Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, Ch, R, M, Yeast (S. cerevisiae)||WB, ChIP||Rb||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Anti-Histone H3 Antibody, CT, pan, clone A3S, rabbit monoclonal SDS
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Identification of a new selective chemical inhibitor of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase-1.|
Kim, HJ; Choi, BY; Keum, YS
Journal of cancer prevention 20 78-83 2015
Recent genome-wide sequencing studies have identified unexpected genetic alterations in cancer. In particular, missense mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) at arginine 132, mostly substituted into histidine (IDH1-R132H) were observed to frequently occur in glioma patients.We have purified recombinant IDH1 and IDH1-R132H proteins and monitored their catalytic activities. In parallel experiments, we have attempted to find new selective IDH1-R132H chemical inhibitor(s) from a fragment-based chemical library.We have found that IDH1, but not IDH1-R132H, can catalyze the conversion of isocitrate into α-ketoglutarate (α-KG). In addition, we have observed that IDH1-R132H was more efficient than IDH1 in converting α-KG into (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG). Moreover, we have identified a new hit molecule, e.g., 2-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)isothioazol-3(2H)-one as a new selective IDH1-R132H inhibitor.We have observed an underlying biochemical mechanism explaining how a heterozygous IDH1 mutation contributes to the generation of R-2HG and increases cellular histone H3 trimethylation levels. We have also identified a novel selective IDH1-R132H chemical hit molecule, e.g., 2-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)isothioazol-3(2H)-one, which could be used for a future lead development against IDH1-R132H.
|Synapsin IIb as a functional marker of submissive behavior.|
Nesher, E; Koman, I; Gross, M; Tikhonov, T; Bairachnaya, M; Salmon-Divon, M; Levin, Y; Gerlitz, G; Michaelevski, I; Yadid, G; Pinhasov, A
Scientific reports 5 10287 2015
Dominance and submissiveness are important functional elements of the social hierarchy. By employing selective breeding based on a social interaction test, we developed mice with strong and stable, inheritable features of dominance and submissiveness. In order to identify candidate genes responsible for dominant and submissive behavior, we applied transcriptomic and proteomic studies supported by molecular, behavioral and pharmacological approaches. We clearly show here that the expression of Synapsin II isoform b (Syn IIb) is constitutively upregulated in the hippocampus and striatum of submissive mice in comparison to their dominant and wild type counterparts. Moreover, the reduction of submissive behavior achieved after mating and delivery was accompanied by a marked reduction of Syn IIb expression. Since submissiveness has been shown to be associated with depressive-like behavior, we applied acute SSRI (Paroxetine) treatment to reduce submissiveness in studied mice. We found that reduction of submissive behavior evoked by Paroxetine was paired with significantly decreased Syn IIb expression. In conclusion, our findings indicate that submissiveness, known to be an important element of depressive-like behavioral abnormalities, is strongly linked with changes in Syn IIb expression.
|Steroid receptor coactivators 1 and 2 mediate fetal-to-maternal signaling that initiates parturition.|
Gao, L; Rabbitt, EH; Condon, JC; Renthal, NE; Johnston, JM; Mitsche, MA; Chambon, P; Xu, J; O'Malley, BW; Mendelson, CR
The Journal of clinical investigation 125 2808-24 2015
The precise mechanisms that lead to parturition are incompletely defined. Surfactant protein-A (SP-A), which is secreted by fetal lungs into amniotic fluid (AF) near term, likely provides a signal for parturition; however, SP-A-deficient mice have only a relatively modest delay (~12 hours) in parturition, suggesting additional factors. Here, we evaluated the contribution of steroid receptor coactivators 1 and 2 (SRC-1 and SRC-2), which upregulate SP-A transcription, to the parturition process. As mice lacking both SRC-1 and SRC-2 die at birth due to respiratory distress, we crossed double-heterozygous males and females. Parturition was severely delayed (~38 hours) in heterozygous dams harboring SRC-1/-2-deficient embryos. These mothers exhibited decreased myometrial NF-κB activation, PGF2α, and expression of contraction-associated genes; impaired luteolysis; and elevated circulating progesterone. These manifestations also occurred in WT females bearing SRC-1/-2 double-deficient embryos, indicating that a fetal-specific defect delayed labor. SP-A, as well as the enzyme lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase-1 (LPCAT1), required for synthesis of surfactant dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, and the proinflammatory glycerophospholipid platelet-activating factor (PAF) were markedly reduced in SRC-1/-2-deficient fetal lungs near term. Injection of PAF or SP-A into AF at 17.5 days post coitum enhanced uterine NF-κB activation and contractile gene expression, promoted luteolysis, and rescued delayed parturition in SRC-1/-2-deficient embryo-bearing dams. These findings reveal that fetal lungs produce signals to initiate labor when mature and that SRC-1/-2-dependent production of SP-A and PAF is crucial for this process.
|Select 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases exhibit altered expression in the aged rodent brain.|
Kelly, Michy P, et al.
