|Replacement Information||05-904 is a recommended replacement for 07-221|
Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Vrt||ICC, IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG3 in buffer containing PBS, pH 7.4 containing 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
References | 18 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|STAT2/IRF9 directs a prolonged ISGF3-like transcriptional response and antiviral activity in the absence of STAT1. |
Blaszczyk, K; Olejnik, A; Nowicka, H; Ozgyin, L; Chen, YL; Chmielewski, S; Kostyrko, K; Wesoly, J; Balint, BL; Lee, CK; Bluyssen, HA
The Biochemical journal 466 511-24 2015
Evidence is accumulating for the existence of a signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2)/interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9)-dependent, STAT1-independent interferon alpha (IFNα) signalling pathway. However, no detailed insight exists into the genome-wide transcriptional regulation and the biological implications of STAT2/IRF9-dependent IFNα signalling as compared with interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3). In STAT1-defeicient U3C cells stably overexpressing human STAT2 (hST2-U3C) and STAT1-deficient murine embryonic fibroblast cells stably overexpressing mouse STAT2 (mST2-MS1KO) we observed that the IFNα-induced expression of 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthase 2 (OAS2) and interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1 (Ifit1) correlated with the kinetics of STAT2 phosphorylation, and the presence of a STAT2/IRF9 complex requiring STAT2 phosphorylation and the STAT2 transactivation domain. Subsequent microarray analysis of IFNα-treated wild-type (WT) and STAT1 KO cells overexpressing STAT2 extended our observations and identified ∼120 known antiviral ISRE-containing interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) commonly up-regulated by STAT2/IRF9 and ISGF3. The STAT2/IRF9-directed expression profile of these IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) was prolonged as compared with the early and transient response mediated by ISGF3. In addition, we identified a group of 'STAT2/IRF9-specific' ISGs, whose response to IFNα was ISGF3-independent. Finally, STAT2/IRF9 was able to trigger an antiviral response upon encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSV). Our results further prove that IFNα-activated STAT2/IRF9 induces a prolonged ISGF3-like transcriptome and generates an antiviral response in the absence of STAT1. Moreover, the existence of 'STAT2/IRF9-specific' target genes predicts a novel role of STAT2 in IFNα signalling.
|p73 engages A2B receptor signalling to prime cancer cells to chemotherapy-induced death. |
Long, JS; Schoonen, PM; Graczyk, D; O'Prey, J; Ryan, KM
Oncogene 34 5152-62 2015
Tumour cells often acquire the ability to escape cell death, a key event leading to the development of cancer. In almost half of all human cancers, the capability to induce cell death is reduced by the mutation and inactivation of p53, a tumour suppressor protein that is a central regulator of apoptosis. As a result, there is a crucial need to identify different cell death pathways that could be targeted in malignancies lacking p53. p73, the closely related p53 family member, can regulate many p53 target genes and therefore some of the same cellular responses as p53. Unlike p53, however, p73 is seldom mutated in cancer, making it an attractive, alternative death effector to target. We report here the ability of p73 to upregulate the expression of the A2B receptor, a recently characterized p53 target that effectively promotes cell death in response to extracellular adenosine--a metabolite that accumulates during various forms of cellular stress. Importantly, we show that p73-dependent stimulation of A2B signalling markedly enhances apoptosis in cancer cells that are devoid of p53. This mode of death is caspase- and puma-dependent, and can be prevented by the overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-X(L). Moreover, treatment of p53-null cancer cells with the chemotherapeutic drug adriamycin (doxorubicin) induces A2B in a p73-dependent manner and, in combination with an A2B agonist, substantially enhances apoptotic death. We therefore propose an alternate and distinct p53-independent pathway to stimulate programmed cell death involving p73-mediated engagement of adenosine signalling.
|A role for the ITAM signaling module in specifying cytokine-receptor functions. |
Bezbradica, JS; Rosenstein, RK; DeMarco, RA; Brodsky, I; Medzhitov, R
Nature immunology 15 333-42 2014
Diverse cellular responses to external cues are controlled by a small number of signal-transduction pathways, but how the specificity of functional outcomes is achieved remains unclear. Here we describe a mechanism for signal integration based on the functional coupling of two distinct signaling pathways widely used in leukocytes: the ITAM pathway and the Jak-STAT pathway. Through the use of the receptor for interferon-γ (IFN-γR) and the ITAM adaptor Fcγ as an example, we found that IFN-γ modified responses of the phagocytic antibody receptor FcγRI (CD64) to specify cell-autonomous antimicrobial functions. Unexpectedly, we also found that in peritoneal macrophages, IFN-γR itself required tonic signaling from Fcγ through the kinase PI(3)K for the induction of a subset of IFN-γ-specific antimicrobial functions. Our findings may be generalizable to other ITAM and Jak-STAT signaling pathways and may help explain signal integration by those pathways.
