|Optogenetic perturbation of preBötzinger complex inhibitory neurons modulates respiratory pattern.|
Sherman, D; Worrell, JW; Cui, Y; Feldman, JL
Inhibitory neurons make up a substantial fraction of the neurons in the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), a site that is critical for mammalian eupneic breathing. We investigated the role of glycinergic preBötC neurons in respiratory rhythmogenesis in mice using optogenetically targeted excitation and inhibition. Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) or Archaerhodopsin (Arch) were expressed in glycinergic preBötC neurons of glycine transporter 2 (Glyt2, also known as Slc6a5)-Cre mice. In ChR2-transfected mice, brief inspiratory-phase bilateral photostimulation targeting the preBötC prematurely terminated inspiration, whereas expiratory-phase photostimulation delayed the onset of the next inspiration. Prolonged photostimulation produced apneas lasting as long as the light pulse. Inspiratory-phase photoinhibition in Arch-transfected mice during inspiration increased tidal volume without altering inspiratory duration, whereas expiratory-phase photoinhibition shortened the latency until the next inspiration. During persistent apneas, prolonged photoinhibition restored rhythmic breathing. We conclude that glycinergic preBötC neurons modulate inspiratory pattern and are important for reflex apneas, but that the rhythm can persist after substantial dampening of their activity.
|Retinal amino acid neurochemistry of the southern hemisphere lamprey, Geotria australis.|
Nivison-Smith, L; Collin, SP; Zhu, Y; Ready, S; Acosta, ML; Hunt, DM; Potter, IC; Kalloniatis, M
Lampreys are one of the two surviving groups of the agnathan (jawless) stages in vertebrate evolution and are thus ideal candidates for elucidating the evolution of visual systems. This study investigated the retinal amino acid neurochemistry of the southern hemisphere lamprey Geotria australis during the downstream migration of the young, recently-metamorphosed juveniles to the sea and during the upstream migration of the fully-grown and sexually-maturing adults to their spawning areas. Glutamate and taurine were distributed throughout the retina, whilst GABA and glycine were confined to neurons of the inner retina matching patterns seen in most other vertebrates. Glutamine and aspartate immunoreactivity was closely matched to Müller cell morphology. Between the migratory phases, few differences were observed in the distribution of major neurotransmitters i.e. glutamate, GABA and glycine, but changes in amino acids associated with retinal metabolism i.e. glutamine and aspartate, were evident. Taurine immunoreactivity was mostly conserved between migrant stages, consistent with its role in primary cell functions such as osmoregulation. Further investigation of glutamate signalling using the probe agmatine (AGB) to map cation channel permeability revealed entry of AGB into photoreceptors and horizontal cells followed by accumulation in inner retinal neurons. Similarities in AGB profiles between upstream and downstream migrant of G. australis confirmed the conservation of glutamate neurotransmission. Finally, calcium binding proteins, calbindin and calretinin were localized to the inner retina whilst recoverin was localized to photoreceptors. Overall, conservation of major amino acid neurotransmitters and calcium-associated proteins in the lamprey retina confirms these elements as essential features of the vertebrate visual system. On the other hand, metabolic elements of the retina such as neurotransmitter precursor amino acids and Müller cells are more sensitive to environmental changes associated with migration.
|Recovery from paralysis in adult rats using embryonic stem cells.|
Deepa M Deshpande, Yun-Sook Kim, Tara Martinez, Jessica Carmen, Sonny Dike, Irina Shats, Lee L Rubin, Jennifer Drummond, Chitra Krishnan, Ahmet Hoke, Nicholas Maragakis, Jeremy Shefner, Jeffrey D Rothstein, Douglas A Kerr
Annals of neurology
OBJECTIVE: We explored the potential of embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons to functionally replace those cells destroyed in paralyzed adult rats. METHODS: We administered a phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor and dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate to overcome myelin-mediated repulsion and provided glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor within the sciatic nerve to attract transplanted embryonic stem cell-derived axons toward skeletal muscle targets. RESULTS: We found that these strategies significantly increased the success of transplanted axons extending out of the spinal cord into ventral roots. Furthermore, transplant-derived axons reached muscle, formed neuromuscular junctions, were physiologically active, and mediated partial recovery from paralysis. INTERPRETATION: We conclude that restoration of functional motor units by embryonic stem cells is possible and represents a potential therapeutic strategy for patients with paralysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the anatomical and functional replacement of a motor neuron circuit within the adult mammalian host.