cell) with a dissociation constant of 0.36 +/- 0.10 nM. Two different beta-subunits of IGF-I receptor were detected, and their autophosphorylation was followed by increases in the phosphotyrosine content of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), insulin receptor substrate 1, phospholipase C-gamma1, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. IGF-I transiently activates c-Raf in cultured neonatal cardiac myocytes, whereas A-raf is activated much less than c-Raf. Two peaks of ERK activity (ERK1 and ERK2) were resolved in cardiac myocytes treated with IGF-I by fast protein liquid chromatography, both being stimulated by IGF-I (with EC50 values for the stimulation of ERK1 and ERK2 by IGF-I of 0.10 and 0. 12 nM, respectively). Maximal activation of ERK2 (12-fold) and ERK1 (8.3-fold) activities was attained after a 5-min exposure to IGF-I. Maximal activation of p90 S6 kinase by IGF-I was achieved after 10 min, and then the activity decreased slowly. Interestingly, IGF-I stimulates incorporation of [3H]phenylalanine (1.6-fold) without any effect on [3H]thymidine incorporation. These data suggest that IGF-I activates multiple signal transduction pathways in cardiac myocytes some of which may be relevant to the hypertrophic response of the heart.
|Subcellular localization and analysis of apparent 180-kDa and 220-kDa proteins of the breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA1 |
Thomas, J. E., et al
J Biol Chem, 271:28630-5 (1996) 1996
|Immunoblotting (Western), Immunoprecipitation||8910495|