Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, Ch, Vrt, Yeast (S. cerevisiae)||WB, Mplex, ChIP-seq, ChIP||Rb||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Anti-Histone H4, pan - 0611045170||0611045170|
|Anti-Histone H4, pan - 27171||27171|
|Anti-Histone H4, pan - JBC1361839||JBC1361839|
|Anti-Histone H4, pan, clone 62-141-13||2459608|
|Anti-Histone H4, pan, clone 62-141-13||3072362|
|Anti-Histone H4, pan, clone 62-141-13||05-858|
|Anti-Histone H4, pan, clone 62-141-13||2880725|
|Anti-Histone H4, pan, clone 62-141-13 - 2123171||2123171|
|Anti-Histone H4, pan, clone 62-141-13 - 2452521||2452521|
|Anti-Histone H4, pan, clone 62-141-13 - 1957285||1957285|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Mutation of histone H3 serine 86 disrupts GATA factor Ams2 expression and precise chromosome segregation in fission yeast.|
Lim, KK; Ong, TY; Tan, YR; Yang, EG; Ren, B; Seah, KS; Yang, Z; Tan, TS; Dymock, BW; Chen, ES
Scientific reports 5 14064 2015
Eukaryotic genomes are packed into discrete units, referred to as nucleosomes, by organizing around scaffolding histone proteins. The interplay between these histones and the DNA can dynamically regulate the function of the chromosomal domain. Here, we interrogated the function of a pair of juxtaposing serine residues (S86 and S87) that reside within the histone fold of histone H3. We show that fission yeast cells expressing a mutant histone H3 disrupted at S86 and S87 (hht2-S86AS87A) exhibited unequal chromosome segregation, disrupted transcriptional silencing of centromeric chromatin, and reduced expression of Ams2, a GATA-factor that regulates localization of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A. We found that overexpression of ams2(+) could suppress the chromosome missegregation phenotype that arose in the hht2-S86AS87A mutant. We further demonstrate that centromeric localization of SpCENP-A(cnp1-1) was significantly compromised in hht2-S86AS87A, suggesting synergism between histone H3 and the centromere-targeting domain of SpCENP-A. Taken together, our work presents evidence for an uncharacterized serine residue in fission yeast histone H3 that affects centromeric integrity via regulating the expression of the SpCENP-A-localizing Ams2 protein. [173/200 words].
|Global regulation of heterochromatin spreading by Leo1.|
Verrier, L; Taglini, F; Barrales, RR; Webb, S; Urano, T; Braun, S; Bayne, EH
Open biology 5 2015
Heterochromatin plays important roles in eukaryotic genome regulation. However, the repressive nature of heterochromatin combined with its propensity to self-propagate necessitates robust mechanisms to contain heterochromatin within defined boundaries and thus prevent silencing of expressed genes. Here we show that loss of the PAF complex (PAFc) component Leo1 compromises chromatin boundaries, resulting in invasion of heterochromatin into flanking euchromatin domains. Similar effects are seen upon deletion of other PAFc components, but not other factors with related functions in transcription-associated chromatin modification, indicating a specific role for PAFc in heterochromatin regulation. Loss of Leo1 results in reduced levels of H4K16 acetylation at boundary regions, while tethering of the H4K16 acetyltransferase Mst1 to boundary chromatin suppresses heterochromatin spreading in leo1Δ cells, suggesting that Leo1 antagonises heterochromatin spreading by promoting H4K16 acetylation. Our findings reveal a previously undescribed role for PAFc in regulating global heterochromatin distribution.
|The Mi-2 homolog Mit1 actively positions nucleosomes within heterochromatin to suppress transcription.|
Creamer, KM; Job, G; Shanker, S; Neale, GA; Lin, YC; Bartholomew, B; Partridge, JF
Molecular and cellular biology 34 2046-61 2014
Mit1 is the putative chromatin remodeling subunit of the fission yeast Snf2/histone deacetylase (HDAC) repressor complex (SHREC) and is known to repress transcription at regions of heterochromatin. However, how Mit1 modifies chromatin to silence transcription is largely unknown. Here we report that Mit1 mobilizes histone octamers in vitro and requires ATP hydrolysis and conserved chromatin tethering domains, including a previously unrecognized chromodomain, to remodel nucleosomes and silence transcription. Loss of Mit1 remodeling activity results in nucleosome depletion at specific DNA sequences that display low intrinsic affinity for the histone octamer, but its contribution to antagonizing RNA polymerase II (Pol II) access and transcription is not restricted to these sites. Genetic epistasis analyses demonstrate that SHREC subunits and the transcription-coupled Set2 histone methyltransferase, which is involved in suppression of cryptic transcription at actively transcribed regions, cooperate to silence heterochromatic transcripts. In addition, we have demonstrated that Mit1's remodeling activity contributes to SHREC function independently of Clr3's histone deacetylase activity on histone H3 K14. We propose that Mit1 is a chromatin remodeling factor that cooperates with the Clr3 histone deacetylase of SHREC and other chromatin modifiers to stabilize heterochromatin structure and to prevent access to the transcriptional machinery.