|A rapid and efficient immunoenzymatic assay to detect receptor protein interactions: G protein-coupled receptors. |
Zappelli, E; Daniele, S; Abbracchio, MP; Martini, C; Trincavelli, ML
International journal of molecular sciences 15 6252-64 2014
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent one of the largest families of cell surface receptors, and are the target of at least one-third of the current therapeutic drugs on the market. Along their life cycle, GPCRs are accompanied by a range of specialized GPCR-interacting proteins (GIPs), which take part in receptor proper folding, targeting to the appropriate subcellular compartments and in receptor signaling tasks, and also in receptor regulation processes, such as desensitization and internalization. The direction of protein-protein interactions and multi-protein complexes formation is crucial in understanding protein function and their implication in pathological events. Although several methods have been already developed to assay protein complexes, some of them are quite laborious, expensive, and, more important, they do not generate fully quantitative results. Herein, we show a rapid immunoenzymatic assay to quantify GPCR interactionswith its signaling proteins. The recently de-orphanized GPCR, GPR17, was chosen as a GPCR prototype to optimize the assay. In a GPR17 transfected cell line and primary oligodendrocyte precursor cells, GPR17 interaction with proteins involved in the typical GPCR regulation, such as desensitization and internalization machinery, was investigated. The obtained results were validated by co-immunoprecipitation experiments, confirming this new method as a rapid and quantitative assay to study protein-protein interactions.
|A novel Netrin-1-sensitive mechanism promotes local SNARE-mediated exocytosis during axon branching. |
Winkle, CC; McClain, LM; Valtschanoff, JG; Park, CS; Maglione, C; Gupton, SL
The Journal of cell biology 205 217-32 2014
Developmental axon branching dramatically increases synaptic capacity and neuronal surface area. Netrin-1 promotes branching and synaptogenesis, but the mechanism by which Netrin-1 stimulates plasma membrane expansion is unknown. We demonstrate that SNARE-mediated exocytosis is a prerequisite for axon branching and identify the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM9 as a critical catalytic link between Netrin-1 and exocytic SNARE machinery in murine cortical neurons. TRIM9 ligase activity promotes SNARE-mediated vesicle fusion and axon branching in a Netrin-dependent manner. We identified a direct interaction between TRIM9 and the Netrin-1 receptor DCC as well as a Netrin-1-sensitive interaction between TRIM9 and the SNARE component SNAP25. The interaction with SNAP25 negatively regulates SNARE-mediated exocytosis and axon branching in the absence of Netrin-1. Deletion of TRIM9 elevated exocytosis in vitro and increased axon branching in vitro and in vivo. Our data provide a novel model for the spatial regulation of axon branching by Netrin-1, in which localized plasma membrane expansion occurs via TRIM9-dependent regulation of SNARE-mediated vesicle fusion.
|AKT regulates NPM dependent ARF localization and p53mut stability in tumors. |
Hamilton, G; Abraham, AG; Morton, J; Sampson, O; Pefani, DE; Khoronenkova, S; Grawenda, A; Papaspyropoulos, A; Jamieson, N; McKay, C; Sansom, O; Dianov, GL; O'Neill, E
Oncotarget 5 6142-67 2014
Nucleophosmin (NPM) is known to regulate ARF subcellular localization and MDM2 activity in response to oncogenic stress, though the precise mechanism has remained elusive. Here we describe how NPM and ARF associate in the nucleoplasm to form a MDM2 inhibitory complex. We find that oligomerization of NPM drives nucleolar accumulation of ARF. Moreover, the formation of NPM and ARF oligomers antagonizes MDM2 association with the inhibitory complex, leading to activation of MDM2 E3-ligase activity and targeting of p53. We find that AKT phosphorylation of NPM-Ser48 prevents oligomerization that results in nucleoplasmic localization of ARF, constitutive MDM2 inhibition and stabilization of p53. We also show that ARF promotes p53 mutant stability in tumors and suppresses p73 mediated p21 expression and senescence. We demonstrate that AKT and PI3K inhibitors may be effective in treatment of therapeutically resistant tumors with elevated AKT and carrying gain of function mutations in p53. Our results show that the clinical candidate AKT inhibitor MK-2206 promotes ARF nucleolar localization, reduced p53(mut) stability and increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation in a xenograft model of pancreatic cancer. Analysis of human tumors indicates that phospho-S48-NPM may be a useful biomarker for monitoring AKT activity and in vivo efficacy of AKT inhibitor treatment. Critically, we propose that combination therapy involving PI3K-AKT inhibitors would benefit from a patient stratification rationale based on ARF and p53(mut) status.
