|Replacement Information||05-904 is a recommended replacement for 07-221|
Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Vrt||ICC, IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG3 in buffer containing PBS, pH 7.4 containing 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-HA Tag -3162428||3162428|
|Anti-HA Tag (mouse monoclonal IgG3) - DAM1462563||DAM1462563|
|Anti-HA Tag - 2391105||2391105|
|Anti-HA Tag - 2452520||2452520|
|Anti-HA Tag - 0606033551||0606033551|
|Anti-HA Tag - 0608038421||0608038421|
|Anti-HA Tag - 0610043994||0610043994|
|Anti-HA Tag - 0611045941||0611045941|
|Anti-HA Tag - 1984837||1984837|
|Anti-HA Tag - 2044818||2044818|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|STAT2/IRF9 directs a prolonged ISGF3-like transcriptional response and antiviral activity in the absence of STAT1.|
Blaszczyk, K; Olejnik, A; Nowicka, H; Ozgyin, L; Chen, YL; Chmielewski, S; Kostyrko, K; Wesoly, J; Balint, BL; Lee, CK; Bluyssen, HA
The Biochemical journal 466 511-24 2015
Evidence is accumulating for the existence of a signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2)/interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9)-dependent, STAT1-independent interferon alpha (IFNα) signalling pathway. However, no detailed insight exists into the genome-wide transcriptional regulation and the biological implications of STAT2/IRF9-dependent IFNα signalling as compared with interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3). In STAT1-defeicient U3C cells stably overexpressing human STAT2 (hST2-U3C) and STAT1-deficient murine embryonic fibroblast cells stably overexpressing mouse STAT2 (mST2-MS1KO) we observed that the IFNα-induced expression of 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthase 2 (OAS2) and interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1 (Ifit1) correlated with the kinetics of STAT2 phosphorylation, and the presence of a STAT2/IRF9 complex requiring STAT2 phosphorylation and the STAT2 transactivation domain. Subsequent microarray analysis of IFNα-treated wild-type (WT) and STAT1 KO cells overexpressing STAT2 extended our observations and identified ∼120 known antiviral ISRE-containing interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) commonly up-regulated by STAT2/IRF9 and ISGF3. The STAT2/IRF9-directed expression profile of these IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) was prolonged as compared with the early and transient response mediated by ISGF3. In addition, we identified a group of 'STAT2/IRF9-specific' ISGs, whose response to IFNα was ISGF3-independent. Finally, STAT2/IRF9 was able to trigger an antiviral response upon encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSV). Our results further prove that IFNα-activated STAT2/IRF9 induces a prolonged ISGF3-like transcriptome and generates an antiviral response in the absence of STAT1. Moreover, the existence of 'STAT2/IRF9-specific' target genes predicts a novel role of STAT2 in IFNα signalling.
|p73 engages A2B receptor signalling to prime cancer cells to chemotherapy-induced death.|
Long, JS; Schoonen, PM; Graczyk, D; O'Prey, J; Ryan, KM
Oncogene 34 5152-62 2015
Tumour cells often acquire the ability to escape cell death, a key event leading to the development of cancer. In almost half of all human cancers, the capability to induce cell death is reduced by the mutation and inactivation of p53, a tumour suppressor protein that is a central regulator of apoptosis. As a result, there is a crucial need to identify different cell death pathways that could be targeted in malignancies lacking p53. p73, the closely related p53 family member, can regulate many p53 target genes and therefore some of the same cellular responses as p53. Unlike p53, however, p73 is seldom mutated in cancer, making it an attractive, alternative death effector to target. We report here the ability of p73 to upregulate the expression of the A2B receptor, a recently characterized p53 target that effectively promotes cell death in response to extracellular adenosine--a metabolite that accumulates during various forms of cellular stress. Importantly, we show that p73-dependent stimulation of A2B signalling markedly enhances apoptosis in cancer cells that are devoid of p53. This mode of death is caspase- and puma-dependent, and can be prevented by the overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-X(L). Moreover, treatment of p53-null cancer cells with the chemotherapeutic drug adriamycin (doxorubicin) induces A2B in a p73-dependent manner and, in combination with an A2B agonist, substantially enhances apoptotic death. We therefore propose an alternate and distinct p53-independent pathway to stimulate programmed cell death involving p73-mediated engagement of adenosine signalling.
