Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Ch, H, M, R, Yeast (S. cerevisiae)||WB, ChIP||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Rabbit antiserum diluted 1:2 in storage buffer (0.02 M Phosphate, 0.25 M NaCl, 0.1% sodium azide) before the addition of glycerol to 30%.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Anti-Histone H3 Antibody, CT, pan SDS
|Anti-Histone H3, CT, pan||3068449|
|Anti-Histone H3, CT, pan - 2116018||2116018|
|Anti-Histone H3, CT, pan - 2154187||2154187|
|Anti-Histone H3, CT, pan - 2424672||2424672|
|Anti-Histone H3, CT, pan - 0702052444||0702052444|
|Anti-Histone H3, CT, pan - 2019743||2019743|
|Anti-Histone H3, CT, pan - 2073784||2073784|
|Anti-Histone H3, CT, pan - 2243499||2243499|
|Anti-Histone H3, CT, pan - 2296698||2296698|
|Anti-Histone H3, CT, pan - 30374||30374|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Spatiotemporal cascade of transcription factor binding required for promoter activation.|
Yarrington, RM; Rudd, JS; Stillman, DJ
Molecular and cellular biology 35 688-98 2015
Promoters often contain multiple binding sites for a single factor. The yeast HO gene contains nine highly conserved binding sites for the SCB (Swi4/6-dependent cell cycle box) binding factor (SBF) complex (composed of Swi4 and Swi6) in the 700-bp upstream regulatory sequence 2 (URS2) promoter region. Here, we show that the distal and proximal SBF sites in URS2 function differently. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments show that SBF binds preferentially to the left side of URS2 (URS2-L), despite equivalent binding to the left-half and right-half SBF sites in vitro. SBF binding at URS2-L sites depends on prior chromatin remodeling events at the upstream URS1 region. These signals from URS1 influence chromatin changes at URS2 but only at sites within a defined distance. SBF bound at URS2-L, however, is unable to activate transcription but instead facilitates SBF binding to sites in the right half (URS2-R), which are required for transcriptional activation. Factor binding at HO, therefore, follows a temporal cascade, with SBF bound at URS2-L serving to relay a signal from URS1 to the SBF sites in URS2-R that ultimately activate gene expression. Taken together, we describe a novel property of a transcription factor that can have two distinct roles in gene activation, depending on its location within a promoter.
|Parallel action of AtDRB2 and RdDM in the control of transposable element expression.|
Clavel, M; Pélissier, T; Descombin, J; Jean, V; Picart, C; Charbonel, C; Saez-Vásquez, J; Bousquet-Antonelli, C; Deragon, JM
BMC plant biology 15 70 2015
In plants and animals, a large number of double-stranded RNA binding proteins (DRBs) have been shown to act as non-catalytic cofactors of DICERs and to participate in the biogenesis of small RNAs involved in RNA silencing. We have previously shown that the loss of Arabidopsis thaliana's DRB2 protein results in a significant increase in the population of RNA polymerase IV (p4) dependent siRNAs, which are involved in the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) process.Surprisingly, despite this observation, we show in this work that DRB2 is part of a high molecular weight complex that does not involve RdDM actors but several chromatin regulator proteins, such as MSI4, PRMT4B and HDA19. We show that DRB2 can bind transposable element (TE) transcripts in vivo but that drb2 mutants do not have a significant variation in TE DNA methylation.We propose that DRB2 is part of a repressive epigenetic regulator complex involved in a negative feedback loop, adjusting epigenetic state to transcription level at TE loci, in parallel of the RdDM pathway. Loss of DRB2 would mainly result in an increased production of TE transcripts, readily converted in p4-siRNAs by the RdDM machinery.
