Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Ch, H||WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||200 µg|
Anti-Histone H2B Antibody SDS
|Anti-Histone H2B - 2446908||2446908|
|Anti-Histone H2B - 1962653||1962653|
|Anti-Histone H2B - 1993924||1993924|
|Anti-Histone H2B - 2073135||2073135|
|Anti-Histone H2B - 2187223||2187223|
|Anti-Histone H2B - 22442||22442|
|Anti-Histone H2B - 2295659||2295659|
|Anti-Histone H2B - 27514||27514|
|Anti-Histone H2B - 30216||30216|
|Anti-Histone H2B - 3198456||3198456|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|The EBNA3 family of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear proteins associates with the USP46/USP12 deubiquitination complexes to regulate lymphoblastoid cell line growth.|
Ohashi, M; Holthaus, AM; Calderwood, MA; Lai, CY; Krastins, B; Sarracino, D; Johannsen, E
PLoS pathogens 11 e1004822 2015
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear proteins EBNA3A, EBNA3B, and EBNA3C interact with the cell DNA binding protein RBPJ and regulate cell and viral genes. Repression of the CDKN2A tumor suppressor gene products p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF) by EBNA3A and EBNA3C is critical for EBV mediated transformation of resting B lymphocytes into immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). To define the composition of endogenous EBNA3 protein complexes, we generated lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) expressing flag-HA tagged EBNA3A, EBNA3B, or EBNA3C and used tandem affinity purification to isolate each EBNA3 complex. Our results demonstrated that each EBNA3 protein forms a distinct complex with RBPJ. Mass-spectrometry revealed that the EBNA3A and EBNA3B complexes also contained the deubquitylation complex consisting of WDR48, WDR20, and USP46 (or its paralog USP12) and that EBNA3C complexes contained WDR48. Immunoprecipitation confirmed that EBNA3A, EBNA3B, and EBNA3C association with the USP46 complex. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that WDR48 and USP46 are recruited to the p14(ARF) promoter in an EBNA3C dependent manner. Mapping studies were consistent with WDR48 being the primary mediator of EBNA3 association with the DUB complex. By ChIP assay, WDR48 was recruited to the p14(ARF) promoter in an EBNA3C dependent manner. Importantly, WDR48 associated with EBNA3A and EBNA3C domains that are critical for LCL growth, suggesting a role for USP46/USP12 in EBV induced growth transformation.
|The Mi-2 homolog Mit1 actively positions nucleosomes within heterochromatin to suppress transcription.|
Creamer, KM; Job, G; Shanker, S; Neale, GA; Lin, YC; Bartholomew, B; Partridge, JF
Molecular and cellular biology 34 2046-61 2014
Mit1 is the putative chromatin remodeling subunit of the fission yeast Snf2/histone deacetylase (HDAC) repressor complex (SHREC) and is known to repress transcription at regions of heterochromatin. However, how Mit1 modifies chromatin to silence transcription is largely unknown. Here we report that Mit1 mobilizes histone octamers in vitro and requires ATP hydrolysis and conserved chromatin tethering domains, including a previously unrecognized chromodomain, to remodel nucleosomes and silence transcription. Loss of Mit1 remodeling activity results in nucleosome depletion at specific DNA sequences that display low intrinsic affinity for the histone octamer, but its contribution to antagonizing RNA polymerase II (Pol II) access and transcription is not restricted to these sites. Genetic epistasis analyses demonstrate that SHREC subunits and the transcription-coupled Set2 histone methyltransferase, which is involved in suppression of cryptic transcription at actively transcribed regions, cooperate to silence heterochromatic transcripts. In addition, we have demonstrated that Mit1's remodeling activity contributes to SHREC function independently of Clr3's histone deacetylase activity on histone H3 K14. We propose that Mit1 is a chromatin remodeling factor that cooperates with the Clr3 histone deacetylase of SHREC and other chromatin modifiers to stabilize heterochromatin structure and to prevent access to the transcriptional machinery.