|A role for the ITAM signaling module in specifying cytokine-receptor functions.|
Bezbradica, JS; Rosenstein, RK; DeMarco, RA; Brodsky, I; Medzhitov, R
Nature immunology 15 333-42 2014
Diverse cellular responses to external cues are controlled by a small number of signal-transduction pathways, but how the specificity of functional outcomes is achieved remains unclear. Here we describe a mechanism for signal integration based on the functional coupling of two distinct signaling pathways widely used in leukocytes: the ITAM pathway and the Jak-STAT pathway. Through the use of the receptor for interferon-γ (IFN-γR) and the ITAM adaptor Fcγ as an example, we found that IFN-γ modified responses of the phagocytic antibody receptor FcγRI (CD64) to specify cell-autonomous antimicrobial functions. Unexpectedly, we also found that in peritoneal macrophages, IFN-γR itself required tonic signaling from Fcγ through the kinase PI(3)K for the induction of a subset of IFN-γ-specific antimicrobial functions. Our findings may be generalizable to other ITAM and Jak-STAT signaling pathways and may help explain signal integration by those pathways.
|A rapid and efficient immunoenzymatic assay to detect receptor protein interactions: G protein-coupled receptors.|
Zappelli, E; Daniele, S; Abbracchio, MP; Martini, C; Trincavelli, ML
International journal of molecular sciences 15 6252-64 2014
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent one of the largest families of cell surface receptors, and are the target of at least one-third of the current therapeutic drugs on the market. Along their life cycle, GPCRs are accompanied by a range of specialized GPCR-interacting proteins (GIPs), which take part in receptor proper folding, targeting to the appropriate subcellular compartments and in receptor signaling tasks, and also in receptor regulation processes, such as desensitization and internalization. The direction of protein-protein interactions and multi-protein complexes formation is crucial in understanding protein function and their implication in pathological events. Although several methods have been already developed to assay protein complexes, some of them are quite laborious, expensive, and, more important, they do not generate fully quantitative results. Herein, we show a rapid immunoenzymatic assay to quantify GPCR interactionswith its signaling proteins. The recently de-orphanized GPCR, GPR17, was chosen as a GPCR prototype to optimize the assay. In a GPR17 transfected cell line and primary oligodendrocyte precursor cells, GPR17 interaction with proteins involved in the typical GPCR regulation, such as desensitization and internalization machinery, was investigated. The obtained results were validated by co-immunoprecipitation experiments, confirming this new method as a rapid and quantitative assay to study protein-protein interactions.
|A novel Netrin-1-sensitive mechanism promotes local SNARE-mediated exocytosis during axon branching.|
Winkle, CC; McClain, LM; Valtschanoff, JG; Park, CS; Maglione, C; Gupton, SL
The Journal of cell biology 205 217-32 2014
Developmental axon branching dramatically increases synaptic capacity and neuronal surface area. Netrin-1 promotes branching and synaptogenesis, but the mechanism by which Netrin-1 stimulates plasma membrane expansion is unknown. We demonstrate that SNARE-mediated exocytosis is a prerequisite for axon branching and identify the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM9 as a critical catalytic link between Netrin-1 and exocytic SNARE machinery in murine cortical neurons. TRIM9 ligase activity promotes SNARE-mediated vesicle fusion and axon branching in a Netrin-dependent manner. We identified a direct interaction between TRIM9 and the Netrin-1 receptor DCC as well as a Netrin-1-sensitive interaction between TRIM9 and the SNARE component SNAP25. The interaction with SNAP25 negatively regulates SNARE-mediated exocytosis and axon branching in the absence of Netrin-1. Deletion of TRIM9 elevated exocytosis in vitro and increased axon branching in vitro and in vivo. Our data provide a novel model for the spatial regulation of axon branching by Netrin-1, in which localized plasma membrane expansion occurs via TRIM9-dependent regulation of SNARE-mediated vesicle fusion.
