Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|R, M, H, Eq||WB, IH(P), IP||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal antibody in buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||200 µL|
References | 104 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Cellular plasticity induced by anti-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor encephalitis antibodies. |
Peng, X; Hughes, EG; Moscato, EH; Parsons, TD; Dalmau, J; Balice-Gordon, RJ
Annals of neurology 77 381-98 2015
Autoimmune-mediated anti-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) encephalitis is a severe but treatment-responsive disorder with prominent short-term memory loss and seizures. The mechanisms by which patient antibodies affect synapses and neurons leading to symptoms are poorly understood.The effects of patient antibodies on cultures of live rat hippocampal neurons were determined with immunostaining, Western blot, and electrophysiological analyses.We show that patient antibodies cause a selective decrease in the total surface amount and synaptic localization of GluA1- and GluA2-containing AMPARs, regardless of receptor subunit binding specificity, through increased internalization and degradation of surface AMPAR clusters. In contrast, patient antibodies do not alter the density of excitatory synapses, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) clusters, or cell viability. Commercially available AMPAR antibodies directed against extracellular epitopes do not result in a loss of surface and synaptic receptor clusters, suggesting specific effects of patient antibodies. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of spontaneous miniature postsynaptic currents show that patient antibodies decrease AMPAR-mediated currents, but not NMDAR-mediated currents. Interestingly, several functional properties of neurons are also altered: inhibitory synaptic currents and vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid transporter (vGAT) staining intensity decrease, whereas the intrinsic excitability of neurons and short-interval firing increase.These results establish that antibodies from patients with anti-AMPAR encephalitis selectively eliminate surface and synaptic AMPARs, resulting in a homeostatic decrease in inhibitory synaptic transmission and increased intrinsic excitability, which may contribute to the memory deficits and epilepsy that are prominent in patients with this disorder.
|Postsynaptic VAMP/Synaptobrevin Facilitates Differential Vesicle Trafficking of GluA1 and GluA2 AMPA Receptor Subunits. |
Hussain, S; Davanger, S
PloS one 10 e0140868 2015
Vertebrate organisms adapt to a continuously changing environment by regulating the strength of synaptic connections between brain cells. Excitatory synapses are believed to increase their strength by vesicular insertion of transmitter glutamate receptors into the postsynaptic plasma membrane. These vesicles, however, have never been demonstrated or characterized. For the first time, we show the presence of small vesicles in postsynaptic spines, often closely adjacent to the plasma membrane and PSD (postsynaptic density). We demonstrate that they harbor vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2) and glutamate receptor subunit 1 (GluA1). Disrupting VAMP2 by tetanus toxin treatment reduces the concentration of GluA1 in the postsynaptic plasma membrane. GluA1/VAMP2-containing vesicles, but not GluA2/VAMP2-vesicles, are concentrated in postsynaptic spines relative to dendrites. Our results indicate that small postsynaptic vesicles containing GluA1 are inserted directly into the spine plasma membrane through a VAMP2-dependent mechanism.
|A negative feedback loop controls NMDA receptor function in cortical interneurons via neuregulin 2/ErbB4 signalling. |
Vullhorst, D; Mitchell, RM; Keating, C; Roychowdhury, S; Karavanova, I; Tao-Cheng, JH; Buonanno, A
Nature communications 6 7222 2015
The neuregulin receptor ErbB4 is an important modulator of GABAergic interneurons and neural network synchronization. However, little is known about the endogenous ligands that engage ErbB4, the neural processes that activate them or their direct downstream targets. Here we demonstrate, in cultured neurons and in acute slices, that the NMDA receptor is both effector and target of neuregulin 2 (NRG2)/ErbB4 signalling in cortical interneurons. Interneurons co-express ErbB4 and NRG2, and pro-NRG2 accumulates on cell bodies atop subsurface cisternae. NMDA receptor activation rapidly triggers shedding of the signalling-competent NRG2 extracellular domain. In turn, NRG2 promotes ErbB4 association with GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, followed by rapid internalization of surface receptors and potent downregulation of NMDA but not AMPA receptor currents. These effects occur selectively in ErbB4-positive interneurons and not in ErbB4-negative pyramidal neurons. Our findings reveal an intimate reciprocal relationship between ErbB4 and NMDA receptors with possible implications for the modulation of cortical microcircuits associated with cognitive deficits in psychiatric disorders.
|AMPA Receptor-mTOR Activation is Required for the Antidepressant-Like Effects of Sarcosine during the Forced Swim Test in Rats: Insertion of AMPA Receptor may Play a Role. |
Chen, KT; Tsai, MH; Wu, CH; Jou, MJ; Wei, IH; Huang, CC
Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience 9 162 2015
Sarcosine, an endogenous amino acid, is a competitive inhibitor of the type I glycine transporter and an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) coagonist. Recently, we found that sarcosine, an NMDAR enhancer, can improve depression-related behaviors in rodents and humans. This result differs from previous studies, which have reported antidepressant effects of NMDAR antagonists. The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic response of sarcosine remain unknown. This study examines the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor (AMPAR) activation, which are involved in the antidepressant-like effects of several glutamatergic system modulators. The effects of sarcosine in a forced swim test (FST) and the expression levels of phosphorylated mTOR signaling proteins were examined in the absence or presence of mTOR and AMPAR inhibitors. In addition, the influence of sarcosine on AMPAR trafficking was determined by analyzing the phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit GluR1 at the PKA site (often considered an indicator for GluR1 membrane insertion in neurons). A single injection of sarcosine exhibited antidepressant-like effects in rats in the FST and rapidly activated the mTOR signaling pathway, which were significantly blocked by mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or the AMPAR inhibitor 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX) pretreatment. Moreover, NBQX pretreatment eliminated the ability of sarcosine to stimulate the phosphorylated mTOR signaling proteins. Furthermore, GluR1 phosphorylation at its PKA site was significantly increased after an acute in vivo sarcosine treatment. The results demonstrated that sarcosine exerts antidepressant-like effects by enhancing AMPAR-mTOR signaling pathway activity and facilitating AMPAR membrane insertion. Highlights-A single injection of sarcosine rapidly exerted antidepressant-like effects with a concomitant increase in the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin mTOR signaling pathway.-The antidepressant-like effects of sarcosine occur through the activated AMPAR-mTOR signaling pathway.-Sarcosine could enhance AMPAR membrane insertion via an AMPAR throughput.