Cell. Signal., 26: 383-97 (2014) 2014
3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are the only known enzymes to compartmentalize cAMP and cGMP, yet little is known about how PDEs are dynamically regulated across the lifespan. We mapped mRNA expression of all 21 PDE isoforms in the adult rat and mouse central nervous system (CNS) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in situ hybridization to assess conservation across species. We also compared PDE mRNA and protein in the brains of old (26 months) versus young (5 months) Sprague-Dawley rats, with select experiments replicated in old (9 months) versus young (2 months) BALB/cJ mice. We show that each PDE isoform exhibits a unique expression pattern across the brain that is highly conserved between rats, mice, and humans. PDE1B, PDE1C, PDE2A, PDE4A, PDE4D, PDE5A, PDE7A, PDE8A, PDE8B, PDE10A, and PDE11A showed an age-related increase or decrease in mRNA expression in at least 1 of the 4 brain regions examined (hippocampus, cortex, striatum, and cerebellum). In contrast, mRNA expression of PDE1A, PDE3A, PDE3B, PDE4B, PDE7A, PDE7B, and PDE9A did not change with age. Age-related increases in PDE11A4, PDE8A3, PDE8A4/5, and PDE1C1 protein expression were confirmed in hippocampus of old versus young rodents, as were age-related increases in PDE8A3 protein expression in the striatum. Age-related changes in PDE expression appear to have functional consequences as, relative to young rats, the hippocampi of old rats demonstrated strikingly decreased phosphorylation of GluR1, CaMKIIα, and CaMKIIβ, decreased expression of the transmembrane AMPA regulatory proteins γ2 (a.k.a. stargazin) and γ8, and increased trimethylation of H3K27. Interestingly, expression of PDE11A4, PDE8A4/5, PDE8A3, and PDE1C1 correlate with these functional endpoints in young but not old rats, suggesting that aging is not only associated with a change in PDE expression but also a change in PDE compartmentalization.
|Histone H3.3 and its proteolytically processed form drive a cellular senescence programme.|
Duarte, LF; Young, AR; Wang, Z; Wu, HA; Panda, T; Kou, Y; Kapoor, A; Hasson, D; Mills, NR; Ma'ayan, A; Narita, M; Bernstein, E
Nature communications 5 5210 2014
The process of cellular senescence generates a repressive chromatin environment, however, the role of histone variants and histone proteolytic cleavage in senescence remains unclear. Here, using models of oncogene-induced and replicative senescence, we report novel histone H3 tail cleavage events mediated by the protease Cathepsin L. We find that cleaved forms of H3 are nucleosomal and the histone variant H3.3 is the preferred cleaved form of H3. Ectopic expression of H3.3 and its cleavage product (H3.3cs1), which lacks the first 21 amino acids of the H3 tail, is sufficient to induce senescence. Further, H3.3cs1 chromatin incorporation is mediated by the HUCA histone chaperone complex. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling revealed that H3.3cs1 facilitates transcriptional silencing of cell cycle regulators including RB/E2F target genes, likely via the permanent removal of H3K4me3. Collectively, our study identifies histone H3.3 and its proteolytically processed forms as key regulators of cellular senescence.
|Global effects of the CSR-1 RNA interference pathway on the transcriptional landscape.|
Cecere, G; Hoersch, S; O'Keeffe, S; Sachidanandam, R; Grishok, A
Nature structural & molecular biology 21 358-65 2014
Argonaute proteins and their small RNA cofactors short interfering RNAs are known to inhibit gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the Argonaute CSR-1 binds thousands of endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) that are antisense to germline transcripts. However, its role in gene expression regulation remains controversial. Here we used genome-wide profiling of nascent RNA transcripts and found that the CSR-1 RNA interference pathway promoted sense-oriented RNA polymerase II transcription. Moreover, a loss of CSR-1 function resulted in global increase in antisense transcription and ectopic transcription of silent chromatin domains, which led to reduced chromatin incorporation of centromere-specific histone H3. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the CSR-1 pathway helps maintain the directionality of active transcription, thereby propagating the distinction between transcriptionally active and silent genomic regions.
|ATM increases activation-induced cytidine deaminase activity at downstream S regions during class-switch recombination.|
Khair, L; Guikema, JE; Linehan, EK; Ucher, AJ; Leus, NG; Ogilvie, C; Lou, Z; Schrader, CE; Stavnezer, J
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 192 4887-96 2014
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates Ab class-switch recombination (CSR) in activated B cells resulting in exchanging the IgH C region and improved Ab effector function. During CSR, AID instigates DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation in switch (S) regions located upstream of C region genes. DSBs are necessary for CSR, but improper regulation of DSBs can lead to chromosomal translocations that can result in B cell lymphoma. The protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is an important proximal regulator of the DNA damage response (DDR), and translocations involving S regions are increased in its absence. ATM phosphorylates H2AX, which recruits other DNA damage response (DDR) proteins, including mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (Mdc1) and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), to sites of DNA damage. As these DDR proteins all function to promote repair and recombination of DSBs during CSR, we examined whether mouse splenic B cells deficient in these proteins would show alterations in S region DSBs when undergoing CSR. We find that in atm(-/-) cells Sμ DSBs are increased, whereas DSBs in downstream Sγ regions are decreased. We also find that mutations in the unrearranged Sγ3 segment are reduced in atm(-/-) cells. Our data suggest that ATM increases AID targeting and activity at downstream acceptor S regions during CSR and that in atm(-/-) cells Sμ DSBs accumulate as they lack a recombination partner.