|AKT regulates NPM dependent ARF localization and p53mut stability in tumors.|
Hamilton, G; Abraham, AG; Morton, J; Sampson, O; Pefani, DE; Khoronenkova, S; Grawenda, A; Papaspyropoulos, A; Jamieson, N; McKay, C; Sansom, O; Dianov, GL; O'Neill, E
Oncotarget 5 6142-67 2014
Nucleophosmin (NPM) is known to regulate ARF subcellular localization and MDM2 activity in response to oncogenic stress, though the precise mechanism has remained elusive. Here we describe how NPM and ARF associate in the nucleoplasm to form a MDM2 inhibitory complex. We find that oligomerization of NPM drives nucleolar accumulation of ARF. Moreover, the formation of NPM and ARF oligomers antagonizes MDM2 association with the inhibitory complex, leading to activation of MDM2 E3-ligase activity and targeting of p53. We find that AKT phosphorylation of NPM-Ser48 prevents oligomerization that results in nucleoplasmic localization of ARF, constitutive MDM2 inhibition and stabilization of p53. We also show that ARF promotes p53 mutant stability in tumors and suppresses p73 mediated p21 expression and senescence. We demonstrate that AKT and PI3K inhibitors may be effective in treatment of therapeutically resistant tumors with elevated AKT and carrying gain of function mutations in p53. Our results show that the clinical candidate AKT inhibitor MK-2206 promotes ARF nucleolar localization, reduced p53(mut) stability and increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation in a xenograft model of pancreatic cancer. Analysis of human tumors indicates that phospho-S48-NPM may be a useful biomarker for monitoring AKT activity and in vivo efficacy of AKT inhibitor treatment. Critically, we propose that combination therapy involving PI3K-AKT inhibitors would benefit from a patient stratification rationale based on ARF and p53(mut) status.
|Resveratrol modulates mitochondria dynamics in replicative senescent yeast cells.|
Wang, IH; Chen, HY; Wang, YH; Chang, KW; Chen, YC; Chang, CR
PloS one 9 e104345 2014
Mitochondria form a reticulum network dynamically fuse and divide in the cell. The balance between mitochondria fusion and fission is correlated to the shape, activity and integrity of these pivotal organelles. Resveratrol is a polyphenol antioxidant that can extend life span in yeast and worm. This study examined mitochondria dynamics in replicative senescent yeast cells as well as the effects of resveratrol on mitochondria fusion and fission. Collecting cells by biotin-streptavidin sorting method revealed that majority of the replicative senescent cells bear fragmented mitochondrial network, indicating mitochondria dynamics favors fission. Resveratrol treatment resulted in a reduction in the ratio of senescent yeast cells with fragmented mitochondria. The readjustment of mitochondria dynamics induced by resveratrol likely derives from altered expression profiles of fusion and fission genes. Our results demonstrate that resveratrol serves not only as an antioxidant, but also a compound that can mitigate mitochondria fragmentation in replicative senescent yeast cells.
|Histone variant Htz1 promotes histone H3 acetylation to enhance nucleotide excision repair in Htz1 nucleosomes.|
Yu, Y; Deng, Y; Reed, SH; Millar, CB; Waters, R
Nucleic acids research 41 9006-19 2013
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is critical for maintaining genome integrity. How chromatin dynamics are regulated to facilitate this process in chromatin is still under exploration. We show here that a histone H2A variant, Htz1 (H2A.Z), in nucleosomes has a positive function in promoting efficient NER in yeast. Htz1 inherently enhances the occupancy of the histone acetyltransferase Gcn5 on chromatin to promote histone H3 acetylation after UV irradiation. Consequently, this results in an increased binding of a NER protein, Rad14, to damaged DNA. Cells without Htz1 show increased UV sensitivity and defective removal of UV-induced DNA damage in the Htz1-bearing nucleosomes at the repressed MFA2 promoter, but not in the HMRa locus where Htz1 is normally absent. Thus, the effect of Htz1 on NER is specifically relevant to its presence in chromatin within a damaged region. The chromatin accessibility to micrococcal nuclease in the MFA2 promoter is unaffected by HTZ1 deletion. Acetylation on previously identified lysines of Htz1 plays little role in NER or cell survival after UV. In summary, we have identified a novel aspect of chromatin that regulates efficient NER, and we provide a model for how Htz1 influences NER in Htz1 nucleosomes.