|Synaptic and cognitive improvements by inhibition of 2-AG metabolism are through upregulation of microRNA-188-3p in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. |
Zhang, J; Hu, M; Teng, Z; Tang, YP; Chen, C
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 14919-33 2014
Abnormal accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) is the major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms underlying aberrant Aβ formation in AD remain unclear. We showed previously that inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary enzyme that metabolizes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the brain, robustly reduces Aβ by inhibiting β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), a key enzyme responsible for Aβ formation. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for suppression of BACE1 by inhibition of 2-AG metabolism are largely unknown. We demonstrate here that expression of the noncoding small RNA miR-188-3p that targets BACE1 was significantly downregulated both in the brains of AD humans and APP transgenic (TG) mice, a mouse model of AD. The downregulated miR-188-3p expression was restored by MAGL inhibition. Overexpression of miR-188-3p in the hippocampus reduced BACE1, Aβ, and neuroinflammation and prevented deteriorations in hippocampal basal synaptic transmission, long-term potentiation, spatial learning, and memory in TG mice. 2-AG-induced suppression of BACE1 was prevented by miR-188-3p loss of function. Moreover, miR-188-3p expression was upregulated by 2-AG or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists and suppressed by PPARγ antagonism or NF-κB activation. Reducing Aβ and neuroinflammation by MAGL inhibition was occluded by PPARγ antagonism. In addition, BACE1 suppression by 2-AG and PPARγ activation was eliminated by knockdown of NF-κB. Our study provides a novel molecular mechanism underlying improved synaptic and cognitive function in TG mice by 2-AG signaling, which upregulates miR-188-3p expression through PPARγ and NF-κB signaling pathway, resulting in suppressions of BACE1 expression and Aβ formation.
|Simvastatin treatment enhances NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission by upregulating the surface distribution of the GluN2B subunit. |
Parent, MA; Hottman, DA; Cheng, S; Zhang, W; McMahon, LL; Yuan, LL; Li, L
Cellular and molecular neurobiology 34 693-705 2014
The ramifications of statins on plasma cholesterol and coronary heart disease have been well documented. However, there is increasing evidence that inhibition of the mevalonate pathway may provide independent neuroprotective and procognitive pleiotropic effects, most likely via inhibition of isoprenoids, mainly farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP). FPP and GGPP are the major donors of prenyl groups for protein prenylation. Modulation of isoprenoid availability impacts a slew of cellular processes including synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Our previous work has demonstrated that simvastatin (SV) administration improves hippocampus-dependent spatial memory, rescuing memory deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Treatment of hippocampal slices with SV enhances long-term potentiation (LTP), and this effect is dependent on the activation of Akt (protein kinase B). Further studies showed that SV-induced enhancement of hippocampal LTP is driven by depletion of FPP and inhibition of farnesylation. In the present study, we report the functional consequences of exposure to SV at cellular/synaptic and molecular levels. While application of SV has no effect on intrinsic membrane properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons, including hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide channel-mediated sag potentials, the afterhyperpolarization (AHP), and excitability, SV application potentiates the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated contribution to synaptic transmission. In mouse hippocampal slices and human neuronal cells, SV treatment increases the surface distribution of the GluN2B subunit of the NMDAR without affecting cellular cholesterol content. We conclude that SV-induced enhancement of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus is likely mediated by augmentation of synaptic NMDAR components that are largely responsible for driving synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region.
|Synapse elimination and learning rules co-regulated by MHC class I H2-Db. |
Lee, H; Brott, BK; Kirkby, LA; Adelson, JD; Cheng, S; Feller, MB; Datwani, A; Shatz, CJ
Nature 509 195-200 2014
The formation of precise connections between retina and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) involves the activity-dependent elimination of some synapses, with strengthening and retention of others. Here we show that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule H2-D(b) is necessary and sufficient for synapse elimination in the retinogeniculate system. In mice lacking both H2-K(b) and H2-D(b) (K(b)D(b)(-/-)), despite intact retinal activity and basal synaptic transmission, the developmentally regulated decrease in functional convergence of retinal ganglion cell synaptic inputs to LGN neurons fails and eye-specific layers do not form. Neuronal expression of just H2-D(b) in K(b)D(b)(-/-) mice rescues both synapse elimination and eye-specific segregation despite a compromised immune system. When patterns of stimulation mimicking endogenous retinal waves are used to probe synaptic learning rules at retinogeniculate synapses, long-term potentiation (LTP) is intact but long-term depression (LTD) is impaired in K(b)D(b)(-/-) mice. This change is due to an increase in Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptors. Restoring H2-D(b) to K(b)D(b)(-/-) neurons renders AMPA receptors Ca(2+) impermeable and rescues LTD. These observations reveal an MHC-class-I-mediated link between developmental synapse pruning and balanced synaptic learning rules enabling both LTD and LTP, and demonstrate a direct requirement for H2-D(b) in functional and structural synapse pruning in CNS neurons.