|ATM increases activation-induced cytidine deaminase activity at downstream S regions during class-switch recombination.|
Khair, L; Guikema, JE; Linehan, EK; Ucher, AJ; Leus, NG; Ogilvie, C; Lou, Z; Schrader, CE; Stavnezer, J
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 192 4887-96 2014
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates Ab class-switch recombination (CSR) in activated B cells resulting in exchanging the IgH C region and improved Ab effector function. During CSR, AID instigates DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation in switch (S) regions located upstream of C region genes. DSBs are necessary for CSR, but improper regulation of DSBs can lead to chromosomal translocations that can result in B cell lymphoma. The protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is an important proximal regulator of the DNA damage response (DDR), and translocations involving S regions are increased in its absence. ATM phosphorylates H2AX, which recruits other DNA damage response (DDR) proteins, including mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (Mdc1) and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), to sites of DNA damage. As these DDR proteins all function to promote repair and recombination of DSBs during CSR, we examined whether mouse splenic B cells deficient in these proteins would show alterations in S region DSBs when undergoing CSR. We find that in atm(-/-) cells Sμ DSBs are increased, whereas DSBs in downstream Sγ regions are decreased. We also find that mutations in the unrearranged Sγ3 segment are reduced in atm(-/-) cells. Our data suggest that ATM increases AID targeting and activity at downstream acceptor S regions during CSR and that in atm(-/-) cells Sμ DSBs accumulate as they lack a recombination partner.
|DNA-encoded nucleosome occupancy is associated with transcription levels in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.|
Bunnik, EM; Polishko, A; Prudhomme, J; Ponts, N; Gill, SS; Lonardi, S; Le Roch, KG
BMC genomics 15 347 2014
In eukaryotic organisms, packaging of DNA into nucleosomes controls gene expression by regulating access of the promoter to transcription factors. The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum encodes relatively few transcription factors, while extensive nucleosome remodeling occurs during its replicative cycle in red blood cells. These observations point towards an important role of the nucleosome landscape in regulating gene expression. However, the relation between nucleosome positioning and transcriptional activity has thus far not been explored in detail in the parasite.Here, we analyzed nucleosome positioning in the asexual and sexual stages of the parasite's erythrocytic cycle using chromatin immunoprecipitation of MNase-digested chromatin, followed by next-generation sequencing. We observed a relatively open chromatin structure at the trophozoite and gametocyte stages, consistent with high levels of transcriptional activity in these stages. Nucleosome occupancy of genes and promoter regions were subsequently compared to steady-state mRNA expression levels. Transcript abundance showed a strong inverse correlation with nucleosome occupancy levels in promoter regions. In addition, AT-repeat sequences were strongly unfavorable for nucleosome binding in P. falciparum, and were overrepresented in promoters of highly expressed genes.The connection between chromatin structure and gene expression in P. falciparum shares similarities with other eukaryotes. However, the remarkable nucleosome dynamics during the erythrocytic stages and the absence of a large variety of transcription factors may indicate that nucleosome binding and remodeling are critical regulators of transcript levels. Moreover, the strong dependency between chromatin structure and DNA sequence suggests that the P. falciparum genome may have been shaped by nucleosome binding preferences. Nucleosome remodeling mechanisms in this deadly parasite could thus provide potent novel anti-malarial targets.
|The histone variant composition of centromeres is controlled by the pericentric heterochromatin state during the cell cycle.|
Boyarchuk, E; Filipescu, D; Vassias, I; Cantaloube, S; Almouzni, G
Journal of cell science 127 3347-59 2014
Correct chromosome segregation requires a unique chromatin environment at centromeres and in their vicinity. Here, we address how the deposition of canonical H2A and H2A.Z histone variants is controlled at pericentric heterochromatin (PHC). Whereas in euchromatin newly synthesized H2A and H2A.Z are deposited throughout the cell cycle, we reveal two discrete waves of deposition at PHC - during mid to late S phase in a replication-dependent manner for H2A and during G1 phase for H2A.Z. This G1 cell cycle restriction is lost when heterochromatin features are altered, leading to the accumulation of H2A.Z at the domain. Interestingly, compromising PHC integrity also impacts upon neighboring centric chromatin, increasing the amount of centromeric CENP-A without changing the timing of its deposition. We conclude that the higher-order chromatin structure at the pericentric domain influences dynamics at the nucleosomal level within centromeric chromatin. The two different modes of rearrangement of the PHC during the cell cycle provide distinct opportunities to replenish one or the other H2A variant, highlighting PHC integrity as a potential signal to regulate the deposition timing and stoichiometry of histone variants at the centromere.