|An integrative analysis of post-translational histone modifications in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.|
Veluchamy, A; Rastogi, A; Lin, X; Lombard, B; Murik, O; Thomas, Y; Dingli, F; Rivarola, M; Ott, S; Liu, X; Sun, Y; Rabinowicz, PD; McCarthy, J; Allen, AE; Loew, D; Bowler, C; Tirichine, L
Genome biology 16 102 2015
Nucleosomes are the building blocks of chromatin where gene regulation takes place. Chromatin landscapes have been profiled for several species, providing insights into the fundamental mechanisms of chromatin-mediated transcriptional regulation of gene expression. However, knowledge is missing for several major and deep-branching eukaryotic groups, such as the Stramenopiles, which include the diatoms. Diatoms are highly diverse and ubiquitous species of phytoplankton that play a key role in global biogeochemical cycles. Dissecting chromatin-mediated regulation of genes in diatoms will help understand the ecological success of these organisms in contemporary oceans.Here, we use high resolution mass spectrometry to identify a full repertoire of post-translational modifications on histones of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, including eight novel modifications. We map five histone marks coupled with expression data and show that P. tricornutum displays both unique and broadly conserved chromatin features, reflecting the chimeric nature of its genome. Combinatorial analysis of histone marks and DNA methylation demonstrates the presence of an epigenetic code defining activating or repressive chromatin states. We further profile three specific histone marks under conditions of nitrate depletion and show that the histone code is dynamic and targets specific sets of genes.This study is the first genome-wide characterization of the histone code from a stramenopile and a marine phytoplankton. The work represents an important initial step for understanding the evolutionary history of chromatin and how epigenetic modifications affect gene expression in response to environmental cues in marine environments.
|Mutant IDH1 Dysregulates the Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Association with Gene-Specific Histone Modifications to Cartilage- and Bone-Related Genes.|
Jin, Y; Elalaf, H; Watanabe, M; Tamaki, S; Hineno, S; Matsunaga, K; Woltjen, K; Kobayashi, Y; Nagata, S; Ikeya, M; Kato, T; Okamoto, T; Matsuda, S; Toguchida, J
PloS one 10 e0131998 2015
Somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1/2 genes endow encoding proteins with neomorphic activity to produce the potential oncometabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), which induces the hypermethylation of histones and DNA. The incidence of IDH1/2 mutations in cartilaginous tumors was previously shown to be the highest among various types of tumors, except for those in the central nervous system. Mutations have been detected in both benign (enchondromas) and malignant (chondrosarcomas) types of cartilaginous tumors, whereas they have rarely been found in other mesenchymal tumors such as osteosarcomas. To address this unique tumor specificity, we herein examined the effects of IDH1 R132C, which is the most prevalent mutant in cartilaginous tumors, on the differentiation properties of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The induction of the IDH1 R132C gene into MSCs markedly increased the amount of 2-HG and up-regulated global histone methylation. The induction of IDH1 R132C promoted the chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs by enhancing the expression of SOX9 and COL2A1 genes in association with an increase in the active mark (H3K4me3), but disrupted cartilage matrix formation. On the other hand, IDH1 R132C inhibited expression of the ALPL gene in association with an increase in the repressive mark (H3K9me3), and subsequently inhibited the osteogenic properties of hMSCs and human osteosarcoma cells. Since osteogenic properties are an indispensable feature for the diagnosis of osteosarcoma, the inhibitory effects of IDH1 R132C on osteogenic properties may contribute to the lack of osteosarcomas with the IDH1 R132C mutation. These results suggested that IDH1 R132C contributed to the formation of cartilaginous tumors by dysregulating the chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs via gene-specific histone modulation.
|Analysis of Histones H3 and H4 Reveals Novel and Conserved Post-Translational Modifications in Sugarcane.|
Moraes, I; Yuan, ZF; Liu, S; Souza, GM; Garcia, BA; Casas-Mollano, JA
PloS one 10 e0134586 2015
Histones are the main structural components of the nucleosome, hence targets of many regulatory proteins that mediate processes involving changes in chromatin. The functional outcome of many pathways is "written" in the histones in the form of post-translational modifications that determine the final gene expression readout. As a result, modifications, alone or in combination, are important determinants of chromatin states. Histone modifications are accomplished by the addition of different chemical groups such as methyl, acetyl and phosphate. Thus, identifying and characterizing these modifications and the proteins related to them is the initial step to understanding the mechanisms of gene regulation and in the future may even provide tools for breeding programs. Several studies over the past years have contributed to increase our knowledge of epigenetic gene regulation in model organisms like Arabidopsis, yet this field remains relatively unexplored in crops. In this study we identified and initially characterized histones H3 and H4 in the monocot crop sugarcane. We discovered a number of histone genes by searching the sugarcane ESTs database. The proteins encoded correspond to canonical histones, and their variants. We also purified bulk histones and used them to map post-translational modifications in the histones H3 and H4 using mass spectrometry. Several modifications conserved in other plants, and also novel modified residues, were identified. In particular, we report O-acetylation of serine, threonine and tyrosine, a recently identified modification conserved in several eukaryotes. Additionally, the sub-nuclear localization of some well-studied modifications (i.e., H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K27me3, H3K9ac, H3T3ph) is described and compared to other plant species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of histones H3 and H4 as well as their post-translational modifications in sugarcane, and will provide a starting point for the study of chromatin regulation in this crop.