|Antigenic and mechanistic characterization of anti-AMPA receptor encephalitis. |
Gleichman, AJ; Panzer, JA; Baumann, BH; Dalmau, J; Lynch, DR
Annals of clinical and translational neurology 1 180-189 2014
Anti-AMPAR encephalitis is a recently discovered disorder characterized by the presence of antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid against the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor. Here, we examine the antigenic specificity of anti-AMPAR antibodies, screen for new patients, and evaluate functional effects of antibody treatment of neurons.We developed a fusion protein-based western blotting test for anti-AMPAR encephalitis antibodies. Antibody specificity was also evaluated using immunocytochemistry of HEK293 cells expressing deletion mutants of AMPAR subunits. Purified patient IgG or AMPAR antibody-depleted IgG was applied to live neuronal cultures; amplitude and frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) were measured to evaluate functional effects of antibodies.Using both immunocytochemistry and fusion protein western blots, we defined an antigenic region of the receptor in the bottom lobe of the amino terminal domain. Additionally, we used fusion proteins to screen 70 individuals with neurologic symptoms of unknown cause and 44 patients with no neurologic symptoms or symptoms of known neuroimmunological origin for anti-AMPAR antibodies. Fifteen of the 70 individuals had anti-AMPAR antibodies, with broader antigenic reactivity patterns. Using purified IgG from an individual of the original cohort of anti-AMPAR encephalitis patients and a newly discovered patient, we found that application of IgG from either patient cohort caused an AMPAR antibody-dependent decrease in the amplitude and frequency of mEPSCs in cultured neurons.These results indicate that anti-AMPAR antibodies are widespread and functionally relevant; given the robust response of patients to immunomodulation, this represents a significant treatable patient population.
|Evolutionarily conserved pattern of AMPA receptor subunit glycosylation in Mammalian frontal cortex. |
Tucholski, J; Pinner, AL; Simmons, MS; Meador-Woodruff, JH
PloS one 9 e94255 2014
Protein glycosylation may contribute to the evolution of mammalian brain complexity by adapting excitatory neurotransmission in response to environmental and social cues. Balanced excitatory synaptic transmission is primarily mediated by glutamatergic neurotransmission. Previous studies have found that subunits of the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptor are N-glycosylated, which may play a critical role in AMPA receptor trafficking and function at the cell membrane. Studies have predominantly used rodent models to address altered glycosylation in human pathological conditions. Given the rate of mammalian brain evolution and the predicted rate of change in the brain-specific glycoproteome, we asked if there are species-specific changes in glycoprotein expression, focusing on the AMPA receptor. N-glycosylation of AMPA receptor subunits was investigated in rat (Rattus norvegicus), tree shrew (Tupaia glis belangeri), macaque (Macaca nemestrina), and human frontal cortex tissue using a combination of enzymatic deglycosylation and Western blot analysis, as well as lectin binding assays. We found that two AMPA receptor subunits, GluA2 and GluA4, are sensitive to deglycosylation with Endo H and PNGase F. When we enriched for glycosylated proteins using lectin binding assays, we found that all four AMPA receptor subunits are glycosylated, and were predominantly recognized by lectins that bind to glucose or mannose, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), or 1-6αfucose. We found differences in glycosylation between different subunits, as well as modest differences in glycosylation of homologous subunits between different species.
|MET receptor tyrosine kinase controls dendritic complexity, spine morphogenesis, and glutamatergic synapse maturation in the hippocampus. |
Qiu, S; Lu, Z; Levitt, P
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 16166-79 2014
The MET receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), implicated in risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in functional and structural circuit integrity in humans, is a temporally and spatially regulated receptor enriched in dorsal pallial-derived structures during mouse forebrain development. Here we report that loss or gain of function of MET in vitro or in vivo leads to changes, opposite in nature, in dendritic complexity, spine morphogenesis, and the timing of glutamatergic synapse maturation onto hippocampus CA1 neurons. Consistent with the morphological and biochemical changes, deletion of Met in mutant mice results in precocious maturation of excitatory synapse, as indicated by a reduction of the proportion of silent synapses, a faster GluN2A subunit switch, and an enhanced acquisition of AMPA receptors at synaptic sites. Thus, MET-mediated signaling appears to serve as a mechanism for controlling the timing of neuronal growth and functional maturation. These studies suggest that mistimed maturation of glutamatergic synapses leads to the aberrant neural circuits that may be associated with ASD risk.
|Tau-mediated NMDA receptor impairment underlies dysfunction of a selectively vulnerable network in a mouse model of frontotemporal dementia. |
Warmus, BA; Sekar, DR; McCutchen, E; Schellenberg, GD; Roberts, RC; McMahon, LL; Roberson, ED
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 16482-95 2014
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative behavioral disorder that selectively affects the salience network, including the ventral striatum and insula. Tau mutations cause FTD, but how mutant tau impairs the salience network is unknown. Here, we address this question using a mouse model expressing the entire human tau gene with an FTD-associated mutation (V337M). Mutant, but not wild-type, human tau transgenic mice had aging-dependent repetitive and disinhibited behaviors, with synaptic deficits selectively in the ventral striatum and insula. There, mutant tau depleted PSD-95, resulting in smaller postsynaptic densities and impaired synaptic localization of NMDA receptors (NMDARs). In the ventral striatum, decreased NMDAR-mediated transmission reduced striatal neuron firing. Pharmacologically enhancing NMDAR function with the NMDAR co-agonist cycloserine reversed electrophysiological and behavioral deficits. These results indicate that NMDAR hypofunction critically contributes to FTD-associated behavioral and electrophysiological alterations and that this process can be therapeutically targeted by a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug.