|Resveratrol modulates mitochondria dynamics in replicative senescent yeast cells. |
Wang, IH; Chen, HY; Wang, YH; Chang, KW; Chen, YC; Chang, CR
PloS one 9 e104345 2014
Mitochondria form a reticulum network dynamically fuse and divide in the cell. The balance between mitochondria fusion and fission is correlated to the shape, activity and integrity of these pivotal organelles. Resveratrol is a polyphenol antioxidant that can extend life span in yeast and worm. This study examined mitochondria dynamics in replicative senescent yeast cells as well as the effects of resveratrol on mitochondria fusion and fission. Collecting cells by biotin-streptavidin sorting method revealed that majority of the replicative senescent cells bear fragmented mitochondrial network, indicating mitochondria dynamics favors fission. Resveratrol treatment resulted in a reduction in the ratio of senescent yeast cells with fragmented mitochondria. The readjustment of mitochondria dynamics induced by resveratrol likely derives from altered expression profiles of fusion and fission genes. Our results demonstrate that resveratrol serves not only as an antioxidant, but also a compound that can mitigate mitochondria fragmentation in replicative senescent yeast cells.
|Histone variant Htz1 promotes histone H3 acetylation to enhance nucleotide excision repair in Htz1 nucleosomes. |
Yu, Y; Deng, Y; Reed, SH; Millar, CB; Waters, R
Nucleic acids research 41 9006-19 2013
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is critical for maintaining genome integrity. How chromatin dynamics are regulated to facilitate this process in chromatin is still under exploration. We show here that a histone H2A variant, Htz1 (H2A.Z), in nucleosomes has a positive function in promoting efficient NER in yeast. Htz1 inherently enhances the occupancy of the histone acetyltransferase Gcn5 on chromatin to promote histone H3 acetylation after UV irradiation. Consequently, this results in an increased binding of a NER protein, Rad14, to damaged DNA. Cells without Htz1 show increased UV sensitivity and defective removal of UV-induced DNA damage in the Htz1-bearing nucleosomes at the repressed MFA2 promoter, but not in the HMRa locus where Htz1 is normally absent. Thus, the effect of Htz1 on NER is specifically relevant to its presence in chromatin within a damaged region. The chromatin accessibility to micrococcal nuclease in the MFA2 promoter is unaffected by HTZ1 deletion. Acetylation on previously identified lysines of Htz1 plays little role in NER or cell survival after UV. In summary, we have identified a novel aspect of chromatin that regulates efficient NER, and we provide a model for how Htz1 influences NER in Htz1 nucleosomes.
|A RASSF1A polymorphism restricts p53/p73 activation and associates with poor survival and accelerated age of onset of soft tissue sarcoma. |
Yee, KS; Grochola, L; Hamilton, G; Grawenda, A; Bond, EE; Taubert, H; Wurl, P; Bond, GL; O'Neill, E
Cancer research 72 2206-17 2012
RASSF1A (Ras association domain containing family 1A), a tumor suppressor gene that is frequently inactivated in human cancers, is phosphorylated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) on Ser131 upon DNA damage, leading to activation of a p73-dependent apoptotic response. A single-nucleotide polymorphism located in the region of the key ATM activation site of RASSF1A predicts the conversion of alanine (encoded by the major G allele) to serine (encoded by the minor T allele) at residue 133 of RASSF1A (p.Ala133Ser). Secondary protein structure prediction studies suggest that an alpha helix containing the ATM recognition site is disrupted in the serine isoform of RASSF1A (RASSF1A-p.133Ser). In this study, we observed a reduced ability of ATM to recruit and phosphorylate RASSF1A-p.133Ser upon DNA damage. RASSF1A-p.133Ser failed to activate the MST2/LATS pathway, which is required for YAP/p73-mediated apoptosis, and negatively affected the activation of p53, culminating in a defective cellular response to DNA damage. Consistent with a defective p53 response, we found that male soft tissue sarcoma patients carrying the minor T allele encoding RASSF1A-p.133Ser exhibited poorer tumor-specific survival and earlier age of onset compared with patients homozygous for the major G allele. Our findings propose a model that suggests a certain subset of the population have inherently weaker p73/p53 activation due to inefficient signaling through RASSF1A, which affects both cancer incidence and survival.