|TAp73 is essential for germ cell adhesion and maturation in testis.|
Holembowski, L; Kramer, D; Riedel, D; Sordella, R; Nemajerova, A; Dobbelstein, M; Moll, UM
The Journal of cell biology 204 1173-90 2014
A core evolutionary function of the p53 family is to protect the genomic integrity of gametes. However, the role of p73 in the male germ line is unknown. Here, we reveal that TAp73 unexpectedly functions as an adhesion and maturation factor of the seminiferous epithelium orchestrating spermiogenesis. TAp73 knockout (TAp73KO) and p73KO mice, but not ΔNp73KO mice, display a "near-empty seminiferous tubule" phenotype due to massive premature loss of immature germ cells. The cellular basis of this phenotype is defective cell-cell adhesions of developing germ cells to Sertoli nurse cells, with likely secondary degeneration of Sertoli cells, including the blood-testis barrier, which leads to disruption of the adhesive integrity and maturation of the germ epithelium. At the molecular level, TAp73, which is produced in germ cells, controls a coordinated transcriptional program of adhesion- and migration-related proteins including peptidase inhibitors, proteases, receptors, and integrins required for germ-Sertoli cell adhesion and dynamic junctional restructuring. Thus, we propose the testis as a unique organ with strict division of labor among all family members: p63 and p53 safeguard germ line fidelity, whereas TAp73 ensures fertility by enabling sperm maturation.
|Active, phosphorylated fingolimod inhibits histone deacetylases and facilitates fear extinction memory.|
Hait, NC; Wise, LE; Allegood, JC; O'Brien, M; Avni, D; Reeves, TM; Knapp, PE; Lu, J; Luo, C; Miles, MF; Milstien, S; Lichtman, AH; Spiegel, S
Nature neuroscience 17 971-80 2014
FTY720 (fingolimod), an FDA-approved drug for treatment of multiple sclerosis, has beneficial effects in the CNS that are not yet well understood, independent of its effects on immune cell trafficking. We show that FTY720 enters the nucleus, where it is phosphorylated by sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2), and that nuclear FTY720-P binds and inhibits class I histone deacetylases (HDACs), enhancing specific histone acetylations. FTY720 is also phosphorylated in mice and accumulates in the brain, including the hippocampus, inhibits HDACs and enhances histone acetylation and gene expression programs associated with memory and learning, and rescues memory deficits independently of its immunosuppressive actions. Sphk2(-/-) mice have lower levels of hippocampal sphingosine-1-phosphate, an endogenous HDAC inhibitor, and reduced histone acetylation, and display deficits in spatial memory and impaired contextual fear extinction. Thus, sphingosine-1-phosphate and SphK2 play specific roles in memory functions and FTY720 may be a useful adjuvant therapy to facilitate extinction of aversive memories.
|Cotranscriptional histone H2B monoubiquitylation is tightly coupled with RNA polymerase II elongation rate.|
Fuchs, G; Hollander, D; Voichek, Y; Ast, G; Oren, M
Genome research 24 1572-83 2014
Various histone modifications decorate nucleosomes within transcribed genes. Among these, monoubiquitylation of histone H2B (H2Bub1) and methylation of histone H3 on lysines 36 (H3K36me2/3) and 79 (H3K79me2/3) correlate positively with gene expression. By measuring the progression of the transcriptional machinery along genes within live cells, we now report that H2B monoubiquitylation occurs cotranscriptionally and accurately reflects the advance of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). In contrast, H3K36me3 and H3K79me2 are less dynamic and represent Pol II movement less faithfully. High-resolution ChIP-seq reveals that H2Bub1 levels are selectively reduced at exons and decrease in an exon-dependent stepwise manner toward the 3' end of genes. Exonic depletion of H2Bub1 in gene bodies is highly correlated with Pol II pausing at exons, suggesting elongation rate changes associated with intron-exon structure. In support of this notion, H2Bub1 levels were found to be significantly correlated with transcription elongation rates measured in various cell lines. Overall, our data shed light on the organization of H2Bub1 within transcribed genes and single out H2Bub1 as a reliable marker for ongoing transcription elongation.