|Increased response to glutamate in small diameter dorsal root ganglion neurons after sciatic nerve injury. |
Gong, K; Kung, LH; Magni, G; Bhargava, A; Jasmin, L
PloS one 9 e95491 2014
Glutamate in the peripheral nervous system is involved in neuropathic pain, yet we know little how nerve injury alters responses to this neurotransmitter in primary sensory neurons. We recorded neuronal responses from the ex-vivo preparations of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) one week following a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in adult rats. We found that small diameter DRG neurons (less than 30 µm) exhibited increased excitability that was associated with decreased membrane threshold and rheobase, whereas responses in large diameter neurons (greater than 30 µm) were unaffected. Puff application of either glutamate, or the selective ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and kainic acid (KA), or the group I metabotropic receptor (mGluR) agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), induced larger inward currents in CCI DRGs compared to those from uninjured rats. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced currents were unchanged. In addition to larger inward currents following CCI, a greater number of neurons responded to glutamate, AMPA, NMDA, and DHPG, but not to KA. Western blot analysis of the DRGs revealed that CCI resulted in a 35% increase in GluA1 and a 60% decrease in GluA2, the AMPA receptor subunits, compared to uninjured controls. mGluR1 receptor expression increased by 60% in the membrane fraction, whereas mGluR5 receptor subunit expression remained unchanged after CCI. These results show that following nerve injury, small diameter DRG neurons, many of which are nociceptive, have increased excitability and an increased response to glutamate that is associated with changes in receptor expression at the neuronal membrane. Our findings provide further evidence that glutamatergic transmission in the periphery plays a role in nociception.
|In vitro ischemia triggers a transcriptional response to down-regulate synaptic proteins in hippocampal neurons. |
Fernandes, J; Vieira, M; Carreto, L; Santos, MA; Duarte, CB; Carvalho, AL; Santos, AE
PloS one 9 e99958 2014
Transient global cerebral ischemia induces profound changes in the transcriptome of brain cells, which is partially associated with the induction or repression of genes that influence the ischemic response. However, the mechanisms responsible for the selective vulnerability of hippocampal neurons to global ischemia remain to be clarified. To identify molecular changes elicited by ischemic insults, we subjected hippocampal primary cultures to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro model for global ischemia that resulted in delayed neuronal death with an excitotoxic component. To investigate changes in the transcriptome of hippocampal neurons submitted to OGD, total RNA was extracted at early (7 h) and delayed (24 h) time points after OGD and used in a whole-genome RNA microarray. We observed that at 7 h after OGD there was a general repression of genes, whereas at 24 h there was a general induction of gene expression. Genes related with functions such as transcription and RNA biosynthesis were highly regulated at both periods of incubation after OGD, confirming that the response to ischemia is a dynamic and coordinated process. Our analysis showed that genes for synaptic proteins, such as those encoding for PICK1, GRIP1, TARPγ3, calsyntenin-2/3, SAPAP2 and SNAP-25, were down-regulated after OGD. Additionally, OGD decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit as well as the GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of NMDA receptors, but increased the mRNA expression of the GluN3A subunit, thus altering the composition of ionotropic glutamate receptors in hippocampal neurons. Together, our results present the expression profile elicited by in vitro ischemia in hippocampal neurons, and indicate that OGD activates a transcriptional program leading to down-regulation in the expression of genes coding for synaptic proteins, suggesting that the synaptic proteome may change after ischemia.
|The MK2/3 cascade regulates AMPAR trafficking and cognitive flexibility. |
Eales, KL; Palygin, O; O'Loughlin, T; Rasooli-Nejad, S; Gaestel, M; Müller, J; Collins, DR; Pankratov, Y; Corrêa, SA
Nature communications 5 4701 2014
The interplay between long-term potentiation and long-term depression (LTD) is thought to be involved in learning and memory formation. One form of LTD expressed in the hippocampus is initiated by the activation of the group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Importantly, mGluRs have been shown to be critical for acquisition of new memories and for reversal learning, processes that are thought to be crucial for cognitive flexibility. Here we provide evidence that MAPK-activated protein kinases 2 and 3 (MK2/3) regulate neuronal spine morphology, synaptic transmission and plasticity. Furthermore, mGluR-LTD is impaired in the hippocampus of MK2/3 double knockout (DKO) mice, an observation that is mirrored by deficits in endocytosis of GluA1 subunits. Consistent with compromised mGluR-LTD, MK2/3 DKO mice have distinctive deficits in hippocampal-dependent spatial reversal learning. These novel findings demonstrate that the MK2/3 cascade plays a strategic role in controlling synaptic plasticity and cognition.
|Synaptic molecular imaging in spared and deprived columns of mouse barrel cortex with array tomography. |
Weiler, NC; Collman, F; Vogelstein, JT; Burns, R; Smith, SJ
Scientific data 1 140046 2014
A major question in neuroscience is how diverse subsets of synaptic connections in neural circuits are affected by experience dependent plasticity to form the basis for behavioral learning and memory. Differences in protein expression patterns at individual synapses could constitute a key to understanding both synaptic diversity and the effects of plasticity at different synapse populations. Our approach to this question leverages the immunohistochemical multiplexing capability of array tomography (ATomo) and the columnar organization of mouse barrel cortex to create a dataset comprising high resolution volumetric images of spared and deprived cortical whisker barrels stained for over a dozen synaptic molecules each. These dataset has been made available through the Open Connectome Project for interactive online viewing, and may also be downloaded for offline analysis using web, Matlab, and other interfaces.
