|Deoxyhypusine synthase promotes differentiation and proliferation of T helper type 1 (Th1) cells in autoimmune diabetes. |
Colvin, SC; Maier, B; Morris, DL; Tersey, SA; Mirmira, RG
The Journal of biological chemistry
In type 1 diabetes, cytokines arising from immune cells cause islet β cell dysfunction even before overt hyperglycemia. Deoxyhypusine synthase catalyzes the crucial hypusine modification of the factor eIF5A, which promotes the translation of a subset of mRNAs involved in cytokine responses. Here, we tested the hypothesis that deoxyhypusine synthase and, secondarily, hypusinated eIF5A contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes using the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. Pre-diabetic NOD mice that received injections of the deoxyhypusine inhibitor N1-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane (GC7) demonstrated significantly improved glucose tolerance, more robust insulin secretion, and reduced insulitis compared with control animals. Analysis of tissues from treated mice revealed selective reductions in diabetogenic T helper type 1 (Th1) cells in the pancreatic lymph nodes, a primary site of antigen presentation. Isolated mouse CD90.2(+) splenocytes stimulated in vitro with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 and IL-2 to mimic autoimmune T cell activation exhibited proliferation and differentiation of CD4(+) T cell subsets (Th1, Th17, and Treg), but those treated with the deoxyhypusine synthase inhibitor GC7 showed a dose-dependent block in T cell proliferation with selective reduction in Th1 cells, similar to that observed in NOD mice. Inhibition of deoxyhypusine synthase blocked post-transcriptional expression of CD25, the high affinity IL-2 receptor α chain. Our results suggest a previously unrecognized role for deoxyhypusine synthase in promoting T cell proliferation and differentiation via regulation of CD25. Inhibition of deoxyhypusine synthase may provide a strategy for reducing diabetogenic Th1 cells and preserving β cell function in type 1 diabetes.
|Characterization of a novel polyclonal anti-hypusine antibody. |
Nishiki, Y; Farb, TB; Friedrich, J; Bokvist, K; Mirmira, RG; Maier, B
The translation factor eIF5A is the only protein known to contain the amino acid hypusine, which is formed posttranslationally. Hypusinated eIF5A is necessary for cellular proliferation and responses to extracellular stressors, and has been proposed as a target for pharmacologic therapy. Here, we provide the first comprehensive characterization of a novel polyclonal antibody (IU-88) that specifically recognizes the hypusinated eIF5A. IU-88 will be useful for the investigation of eIF5A biology and for the development of assays recognizing hypusinated eIF5A.