|Vascular histone deacetylation by pharmacological HDAC inhibition.|
Rafehi, H; Balcerczyk, A; Lunke, S; Kaspi, A; Ziemann, M; Kn, H; Okabe, J; Khurana, I; Ooi, J; Khan, AW; Du, XJ; Chang, L; Haviv, I; Keating, ST; Karagiannis, TC; El-Osta, A
Genome research 24 1271-84 2014
HDAC inhibitors can regulate gene expression by post-translational modification of histone as well as nonhistone proteins. Often studied at single loci, increased histone acetylation is the paradigmatic mechanism of action. However, little is known of the extent of genome-wide changes in cells stimulated by the hydroxamic acids, TSA and SAHA. In this article, we map vascular chromatin modifications including histone H3 acetylation of lysine 9 and 14 (H3K9/14ac) using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq). Since acetylation-mediated gene expression is often associated with modification of other lysine residues, we also examined H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 as well as changes in CpG methylation (CpG-seq). RNA sequencing indicates the differential expression of ∼30% of genes, with almost equal numbers being up- and down-regulated. We observed broad deacetylation and gene expression changes conferred by TSA and SAHA mediated by the loss of EP300/CREBBP binding at multiple gene promoters. This study provides an important framework for HDAC inhibitor function in vascular biology and a comprehensive description of genome-wide deacetylation by pharmacological HDAC inhibition.
|Modularized functions of the Fanconi anemia core complex.|
Huang, Y; Leung, JW; Lowery, M; Matsushita, N; Wang, Y; Shen, X; Huong, D; Takata, M; Chen, J; Li, L
Cell reports 7 1849-57 2014
The Fanconi anemia (FA) core complex provides the essential E3 ligase function for spatially defined FANCD2 ubiquitination and FA pathway activation. Of the seven FA gene products forming the core complex, FANCL possesses a RING domain with demonstrated E3 ligase activity. The other six components do not have clearly defined roles. Through epistasis analyses, we identify three functional modules in the FA core complex: a catalytic module consisting of FANCL, FANCB, and FAAP100 is absolutely required for the E3 ligase function, and the FANCA-FANCG-FAAP20 and the FANCC-FANCE-FANCF modules provide nonredundant and ancillary functions that help the catalytic module bind chromatin or sites of DNA damage. Disruption of the catalytic module causes complete loss of the core complex function, whereas loss of any ancillary module component does not. Our work reveals the roles of several FA gene products with previously undefined functions and a modularized assembly of the FA core complex.
|A gnotobiotic mouse model demonstrates that dietary fiber protects against colorectal tumorigenesis in a microbiota- and butyrate-dependent manner.|
Donohoe, DR; Holley, D; Collins, LB; Montgomery, SA; Whitmore, AC; Hillhouse, A; Curry, KP; Renner, SW; Greenwalt, A; Ryan, EP; Godfrey, V; Heise, MT; Threadgill, DS; Han, A; Swenberg, JA; Threadgill, DW; Bultman, SJ
Cancer discovery 4 1387-97 2014
Whether dietary fiber protects against colorectal cancer is controversial because of conflicting results from human epidemiologic studies. However, these studies and mouse models of colorectal cancer have not controlled the composition of gut microbiota, which ferment fiber into short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate. Butyrate is noteworthy because it has energetic and epigenetic functions in colonocytes and tumor-suppressive properties in colorectal cancer cell lines. We used gnotobiotic mouse models colonized with wild-type or mutant strains of a butyrate-producing bacterium to demonstrate that fiber does have a potent tumor-suppressive effect but in a microbiota- and butyrate-dependent manner. Furthermore, due to the Warburg effect, butyrate was metabolized less in tumors where it accumulated and functioned as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor to stimulate histone acetylation and affect apoptosis and cell proliferation. To support the relevance of this mechanism in human cancer, we demonstrate that butyrate and histone-acetylation levels are elevated in colorectal adenocarcinomas compared with normal colonic tissues.These results, which link diet and microbiota to a tumor-suppressive metabolite, provide insight into conflicting epidemiologic findings and suggest that probiotic/prebiotic strategies can modulate an endogenous HDAC inhibitor for anticancer chemoprevention without the adverse effects associated with synthetic HDAC inhibitors used in chemotherapy.