|MHC class I limits hippocampal synapse density by inhibiting neuronal insulin receptor signaling. |
Dixon-Salazar, TJ; Fourgeaud, L; Tyler, CM; Poole, JR; Park, JJ; Boulanger, LM
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 11844-56 2014
Proteins of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) negatively regulate synapse density in the developing vertebrate brain (Glynn et al., 2011; Elmer et al., 2013; Lee et al., 2014), but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we identify a novel MHCI signaling pathway that involves the inhibition of a known synapse-promoting factor, the insulin receptor. Dominant-negative insulin receptor constructs decrease synapse density in the developing Xenopus visual system (Chiu et al., 2008), and insulin receptor activation increases dendritic spine density in mouse hippocampal neurons in vitro (Lee et al., 2011). We find that genetically reducing cell surface MHCI levels increases synapse density selectively in regions of the hippocampus where insulin receptors are expressed, and occludes the neuronal insulin response by de-repressing insulin receptor signaling. Pharmacologically inhibiting insulin receptor signaling in MHCI-deficient animals rescues synapse density, identifying insulin receptor signaling as a critical mediator of the tonic inhibitory effects of endogenous MHCI on synapse number. Insulin receptors co-immunoprecipitate MHCI from hippocampal lysates, and MHCI unmasks a cytoplasmic epitope of the insulin receptor that mediates downstream signaling. These results identify an important role for an MHCI-insulin receptor signaling pathway in circuit patterning in the developing brain, and suggest that changes in MHCI expression could unexpectedly regulate neuronal insulin sensitivity in the aging and diseased brain.
|KIS, a kinase associated with microtubule regulators, enhances translation of AMPA receptors and stimulates dendritic spine remodeling. |
Pedraza, N; Ortiz, R; Cornadó, A; Llobet, A; Aldea, M; Gallego, C
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 13988-97 2014
Local regulation of protein synthesis allows a neuron to rapidly alter the proteome in response to synaptic signals, an essential mechanism in synaptic plasticity that is altered in many neurological diseases. Synthesis of many synaptic proteins is under local control and much of this regulation occurs through structures termed RNA granules. KIS is a protein kinase that associates with stathmin, a modulator of the tubulin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, KIS is found in RNA granules and stimulates translation driven by the β-actin 3'UTR in neurites. Here we explore the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying the action of KIS on hippocampal synaptic plasticity in mice. KIS downregulation compromises spine development, alters actin dynamics, and reduces postsynaptic responsiveness. The absence of KIS results in a significant decrease of protein levels of PSD-95, a postsynaptic scaffolding protein, and the AMPAR subunits GluR1 and GluR2 in a CPEB3-dependent manner. Underlying its role in spine maturation, KIS is able to suppress the spine developmental defects caused by CPEB3 overexpression. Moreover, either by direct or indirect mechanisms, KIS counteracts the inhibitory activity of CPEB3 on the GluR2 3'UTR at both mRNA translation and polyadenylation levels. Our study provides insights into the mechanisms that mediate dendritic spine morphogenesis and functional synaptic maturation, and suggests KIS as a link regulating spine cytoskeleton and postsynaptic activity in memory formation.
|Select 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases exhibit altered expression in the aged rodent brain. |
Kelly, Michy P, et al.
Cell. Signal., 26: 383-97 (2014) 2014
3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are the only known enzymes to compartmentalize cAMP and cGMP, yet little is known about how PDEs are dynamically regulated across the lifespan. We mapped mRNA expression of all 21 PDE isoforms in the adult rat and mouse central nervous system (CNS) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in situ hybridization to assess conservation across species. We also compared PDE mRNA and protein in the brains of old (26 months) versus young (5 months) Sprague-Dawley rats, with select experiments replicated in old (9 months) versus young (2 months) BALB/cJ mice. We show that each PDE isoform exhibits a unique expression pattern across the brain that is highly conserved between rats, mice, and humans. PDE1B, PDE1C, PDE2A, PDE4A, PDE4D, PDE5A, PDE7A, PDE8A, PDE8B, PDE10A, and PDE11A showed an age-related increase or decrease in mRNA expression in at least 1 of the 4 brain regions examined (hippocampus, cortex, striatum, and cerebellum). In contrast, mRNA expression of PDE1A, PDE3A, PDE3B, PDE4B, PDE7A, PDE7B, and PDE9A did not change with age. Age-related increases in PDE11A4, PDE8A3, PDE8A4/5, and PDE1C1 protein expression were confirmed in hippocampus of old versus young rodents, as were age-related increases in PDE8A3 protein expression in the striatum. Age-related changes in PDE expression appear to have functional consequences as, relative to young rats, the hippocampi of old rats demonstrated strikingly decreased phosphorylation of GluR1, CaMKIIα, and CaMKIIβ, decreased expression of the transmembrane AMPA regulatory proteins γ2 (a.k.a. stargazin) and γ8, and increased trimethylation of H3K27. Interestingly, expression of PDE11A4, PDE8A4/5, PDE8A3, and PDE1C1 correlate with these functional endpoints in young but not old rats, suggesting that aging is not only associated with a change in PDE expression but also a change in PDE compartmentalization.