|Yeast H2A.Z, FACT complex and RSC regulate transcription of tRNA gene through differential dynamics of flanking nucleosomes. |
Mahapatra, S; Dewari, PS; Bhardwaj, A; Bhargava, P
Nucleic acids research 39 4023-34 2011
FACT complex is involved in elongation and ensures fidelity in the initiation step of transcription by RNA polymerase (pol) II. Histone variant H2A.Z is found in nucleosomes at the 5'-end of many genes. We report here H2A.Z-chaperone activity of the yeast FACT complex on the short, nucleosome-free, non-coding, pol III-transcribed yeast tRNA genes. On a prototype gene, yeast SUP4, chromatin remodeler RSC and FACT regulate its transcription through novel mechanisms, wherein the two gene-flanking nucleosomes containing H2A.Z, play different roles. Nhp6, which ensures transcription fidelity and helps load yFACT onto the gene flanking nucleosomes, has inhibitory role. RSC maintains a nucleosome abutting the gene terminator downstream, which results in reduced transcription rate in active state while H2A.Z probably helps RSC in keeping the gene nucleosome-free and serves as stress-sensor. All these factors maintain an epigenetic state which allows the gene to return quickly from repressed to active state and tones down the expression from the active SUP4 gene, required probably to maintain the balance in cellular tRNA pool.
|Neutrophils activate alveolar macrophages by producing caspase-6-mediated cleavage of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-M. |
Kobayashi, H; Nolan, A; Naveed, B; Hoshino, Y; Segal, LN; Fujita, Y; Rom, WN; Weiden, MD
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 186 403-10 2011
Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are exposed to respirable microbial particles. Similar to phagocytes in the gastrointestinal tract, AMs can suppress inflammation after exposure to nonpathogenic organisms. IL-1R-associated kinase-M (IRAK-M) is one inhibitor of innate immunity, normally suppressing pulmonary inflammation. During pneumonia, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are recruited by chemotactic factors released by AMs to produce an intense inflammation. We report that intact IRAK-M is strongly expressed in resting human AMs but is cleaved in patients with pneumonia via PMN-mediated induction of caspase-6 (CASP-6) activity. PMN contact is necessary and PMN membranes are sufficient for CASP-6 induction in macrophages. PMNs fail to induce TNF-α fully in macrophages expressing CASP-6 cleavage-resistant IRAK-M. Without CASP-6 expression, PMN stimulation fails to cleave IRAK-M, degrade IκBα, or induce TNF-α. CASP-6(-/-) mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture have impaired TNF-α production in the lung and decreased mortality. LPS did not induce or require CASP-6 activity demonstrating that TLR2/4 signaling is independent from the CASP-6 regulated pathway. These data define a central role for CASP-6 in PMN-driven macrophage activation and identify IRAK-M as an important target for CASP-6. PMNs de-repress AMs via CASP-6-mediated IRAK-M cleavage. This regulatory system will blunt lung inflammation unless PMNs infiltrate the alveolar spaces.