|A human artificial chromosome recapitulates the metabolism of native telomeres in mammalian cells.|
Wakai, M; Abe, S; Kazuki, Y; Oshimura, M; Ishikawa, F
PloS one 9 e88530 2014
Telomeric and subtelomeric regions of human chromosomes largely consist of highly repetitive and redundant DNA sequences, resulting in a paucity of unique DNA sequences specific to individual telomeres. Accordingly, it is difficult to analyze telomere metabolism on a single-telomere basis. To circumvent this problem, we have exploited a human artificial chromosome (HAC#21) derived from human chromosome 21 (hChr21). HAC#21 was generated through truncation of the long arm of native hChr21 by the targeted telomere seeding technique. The newly established telomere of HAC#21 lacks canonical subtelomere structures but possesses unique sequences derived from the target vector backbone and the internal region of hChr21 used for telomere targeting, which enabled us to molecularly characterize the single HAC telomere. We established HeLa and NIH-3T3 sub-lines containing a single copy of HAC#21, where it was robustly maintained. The seeded telomere is associated with telomeric proteins over a length similar to that reported in native telomeres, and is faithfully replicated in mid-S phase in HeLa cells. We found that the seeded telomere on HAC#21 is transcribed from the newly juxtaposed site. The transcript, HAC-telRNA, shares several features with TERRA (telomeric repeat-containing RNA): it is a short-lived RNA polymerase II transcript, rarely contains a poly(A) tail, and associates with chromatin. Interestingly, HAC-telRNA undergoes splicing. These results suggest that transcription into TERRA is locally influenced by the subtelomeric context. Taken together, we have established human and mouse cell lines that will be useful for analyzing the behavior of a uniquely identifiable, functional telomere.
|Nucleolar integrity is required for the maintenance of long-term synaptic plasticity.|
Allen, KD; Gourov, AV; Harte, C; Gao, P; Lee, C; Sylvain, D; Splett, JM; Oxberry, WC; van de Nes, PS; Troy-Regier, MJ; Wolk, J; Alarcon, JM; Hernández, AI
PloS one 9 e104364 2014
Long-term memory (LTM) formation requires new protein synthesis and new gene expression. Based on our work in Aplysia, we hypothesized that the rRNA genes, stimulation-dependent targets of the enzyme Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), are primary effectors of the activity-dependent changes in synaptic function that maintain synaptic plasticity and memory. Using electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, pharmacology and molecular biology techniques, we show here, for the first time, that the maintenance of forskolin-induced late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in mouse hippocampal slices requires nucleolar integrity and the expression of new rRNAs. The activity-dependent upregulation of rRNA, as well as L-LTP expression, are poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PAR) dependent and accompanied by an increase in nuclear PARP-1 and Poly(ADP) ribose molecules (pADPr) after forskolin stimulation. The upregulation of PARP-1 and pADPr is regulated by Protein kinase A (PKA) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)--two kinases strongly associated with long-term plasticity and learning and memory. Selective inhibition of RNA Polymerase I (Pol I), responsible for the synthesis of precursor rRNA, results in the segmentation of nucleoli, the exclusion of PARP-1 from functional nucleolar compartments and disrupted L-LTP maintenance. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that new rRNAs (28S, 18S, and 5.8S ribosomal components)--hence, new ribosomes and nucleoli integrity--are required for the maintenance of long-term synaptic plasticity. This provides a mechanistic link between stimulation-dependent gene expression and the new protein synthesis known to be required for memory consolidation.
