|Isolation and characterization of a subtype C avian metapneumovirus circulating in Muscovy ducks in China. |
Sun, S; Chen, F; Cao, S; Liu, J; Lei, W; Li, G; Song, Y; Lu, J; Liu, C; Qin, J; Li, H
Subtype C avian metapneumovirus (aMPV-C), is an important pathogen that can cause egg-drop and acute respiratory diseases in poultry. To date, aMPV-C infection has not been documented in Muscovy ducks in China. Here, we isolated and characterized an aMPV-C, designated S-01, which has caused severe respiratory disease and noticeable egg drop in Muscovy duck flocks in south China since 2010. Electron microscopy showed that the isolate was an enveloped virus exhibiting multiple morphologies with a diameter of 20-500 nm. The S-01 strain was able to produce a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) on Vero cells and cause death in 10- to 11-day-old Muscovy duck embryos. In vivo infection of layer Muscovy ducks with the isolate resulted in typical clinical signs and pathological lesions similar to those seen in the original infected cases. We report the first complete genomic sequence of aMPV-C from Muscovy ducks. A phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested that the S-01 virus belongs to the aMPV-C family, sharing 92.3%-94.3% of nucleotide identity with that of aMPV-C, and was most closely related to the aMPV-C strains isolated from Muscovy ducks in France. The deduced eight main proteins (N, P, M, F, M2, SH, G and L) of the novel isolate shared higher identity with hMPV than with other aMPV (subtypes A, B and D). S-01 could bind a monoclonal antibody against the F protein of hMPV. Together, our results indicate that subtype-C aMPV has been circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in South China, and it is urgent for companies to develop new vaccines to control the spread of the virus in China.
|Human metapneumovirus associated with respiratory tract infections in a 3-year study of nasal swabs from infants in Italy. |
Maggi, Fabrizio, et al.
J. Clin. Microbiol., 41: 2987-91 (2003)
The newly described human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is reported here to be more commonly associated with lower respiratory tract disease. The present study examined nasal swab specimens from 90 infants with acute respiratory tract infections in Pisa, Italy, over a period of three respiratory virus seasons. The incidence of infection varied in each of the 3 years, with the rates of positivity for hMPV being 7% in 2001 but 37 and 43% in 2000 and 2002, respectively. hMPV was noted to occur seasonally in a pattern typical of the frequency of occurrence of respiratory syncytial virus. More than one-half (14 of 23) of the infants infected with hMPV had bronchopneumonia. One-third (9 of 23) of the hMPV-infected patients were also infected with another respiratory virus, a relationship that has not previously been reported. Mixed infections did not account for a higher percentage of cases of bronchopneumonia than hMPV infection alone did. Furthermore, 7 of 17 infants whose plasma was also tested for hMPV RNA were demonstrated to have virus in both nasal swab and blood specimens. The study indicates that hMPV is seen as commonly as other respiratory viruses, may be associated with severe respiratory disease in infants, can establish mixed infections with other respiratory viruses, and has a seasonal occurrence.