|A region of the nucleosome required for multiple types of transcriptional silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. |
Prescott, ET; Safi, A; Rusche, LN
Genetics 188 535-48 2011
Extended heterochromatin domains, which are repressive to transcription and help define centromeres and telomeres, are formed through specific interactions between silencing proteins and nucleosomes. This study reveals that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the same nucleosomal surface is critical for the formation of multiple types of heterochromatin, but not for local repression mediated by a related transcriptional repressor. Thus, this region of the nucleosome may be generally important to long-range silencing. In S. cerevisiae, the Sir proteins perform long-range silencing, whereas the Sum1 complex acts locally to repress specific genes. A mutant form of Sum1p, Sum1-1p, achieves silencing in the absence of Sir proteins. A genetic screen identified mutations in histones H3 and H4 that disrupt Sum1-1 silencing and fall in regions of the nucleosome previously known to disrupt Sir silencing and rDNA silencing. In contrast, no mutations were identified that disrupt wild-type Sum1 repression. Mutations that disrupt silencing fall in two regions of the nucleosome, the tip of the H3 tail and a surface of the nucleosomal core (LRS domain) and the adjacent base of the H4 tail. The LRS/H4 tail region interacts with the Sir3p bromo-adjacent homology (BAH) domain to facilitate Sir silencing. By analogy, this study is consistent with the LRS/H4 tail region interacting with Orc1p, a paralog of Sir3p, to facilitate Sum1-1 silencing. Thus, the LRS/H4 tail region of the nucleosome may be relatively accessible and facilitate interactions between silencing proteins and nucleosomes to stabilize long-range silencing.
|TBC1D24, an ARF6-interacting protein, is mutated in familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy. |
Falace, Antonio, et al.
Am. J. Hum. Genet., 87: 365-70 (2010) 2010
Idiopathic epilepsies (IEs) are a group of disorders characterized by recurrent seizures in the absence of detectable brain lesions or metabolic abnormalities. IEs include common disorders with a complex mode of inheritance and rare Mendelian traits suggesting the occurrence of several alleles with variable penetrance. We previously described a large family with a recessive form of idiopathic epilepsy, named familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy (FIME), and mapped the disease locus on chromosome 16p13.3 by linkage analysis. In the present study, we found that two compound heterozygous missense mutations (D147H and A509V) in TBC1D24, a gene of unknown function, are responsible for FIME. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that Tbc1d24 is mainly expressed at the level of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. By coimmunoprecipitation assay we found that TBC1D24 binds ARF6, a Ras-related family of small GTPases regulating exo-endocytosis dynamics. The main recognized function of ARF6 in the nervous system is the regulation of dendritic branching, spine formation, and axonal extension. TBC1D24 overexpression resulted in a significant increase in neurite length and arborization and the FIME mutations significantly reverted this phenotype. In this study we identified a gene mutation involved in autosomal-recessive idiopathic epilepsy, unveiled the involvement of ARF6-dependent molecular pathway in brain hyperexcitability and seizures, and confirmed the emerging role of subtle cytoarchitectural alterations in the etiology of this group of common epileptic disorders.
|Involvement of p21 (waf1) in merlin deficient sporadic vestibular schwannomas. |
Wu H, Chen Y, Wang Z, Li W, Li J, Zhang L, Lu Y
Previous studies have demonstrated that merlin acts as a tumor suppressor by blocking Ras-mediated signaling. However, the mechanism by which merlin controls cell proliferation has remained obscure. Here we show that merlin deficient tumors exhibited loss of p21, concomitant with elevated CDKs/cyclin D1 levels in sporadic vestibular schwannomas (VS) from clinic patients. Likewise, silencing of merlin gene expression in the cell lines resulted in down-regulation of p21. Furthermore, we find that merlin-enhanced p21 protein stability, rather than increased RNA accumulation, was responsible for the elevated p21 levels. Interestingly, p21 was required to maintain merlin levels and the inhibitory effect of merlin on Ras signaling was partially overridden by knockdown of p21. Consistent with the observation that over-expression of merlin arrested cell growth at G1-phase, the current study indicates that merlin exerts its antiproliferative effect, at least in part, by maintaining p21 expression, and loss of p21 is a prominent feature of merlin deficient schwannomas. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Palmitoylation regulates epidermal homeostasis and hair follicle differentiation. |
Mill, P; Lee, AW; Fukata, Y; Tsutsumi, R; Fukata, M; Keighren, M; Porter, RM; McKie, L; Smyth, I; Jackson, IJ
PLoS genetics 5 e1000748 2009
Palmitoylation is a key post-translational modification mediated by a family of DHHC-containing palmitoyl acyl-transferases (PATs). Unlike other lipid modifications, palmitoylation is reversible and thus often regulates dynamic protein interactions. We find that the mouse hair loss mutant, depilated, (dep) is due to a single amino acid deletion in the PAT, Zdhhc21, resulting in protein mislocalization and loss of palmitoylation activity. We examined expression of Zdhhc21 protein in skin and find it restricted to specific hair lineages. Loss of Zdhhc21 function results in delayed hair shaft differentiation, at the site of expression of the gene, but also leads to hyperplasia of the interfollicular epidermis (IFE) and sebaceous glands, distant from the expression site. The specific delay in follicle differentiation is associated with attenuated anagen propagation and is reflected by decreased levels of Lef1, nuclear beta-catenin, and Foxn1 in hair shaft progenitors. In the thickened basal compartment of mutant IFE, phospho-ERK and cell proliferation are increased, suggesting increased signaling through EGFR or integrin-related receptors, with a parallel reduction in expression of the key differentiation factor Gata3. We show that the Src-family kinase, Fyn, involved in keratinocyte differentiation, is a direct palmitoylation target of Zdhhc21 and is mislocalized in mutant follicles. This study is the first to demonstrate a key role for palmitoylation in regulating developmental signals in mammalian tissue homeostasis.