|dRYBP counteracts chromatin-dependent activation and repression of transcription.|
Fereres, S; Simón, R; Mohd-Sarip, A; Verrijzer, CP; Busturia, A
PloS one 9 e113255 2014
Chromatin dependent activation and repression of transcription is regulated by the histone modifying enzymatic activities of the trithorax (trxG) and Polycomb (PcG) proteins. To investigate the mechanisms underlying their mutual antagonistic activities we analyzed the function of Drosophila dRYBP, a conserved PcG- and trxG-associated protein. We show that dRYBP is itself ubiquitylated and binds ubiquitylated proteins. Additionally we show that dRYBP maintains H2A monoubiquitylation, H3K4 monomethylation and H3K36 dimethylation levels and does not affect H3K27 trimethylation levels. Further we show that dRYBP interacts with the repressive SCE and dKDM2 proteins as well as the activating dBRE1 protein. Analysis of homeotic phenotypes and post-translationally modified histones levels show that dRYBP antagonizes dKDM2 and dBRE1 functions by respectively preventing H3K36me2 demethylation and H2B monoubiquitylation. Interestingly, our results show that inactivation of dBRE1 produces trithorax-like related homeotic transformations, suggesting that dBRE1 functions in the regulation of homeotic genes expression. Our findings indicate that dRYBP regulates morphogenesis by counteracting transcriptional repression and activation. Thus, they suggest that dRYBP may participate in the epigenetic plasticity important during normal and pathological development.
|The PAF complex and Prf1/Rtf1 delineate distinct Cdk9-dependent pathways regulating transcription elongation in fission yeast.|
Mbogning, J; Nagy, S; Pagé, V; Schwer, B; Shuman, S; Fisher, RP; Tanny, JC
PLoS genetics 9 e1004029 2013
Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (Cdk9) promotes elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), mRNA processing, and co-transcriptional histone modification. Cdk9 phosphorylates multiple targets, including the conserved RNAPII elongation factor Spt5 and RNAPII itself, but how these different modifications mediate Cdk9 functions is not known. Here we describe two Cdk9-dependent pathways in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe that involve distinct targets and elicit distinct biological outcomes. Phosphorylation of Spt5 by Cdk9 creates a direct binding site for Prf1/Rtf1, a transcription regulator with functional and physical links to the Polymerase Associated Factor (PAF) complex. PAF association with chromatin is also dependent on Cdk9 but involves alternate phosphoacceptor targets. Prf1 and PAF are biochemically separate in cell extracts, and genetic analyses show that Prf1 and PAF are functionally distinct and exert opposing effects on the RNAPII elongation complex. We propose that this opposition constitutes a Cdk9 auto-regulatory mechanism, such that a positive effect on elongation, driven by the PAF pathway, is kept in check by a negative effect of Prf1/Rtf1 and downstream mono-ubiquitylation of histone H2B. Thus, optimal RNAPII elongation may require balanced action of functionally distinct Cdk9 pathways.
|Human CAF-1-dependent nucleosome assembly in a defined system.|
Kadyrova, LY; Rodriges Blanko, E; Kadyrov, FA
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12 3286-97 2013
Replication-coupled nucleosome assembly is a critical step in packaging newly synthesized DNA into chromatin. Previous studies have defined the importance of the histone chaperones CAF-1 and ASF1A, the replicative clamp PCNA, and the clamp loader RFC for the assembly of nucleosomes during DNA replication. Despite significant progress in the field, replication-coupled nucleosome assembly is not well understood. One of the complications in elucidating the mechanisms of replication-coupled nucleosome assembly is the lack of a defined system that faithfully recapitulates this important biological process in vitro. We describe here a defined system that assembles nucleosomal arrays in a manner dependent on the presence of CAF-1, ASF1A-H3-H4, H2A-H2B, PCNA, RFC, NAP1L1, ATP, and strand breaks. The loss of CAF-1 p48 subunit causes a strong defect in packaging DNA into nucleosomes by this system. We also show that the defined system forms nucleosomes on nascent DNA synthesized by the replicative polymerase δ. Thus, the developed system reproduces several key features of replication-coupled nucleosome assembly.
|White Paper - The Message in the Marks: Deciphering Cancer Epigenetics (EMD)|