|CaMKII, but not protein kinase A, regulates Rpt6 phosphorylation and proteasome activity during the formation of long-term memories. |
Jarome, TJ; Kwapis, JL; Ruenzel, WL; Helmstetter, FJ
Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience 7 115 2013
CaMKII and Protein Kinase A (PKA) are thought to be critical for synaptic plasticity and memory formation through their regulation of protein synthesis. Consistent with this, numerous studies have reported that CaMKII, PKA and protein synthesis are critical for long-term memory formation. Recently, we found that protein degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system is also critical for long-term memory formation in the amygdala. However, the mechanism by which ubiquitin-proteasome activity is regulated during memory formation and how protein degradation interacts with known intracellular signaling pathways important for learning remain unknown. Recently, evidence has emerged suggesting that both CaMKII and PKA are capable of regulating proteasome activity in vitro through the phosphorylation of proteasome regulatory subunit Rpt6 at Serine-120, though whether they regulate Rpt6 phosphorylation and proteasome function in vivo remains unknown. In the present study we demonstrate for the first time that fear conditioning transiently modifies a proteasome regulatory subunit and proteasome catalytic activity in the mammalian brain in a CaMKII-dependent manner. We found increases in the phosphorylation of proteasome ATPase subunit Rpt6 at Serine-120 and an enhancement in proteasome activity in the amygdala following fear conditioning. Pharmacological manipulation of CaMKII, but not PKA, in vivo significantly reduced both the learning-induced increase in Rpt6 Serine-120 phosphorylation and the increase in proteasome activity without directly affecting protein polyubiquitination levels. These results indicate a novel role for CaMKII in memory formation through its regulation of protein degradation and suggest that CaMKII regulates Rpt6 phosphorylation and proteasome function both in vitro and in vivo.
|Postsynaptic density scaffold SAP102 regulates cortical synapse development through EphB and PAK signaling pathway. |
Murata, Y; Constantine-Paton, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 5040-52 2013
Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs), including SAP102, PSD-95, PSD-93, and SAP97, are scaffolding proteins for ionotropic glutamate receptors at excitatory synapses. MAGUKs play critical roles in synaptic plasticity; however, details of signaling roles for each MAGUK remain largely unknown. Here we report that SAP102 regulates cortical synapse development through the EphB and PAK signaling pathways. Using lentivirus-delivered shRNAs, we found that SAP102 and PSD-95, but not PSD-93, are necessary for excitatory synapse formation and synaptic AMPA receptor (AMPAR) localization in developing mouse cortical neurons. SAP102 knockdown (KD) increased numbers of elongated dendritic filopodia, which is often observed in mouse models and human patients with mental retardation. Further analysis revealed that SAP102 coimmunoprecipitated the receptor tyrosine kinase EphB2 and RacGEF Kalirin-7 in neonatal cortex, and SAP102 KD reduced surface expression and dendritic localization of EphB. Moreover, SAP102 KD prevented reorganization of actin filaments, synapse formation, and synaptic AMPAR trafficking in response to EphB activation triggered by its ligand ephrinB. Last, p21-activated kinases (PAKs) were downregulated in SAP102 KD neurons. These results demonstrate that SAP102 has unique roles in cortical synapse development by mediating EphB and its downstream PAK signaling pathway. Both SAP102 and PAKs are associated with X-linked mental retardation in humans; thus, synapse formation mediated by EphB/SAP102/PAK signaling in the early postnatal brain may be crucial for cognitive development.
|TNF-α Downregulates Inhibitory Neurotransmission through Protein Phosphatase 1-Dependent Trafficking of GABAA Receptors. |
Pribiag, Horia and Stellwagen, David
J. Neurosci., 33: 15879-93 (2013) 2013
Inflammation has been implicated in the progression of neurological disease, yet precisely how inflammation affects neuronal function remains unclear. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) is a proinflammatory cytokine that regulates synapse function by controlling neurotransmitter receptor trafficking and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Here we characterize the mechanisms through which TNFα regulates inhibitory synapse function in mature rat and mouse hippocampal neurons. Acute application of TNFα induces a rapid and persistent decrease of inhibitory synaptic strength and downregulation of cell-surface levels of GABAARs containing α1, α2, β2/3, and γ2 subunits. We show that trafficking of GABAARs in response to TNFα is mediated by neuronally expressed TNF receptor 1 and requires activation of p38 MAPK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), and dynamin GTPase. Furthermore, TNFα enhances the association of PP1 with GABAAR β3 subunits and dephosphorylates a site on β3 known to regulate phospho-dependent interactions with the endocytic machinery. Conversely, we find that calcineurin and PP2A are not essential components of the signaling pathway and that clustering of the scaffolding protein gephyrin is only reduced after the initial receptor endocytosis. Together, these findings demonstrate a distinct mechanism of regulated GABAAR endocytosis that may contribute to the disruption of circuit homeostasis under neuroinflammatory conditions.
|Nerve injury increases GluA2-lacking AMPA receptor prevalence in spinal cords: functional significance and signaling mechanisms. |
Chen, SR; Zhou, HY; Byun, HS; Pan, HL
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 347 765-72 2013
The glutamate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPARs) are critically involved in the excitatory synaptic transmission, and blocking AMPARs at the spinal level reverses neuropathic pain. However, little is known about changes in the composition of synaptic AMPARs in the spinal dorsal horn after peripheral nerve injury. AMPARs lacking the GluA2 subunit are permeable to Ca(2+), and their currents show unique inward rectification. We found that AMPAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (AMPAR-EPSCs) of spinal dorsal horn neurons exhibited a linear current-voltage relationship in control rats, whereas AMPAR-EPSCs of dorsal horn neurons displayed inward rectification in rats with spinal nerve injury. In nerve-injured rats, compared with control rats, the GluA2 protein level was significantly less in the plasma membrane but was greater in the cytosolic vesicle fraction in the dorsal spinal cord. However, the GluA1 protein levels in these fractions did not differ significantly between nerve-injured and control rats. Blocking N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) abolished inward rectification of AMPAR-EPSCs of dorsal horn neurons in nerve-injured rats. Furthermore, inhibition of calpain or calcineurin, but not protein kinase C, completely blocked nerve injury-induced inward rectification of AMPAR-EPSCs of dorsal horn neurons. In addition, blocking GluA2-lacking AMPARs at the spinal cord level reduced nerve injury-induced pain hypersensitivity. Our study suggests that nerve injury increases GluA2 internalization and the prevalence of GluA2-lacking AMPARs in the spinal dorsal horn to maintain chronic neuropathic pain. Increased prevalence of spinal GluA2-lacking AMPARs in neuropathic pain is mediated by NMDARs and subsequent stimulation of calpain and calcineurin signaling.