|A RASSF1A polymorphism restricts p53/p73 activation and associates with poor survival and accelerated age of onset of soft tissue sarcoma.|
Yee, KS; Grochola, L; Hamilton, G; Grawenda, A; Bond, EE; Taubert, H; Wurl, P; Bond, GL; O'Neill, E
Cancer research 72 2206-17 2012
RASSF1A (Ras association domain containing family 1A), a tumor suppressor gene that is frequently inactivated in human cancers, is phosphorylated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) on Ser131 upon DNA damage, leading to activation of a p73-dependent apoptotic response. A single-nucleotide polymorphism located in the region of the key ATM activation site of RASSF1A predicts the conversion of alanine (encoded by the major G allele) to serine (encoded by the minor T allele) at residue 133 of RASSF1A (p.Ala133Ser). Secondary protein structure prediction studies suggest that an alpha helix containing the ATM recognition site is disrupted in the serine isoform of RASSF1A (RASSF1A-p.133Ser). In this study, we observed a reduced ability of ATM to recruit and phosphorylate RASSF1A-p.133Ser upon DNA damage. RASSF1A-p.133Ser failed to activate the MST2/LATS pathway, which is required for YAP/p73-mediated apoptosis, and negatively affected the activation of p53, culminating in a defective cellular response to DNA damage. Consistent with a defective p53 response, we found that male soft tissue sarcoma patients carrying the minor T allele encoding RASSF1A-p.133Ser exhibited poorer tumor-specific survival and earlier age of onset compared with patients homozygous for the major G allele. Our findings propose a model that suggests a certain subset of the population have inherently weaker p73/p53 activation due to inefficient signaling through RASSF1A, which affects both cancer incidence and survival.
|Neutrophils activate alveolar macrophages by producing caspase-6-mediated cleavage of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-M.|
Kobayashi, H; Nolan, A; Naveed, B; Hoshino, Y; Segal, LN; Fujita, Y; Rom, WN; Weiden, MD
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 186 403-10 2011
Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are exposed to respirable microbial particles. Similar to phagocytes in the gastrointestinal tract, AMs can suppress inflammation after exposure to nonpathogenic organisms. IL-1R-associated kinase-M (IRAK-M) is one inhibitor of innate immunity, normally suppressing pulmonary inflammation. During pneumonia, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are recruited by chemotactic factors released by AMs to produce an intense inflammation. We report that intact IRAK-M is strongly expressed in resting human AMs but is cleaved in patients with pneumonia via PMN-mediated induction of caspase-6 (CASP-6) activity. PMN contact is necessary and PMN membranes are sufficient for CASP-6 induction in macrophages. PMNs fail to induce TNF-α fully in macrophages expressing CASP-6 cleavage-resistant IRAK-M. Without CASP-6 expression, PMN stimulation fails to cleave IRAK-M, degrade IκBα, or induce TNF-α. CASP-6(-/-) mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture have impaired TNF-α production in the lung and decreased mortality. LPS did not induce or require CASP-6 activity demonstrating that TLR2/4 signaling is independent from the CASP-6 regulated pathway. These data define a central role for CASP-6 in PMN-driven macrophage activation and identify IRAK-M as an important target for CASP-6. PMNs de-repress AMs via CASP-6-mediated IRAK-M cleavage. This regulatory system will blunt lung inflammation unless PMNs infiltrate the alveolar spaces.