|Rationale for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in combination therapy with camptothecins or temozolomide based on PARP trapping versus catalytic inhibition.|
Murai, J; Zhang, Y; Morris, J; Ji, J; Takeda, S; Doroshow, JH; Pommier, Y
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 349 408-16 2014
We recently showed that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors exert their cytotoxicity primarily by trapping PARP-DNA complexes in addition to their NAD(+)-competitive catalytic inhibitory mechanism. PARP trapping is drug-specific, with olaparib exhibiting a greater ability than veliparib, whereas both compounds are potent catalytic PARP inhibitors. Here, we evaluated the combination of olaparib or veliparib with therapeutically relevant DNA-targeted drugs, including the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin, the alkylating agent temozolomide, the cross-linking agent cisplatin, and the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide at the cellular and molecular levels. We determined PARP-DNA trapping and catalytic PARP inhibition in genetically modified chicken lymphoma DT40, human prostate DU145, and glioblastoma SF295 cancer cells. For camptothecin, both PARP inhibitors showed highly synergistic effects due to catalytic PARP inhibition, indicating the value of combining either veliparib or olaparib with topoisomerase I inhibitors. On the other hand, for temozolomide, PARP trapping was critical in addition to catalytic inhibition, consistent with the fact that olaparib was more effective than veliparib in combination with temozolomide. For cisplatin and etoposide, olaparib only showed no or a weak combination effect, which is consistent with the lack of involvement of PARP in the repair of cisplatin- and etoposide-induced lesions. Hence, we conclude that catalytic PARP inhibitors are highly effective in combination with camptothecins, whereas PARP inhibitors capable of PARP trapping are more effective with temozolomide. Our study provides insights in combination treatment rationales for different PARP inhibitors.
|Low-dose formaldehyde delays DNA damage recognition and DNA excision repair in human cells.|
Luch, A; Frey, FC; Meier, R; Fei, J; Naegeli, H
PloS one 9 e94149 2014
Formaldehyde is still widely employed as a universal crosslinking agent, preservative and disinfectant, despite its proven carcinogenicity in occupationally exposed workers. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the possible impact of low-dose formaldehyde exposures in the general population. Due to the concomitant occurrence of multiple indoor and outdoor toxicants, we tested how formaldehyde, at micromolar concentrations, interferes with general DNA damage recognition and excision processes that remove some of the most frequently inflicted DNA lesions.The overall mobility of the DNA damage sensors UV-DDB (ultraviolet-damaged DNA-binding) and XPC (xeroderma pigmentosum group C) was analyzed by assessing real-time protein dynamics in the nucleus of cultured human cells exposed to non-cytotoxic (less than 100 μM) formaldehyde concentrations. The DNA lesion-specific recruitment of these damage sensors was tested by monitoring their accumulation at local irradiation spots. DNA repair activity was determined in host-cell reactivation assays and, more directly, by measuring the excision of DNA lesions from chromosomes. Taken together, these assays demonstrated that formaldehyde obstructs the rapid nuclear trafficking of DNA damage sensors and, consequently, slows down their relocation to DNA damage sites thus delaying the excision repair of target lesions. A concentration-dependent effect relationship established a threshold concentration of as low as 25 micromolar for the inhibition of DNA excision repair.A main implication of the retarded repair activity is that low-dose formaldehyde may exert an adjuvant role in carcinogenesis by impeding the excision of multiple mutagenic base lesions. In view of this generally disruptive effect on DNA repair, we propose that formaldehyde exposures in the general population should be further decreased to help reducing cancer risks.