|Promoter decommissioning by the NuRD chromatin remodeling complex triggers synaptic connectivity in the mammalian brain.|
Yamada, T; Yang, Y; Hemberg, M; Yoshida, T; Cho, HY; Murphy, JP; Fioravante, D; Regehr, WG; Gygi, SP; Georgopoulos, K; Bonni, A
Neuron 83 122-34 2014
Precise control of gene expression plays fundamental roles in brain development, but the roles of chromatin regulators in neuronal connectivity have remained poorly understood. We report that depletion of the NuRD complex by in vivo RNAi and conditional knockout of the core NuRD subunit Chd4 profoundly impairs the establishment of granule neuron parallel fiber/Purkinje cell synapses in the rodent cerebellar cortex in vivo. By interfacing genome-wide sequencing of transcripts and ChIP-seq analyses, we uncover a network of repressed genes and distinct histone modifications at target gene promoters that are developmentally regulated by the NuRD complex in the cerebellum in vivo. Finally, in a targeted in vivo RNAi screen of NuRD target genes, we identify a program of NuRD-repressed genes that operate as critical regulators of presynaptic differentiation in the cerebellar cortex. Our findings define NuRD-dependent promoter decommissioning as a developmentally regulated programming mechanism that drives synaptic connectivity in the mammalian brain.
|High-resolution mapping of chromatin packaging in mouse embryonic stem cells and sperm.|
Carone, BR; Hung, JH; Hainer, SJ; Chou, MT; Carone, DM; Weng, Z; Fazzio, TG; Rando, OJ
Developmental cell 30 11-22 2014
Mammalian embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and sperm exhibit unusual chromatin packaging that plays important roles in cellular function. Here, we extend a recently developed technique, based on deep paired-end sequencing of lightly digested chromatin, to assess footprints of nucleosomes and other DNA-binding proteins genome-wide in murine ESCs and sperm. In ESCs, we recover well-characterized features of chromatin such as promoter nucleosome depletion and further identify widespread footprints of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins such as CTCF, which we validate in knockdown studies. We document global differences in nuclease accessibility between ESCs and sperm, finding that the majority of histone retention in sperm preferentially occurs in large gene-poor genomic regions, with only a small subset of nucleosomes being retained over promoters of developmental regulators. Finally, we describe evidence that CTCF remains associated with the genome in mature sperm, where it could play a role in organizing the sperm genome.
|Nascent chromatin capture proteomics determines chromatin dynamics during DNA replication and identifies unknown fork components.|
Alabert, C; Bukowski-Wills, JC; Lee, SB; Kustatscher, G; Nakamura, K; de Lima Alves, F; Menard, P; Mejlvang, J; Rappsilber, J; Groth, A
Nature cell biology 16 281-93 2014
To maintain genome function and stability, DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin must be duplicated during cell division. Understanding how entire chromosomes are copied remains a major challenge. Here, we use nascent chromatin capture (NCC) to profile chromatin proteome dynamics during replication in human cells. NCC relies on biotin-dUTP labelling of replicating DNA, affinity purification and quantitative proteomics. Comparing nascent chromatin with mature post-replicative chromatin, we provide association dynamics for 3,995 proteins. The replication machinery and 485 chromatin factors such as CAF-1, DNMT1 and SUV39h1 are enriched in nascent chromatin, whereas 170 factors including histone H1, DNMT3, MBD1-3 and PRC1 show delayed association. This correlates with H4K5K12diAc removal and H3K9me1 accumulation, whereas H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 remain unchanged. Finally, we combine NCC enrichment with experimentally derived chromatin probabilities to predict a function in nascent chromatin for 93 uncharacterized proteins, and identify FAM111A as a replication factor required for PCNA loading. Together, this provides an extensive resource to understand genome and epigenome maintenance.
|5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Plays a Critical Role in Glioblastomagenesis by Recruiting the CHTOP-Methylosome Complex.|
Takai, H; Masuda, K; Sato, T; Sakaguchi, Y; Suzuki, T; Suzuki, T; Koyama-Nasu, R; Nasu-Nishimura, Y; Katou, Y; Ogawa, H; Morishita, Y; Kozuka-Hata, H; Oyama, M; Todo, T; Ino, Y; Mukasa, A; Saito, N; Toyoshima, C; Shirahige, K; Akiyama, T
Cell reports 9 48-60 2014
The development of cancer is driven not only by genetic mutations but also by epigenetic alterations. Here, we show that TET1-mediated production of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that chromatin target of PRMT1 (CHTOP) binds to 5hmC. We found that CHTOP is associated with an arginine methyltransferase complex, termed the methylosome, and that this promotes the PRMT1-mediated methylation of arginine 3 of histone H4 (H4R3) in genes involved in glioblastomagenesis, including EGFR, AKT3, CDK6, CCND2, and BRAF. Moreover, we found that CHTOP and PRMT1 are essential for the expression of these genes and that CHTOP is required for the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma cells. These results suggest that 5hmC plays a critical role in glioblastomagenesis by recruiting the CHTOP-methylosome complex to selective sites on the chromosome, where it methylates H4R3 and activates the transcription of cancer-related genes.