|Western Blotting, Immunofluorescence||Mouse||19956733|
|Evolution of new function through a single amino acid change in the yeast repressor Sum1p. |
Safi, A; Wallace, KA; Rusche, LN
Molecular and cellular biology 28 2567-78 2008
The SUM1-1 mutation is an example of a single amino acid change that results in new function. Wild-type Sum1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a DNA-binding repressor that acts locally, whereas mutant Sum1-1p forms an extended repressive chromatin structure. By characterizing a panel of mutations in which various amino acids replaced the critical residue, threonine 988, we found that threonine was required for wild-type function and that in the absence of threonine the association of Sum1p with DNA was reduced. Isoleucine, the amino acid in mutant Sum1-1p, was required for the novel spreading property. Thus, the SUM1-1 mutation results in both a loss and a gain of function. The presence of isoleucine caused Sum1-1p to self-associate, a property that may promote spreading. In addition, isoleucine enabled Sum1-1p to associate with the origin recognition complex (ORC) and accumulate near ORC binding sites. Thus, both threonine and isoleucine at position 988 enable Sum1p to form intermolecular interactions. We propose that interaction domains may be hotspots for gain-of-function mutations because alterations in such domains have the potential to redirect a protein to new sets of binding partners. In addition, self-association of chromatin proteins may promote the formation of extended chromatin structures.Full Text Article
|Substitution as a mechanism for genetic robustness: the duplicated deacetylases Hst1p and Sir2p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. |
Hickman, MA; Rusche, LN
PLoS genetics 3 e126 2007
How duplicate genes provide genetic robustness remains an unresolved question. We have examined the duplicated histone deacetylases Sir2p and Hst1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and find that these paralogs with non-overlapping functions can provide genetic robustness against null mutations through a substitution mechanism. Hst1p is an NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase that acts with Sum1p to repress a subset of midsporulation genes. However, hst1Delta mutants show much weaker derepression of target loci than sum1Delta mutants. We show that this modest derepression of target loci in hst1Delta strains occurs in part because Sir2p substitutes for Hst1p. Sir2p contributes to repression of the midsporulation genes only in the absence of Hst1p and is recruited to target promoters by a physical interaction with the Sum1 complex. Furthermore, when Sir2p associates with the Sum1 complex, the complex continues to repress in a promoter-specific manner and does not spread. Our results imply that after the duplication, SIR2 and HST1 subfunctionalized. The single SIR2/HST1 gene from Kluyveromyces lactis, a closely related species that diverged prior to the duplication, can suppress an hst1Delta mutation in S. cerevisiae as well as interact with Sir4p in S. cerevisiae. In addition, the existence of two distinct protein interaction domains for the Sir and Sum1 complexes was revealed through the analysis of a chimeric Sir2-Hst1 molecule. Therefore, the ability of Sir2p to substitute for Hst1p probably results from a retained but reduced affinity for the Sum1 complex that is a consequence of subfunctionalization via the duplication, degeneration, and complementation mechanism. These results suggest that the evolutionary path of duplicate gene preservation may be an important indicator for the ability of duplicated genes to contribute to genetic robustness.
|Overview of tag protein fusions: from molecular and biochemical fundamentals to commercial systems |
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 60:523-33 (2003) 2003