|In vivo quantitative proteomics of somatosensory cortical synapses shows which protein levels are modulated by sensory deprivation. |
Butko, MT; Savas, JN; Friedman, B; Delahunty, C; Ebner, F; Yates, JR; Tsien, RY
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 E726-35 2013
Postnatal bilateral whisker trimming was used as a model system to test how synaptic proteomes are altered in barrel cortex by sensory deprivation during synaptogenesis. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we quantified more than 7,000 synaptic proteins and identified 89 significantly reduced and 161 significantly elevated proteins in sensory-deprived synapses, 22 of which were validated by immunoblotting. More than 95% of quantified proteins, including abundant synaptic proteins such as PSD-95 and gephyrin, exhibited no significant difference under high- and low-activity rearing conditions, suggesting no tissue-wide changes in excitatory or inhibitory synaptic density. In contrast, several proteins that promote mature spine morphology and synaptic strength, such as excitatory glutamate receptors and known accessory factors, were reduced significantly in deprived synapses. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the reduction in SynGAP1, a postsynaptic scaffolding protein, was restricted largely to layer I of barrel cortex in sensory-deprived rats. In addition, protein-degradation machinery such as proteasome subunits, E2 ligases, and E3 ligases, accumulated significantly in deprived synapses, suggesting targeted synaptic protein degradation under sensory deprivation. Importantly, this screen identified synaptic proteins whose levels were affected by sensory deprivation but whose synaptic roles have not yet been characterized in mammalian neurons. These data demonstrate the feasibility of defining synaptic proteomes under different sensory rearing conditions and could be applied to elucidate further molecular mechanisms of sensory development.
|ALLN rescues an in vitro excitatory synaptic transmission deficit in Lis1 mutant mice. |
Sebe, JY; Bershteyn, M; Hirotsune, S; Wynshaw-Boris, A; Baraban, SC
Journal of neurophysiology 109 429-36 2013
LIS1 gene mutations lead to a rare neurological disorder, classical lissencephaly, characterized by brain malformations, mental retardation, seizures, and premature death. Mice heterozygous for Lis1 (Lis1(+/-)) exhibit cortical malformations, defects in neuronal migration, increased glutamate-mediated synaptic transmission, and spontaneous electrographic seizures. Recent work demonstrated that in utero treatment of Lis1(+/-) mutant dams with ALLN, a calpain inhibitor, partially rescues neuronal migration defects in the offspring. Given the challenges of in utero drug administration, we examined the therapeutic potential of ALLN on postnatal lissencephalic cells. Voltage- and current-clamp studies were performed with acute hippocampal slices obtained from Lis1 mutant mice and age-matched littermate control mice. Specifically, we determined whether postnatal ALLN treatment can reverse excitatory synaptic transmission deficits, namely, an increase in spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) frequency, on CA1 pyramidal neurons observed in tissue slices from Lis1(+/-) mice. We found that acute application of ALLN restored spontaneous and miniature EPSC frequencies to wild-type levels without affecting inhibitory postsynaptic synaptic current. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of protein expression, including proteins involved in excitatory synaptic transmission, demonstrated that ALLN blocks the cleavage of the calpain substrate αII-spectrin but does not rescue Lis1 protein levels in Lis1(+/-) mutants.
|Simultaneous monitoring of presynaptic transmitter release and postsynaptic receptor trafficking reveals an enhancement of presynaptic activity in metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated long-term depression. |
Xu, W; Tse, YC; Dobie, FA; Baudry, M; Craig, AM; Wong, TP; Wang, YT
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 5867-77 2013
Although the contribution of postsynaptic mechanisms to long-term synaptic plasticity has been studied extensively, understanding the contribution of presynaptic modifications to this process lags behind, primarily because of a lack of techniques with which to directly and quantifiably measure neurotransmitter release from synaptic terminals. Here, we developed a method to measure presynaptic activity through the biotinylation of vesicular transporters in vesicles fused with presynaptic membranes during neurotransmitter release. This method allowed us for the first time to selectively quantify the spontaneous or evoked release of glutamate or GABA at their respective synapses. Using this method to investigate presynaptic changes during the expression of group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1/5)-mediated long-term depression (LTD) in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we discovered that this form of LTD was associated with increased presynaptic release of glutamate, despite reduced miniature EPSCs measured with whole-cell recording. Moreover, we found that specific blockade of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) endocytosis with a membrane-permeable GluR2-derived peptide not only prevented the expression of LTD but also eliminated LTD-associated increase in presynaptic release. Thus, our work not only demonstrates that mGluR1/5-mediated LTD is associated with increased endocytosis of postsynaptic AMPARs but also reveals an unexpected homeostatic/compensatory increase in presynaptic release. In addition, this study indicates that biotinylation of vesicular transporters in live cultured neurons is a valuable tool for studying presynaptic function.