|Nuclear AXIN2 represses MYC gene expression.|
Rennoll, SA; Konsavage, WM; Yochum, GS
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 443 217-22 2014
The β-catenin transcriptional coactivator is the key mediator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, β-catenin associates with a cytosolic and multi-protein destruction complex where it is phosphorylated and targeted for proteasomal degradation. In the presence of Wnt, the destruction complex is inactivated and β-catenin translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, β-catenin binds T-cell factor (TCF) transcription factors to activate expression of c-MYC (MYC) and Axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2). AXIN2 is a member of the destruction complex and, thus, serves in a negative feedback loop to control Wnt/β-catenin signaling. AXIN2 is also present in the nucleus, but its function within this compartment is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AXIN2 localizes to the nuclei of epithelial cells within normal and colonic tumor tissues as well as colorectal cancer cell lines. In the nucleus, AXIN2 represses expression of Wnt/β-catenin-responsive luciferase reporters and forms a complex with β-catenin and TCF. We demonstrate that AXIN2 co-occupies β-catenin/TCF complexes at the MYC promoter region. When constitutively localized to the nucleus, AXIN2 alters the chromatin structure at the MYC promoter and directly represses MYC gene expression. These findings suggest that nuclear AXIN2 functions as a rheostat to control MYC expression in response to Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
|Hypoxic preconditioning differentially affects GABAergic and glutamatergic neuronal cells in the injured cerebellum of the neonatal rat.|
Benitez, SG; Castro, AE; Patterson, SI; Muñoz, EM; Seltzer, AM
PloS one 9 e102056 2014
In this study we examined cerebellar alterations in a neonatal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury with or without hypoxic preconditioning (Pc). Between postnatal days 7 and 15, the cerebellum is still undergoing intense cellular proliferation, differentiation and migration, dendritogenesis and synaptogenesis. The expression of glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD67) and the differentiation factor NeuroD1 were examined as markers of Purkinje and granule cells, respectively. We applied quantitative immunohistochemistry to sagittal cerebellar slices, and Western blot analysis of whole cerebella obtained from control (C) rats and rats submitted to Pc, hypoxia-ischemia (L) and a combination of both treatments (PcL). We found that either hypoxia-ischemia or Pc perturbed the granule cells in the posterior lobes, affecting their migration and final placement in the internal granular layer. These effects were partially attenuated when the Pc was delivered prior to the hypoxia-ischemia. Interestingly, whole nuclear NeuroD1 levels in Pc animals were comparable to those in the C rats. However, a subset of Purkinje cells that were severely affected by the hypoxic-ischemic insult--showing signs of neuronal distress at the levels of the nucleus, cytoplasm and dendritic arborization--were not protected by Pc. A monoclonal antibody specific for GAD67 revealed a three-band pattern in cytoplasmic extracts from whole P15 cerebella. A ∼110 kDa band, interpreted as a potential homodimer of a truncated form of GAD67, was reduced in Pc and L groups while its levels were close to the control animals in PcL rats. Additionally we demonstrated differential glial responses depending on the treatment, including astrogliosis in hypoxiated cerebella and a selective effect of hypoxia-ischemia on the vimentin-immunolabeled intermediate filaments of the Bergmann glia. Thus, while both glutamatergic and GABAergic cerebellar neurons are compromised by the hypoxic-ischemic insult, the former are protected by a preconditioning hypoxia while the latter are not.
|Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is required to modulate chromatin changes at c-MYC promoter during emergence from quiescence.|
Mostocotto, C; Carbone, M; Battistelli, C; Ciotti, A; Amati, P; Maione, R
PloS one 9 e102575 2014
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of various proteins and participates in the regulation of chromatin structure and transcription through complex mechanisms not completely understood. We have previously shown that PARP-1, the major family member of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerases, plays an important role in the cell cycle reactivation of resting cells by regulating the expression of Immediate Early Response Genes, such as c-MYC, c-FOS, JUNB and EGR-1. In the present work we have investigated the molecular mechanisms by which the enzyme induces c-MYC transcription upon serum stimulation of quiescent cells. We show that PARP-1 is constitutively associated in vivo to a c-MYC promoter region recognized as biologically relevant for the transcriptional regulation of the gene. Moreover, we report that serum stimulation causes the prompt accumulation of ADP-ribose polymers on the same region and that this modification is required for chromatin decondensation and for the exchange of negative for positive transcriptional regulators. Finally we provide evidence that the inhibition of PARP activity along with serum stimulation impairs c-MYC induction by preventing the proper accumulation of histone H3 phosphoacetylation, a specific chromatin mark for the activation of Immediate Early Response Genes. These findings not only suggest a novel strategy by which PARP-1 regulates the transcriptional activity of promoters but also provide new information about the complex regulation of c-MYC expression, a critical determinant of the transition from quiescence to proliferation.