|The adhesion-GPCR BAI1 regulates synaptogenesis by controlling the recruitment of the Par3/Tiam1 polarity complex to synaptic sites. |
Duman, JG; Tzeng, CP; Tu, YK; Munjal, T; Schwechter, B; Ho, TS; Tolias, KF
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 6964-78 2013
Excitatory synapses are polarized structures that primarily reside on dendritic spines in the brain. The small GTPase Rac1 regulates the development and plasticity of synapses and spines by modulating actin dynamics. By restricting the Rac1-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Tiam1 to spines, the polarity protein Par3 promotes synapse development by spatially controlling Rac1 activation. However, the mechanism for recruiting Par3 to spines is unknown. Here, we identify brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) as a synaptic adhesion GPCR that is required for spinogenesis and synaptogenesis in mice and rats. We show that BAI1 interacts with Par3/Tiam1 and recruits these proteins to synaptic sites. BAI1 knockdown results in Par3/Tiam1 mislocalization and loss of activated Rac1 and filamentous actin from spines. Interestingly, BAI1 also mediates Rac-dependent engulfment in professional phagocytes through its interaction with a different Rac1-guanine nucleotide exchange factor module, ELMO/DOCK180. However, this interaction is dispensable for BAI1's role in synapse development because a BAI1 mutant that cannot interact with ELMO/DOCK180 rescues spine defects in BAI1-knockdown neurons, whereas a mutant that cannot interact with Par3/Tiam1 rescues neither spine defects nor Par3 localization. Further, overexpression of Tiam1 rescues BAI1 knockdown spine phenotypes. These results indicate that BAI1 plays an important role in synaptogenesis that is mechanistically distinct from its role in phagocytosis. Furthermore, our results provide the first example of a cell surface receptor that targets members of the PAR polarity complex to synapses.
|Shank3-Rich2 interaction regulates AMPA receptor recycling and synaptic long-term potentiation. |
Raynaud, F; Janossy, A; Dahl, J; Bertaso, F; Perroy, J; Varrault, A; Vidal, M; Worley, PF; Boeckers, TM; Bockaert, J; Marin, P; Fagni, L; Homburger, V
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 9699-715 2013
Synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) is a key mechanism involved in learning and memory, and its alteration is associated with mental disorders. Shank3 is a major postsynaptic scaffolding protein that orchestrates dendritic spine morphogenesis, and mutations of this protein lead to mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders. In the present study we investigated the role of a new Shank3-associated protein in LTP. We identified the Rho-GAP interacting CIP4 homolog 2 (Rich2) as a new Shank3 partner by proteomic screen. Using single-cell bioluminescence resonance energy transfer microscopy, we found that Rich2-Shank3 interaction is increased in dendritic spines of mouse cultured hippocampal neurons during LTP. We further characterized Rich2 as an endosomal recycling protein that controls AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit exocytosis and spine morphology. Knock-down of Rich2 with siRNA, or disruption of the Rich2-Shank3 complex using an interfering mimetic peptide, inhibited the dendritic spine enlargement and the increase in GluA1 subunit exocytosis typical of LTP. These results identify Rich2-Shank3 as a new postsynaptic protein complex involved in synaptic plasticity.
|Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) modulates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent intracellular signaling and NMDA-induced regulation of postsynaptic protein complexes. |
Nakajima, C; Kulik, A; Frotscher, M; Herz, J; Schäfer, M; Bock, HH; May, P
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 21909-23 2013
The lipoprotein receptor LRP1 is essential in neurons of the central nervous system, as was revealed by the analysis of conditional Lrp1-deficient mouse models. The molecular basis of its neuronal functions, however, is still incompletely understood. Here we show by immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy, and postsynaptic density preparation that LRP1 is located postsynaptically. Basal and NMDA-induced phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) as well as NMDA target gene transcription are reduced in LRP1-deficient neurons. In control neurons, NMDA promotes γ-secretase-dependent release of the LRP1 intracellular domain (LRP1-ICD). However, pull-down and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed no direct interaction between the LRP1-ICD and either CREB or target gene promoters. On the other hand, NMDA-induced degradation of the postsynaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 was impaired in the absence of LRP1, whereas its ubiquitination was increased, indicating that LRP1 influences the composition of postsynaptic protein complexes. Accordingly, NMDA-induced internalization of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 was impaired in LRP1-deficient neurons. These results show a role of LRP1 in the regulation and turnover of synaptic proteins, which may contribute to the reduced dendritic branching and to the neurological phenotype observed in the absence of LRP1.
|Soluble ICAM-5, a product of activity dependent proteolysis, increases mEPSC frequency and dendritic expression of GluA1. |
Lonskaya, I; Partridge, J; Lalchandani, RR; Chung, A; Lee, T; Vicini, S; Hoe, HS; Lim, ST; Conant, K
PloS one 8 e69136 2013
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc dependent endopeptidases that can be released from neurons in an activity dependent manner to play a role in varied forms of learning and memory. MMP inhibitors impair hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP), spatial memory, and behavioral correlates of drug addiction. Since MMPs are thought to influence LTP through a β1 integrin dependent mechanism, it has been suggested that these enzymes cleave specific substrates to generate integrin binding ligands. In previously published work, we have shown that neuronal activity stimulates rapid MMP dependent shedding of intercellular adhesion molecule-5 (ICAM-5), a synaptic adhesion molecule expressed on dendrites of the telencephalon. We have also shown that the ICAM-5 ectodomain can interact with β1 integrins to stimulate integrin dependent phosphorylation of cofilin, an event that occurs with dendritic spine maturation and LTP. In the current study, we investigate the potential for the ICAM-5 ectodomain to stimulate changes in α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptor (AMPAR) dependent glutamatergic transmission. Single cell recordings show that the ICAM-5 ectodomain stimulates an increase in the frequency, but not the amplitude, of AMPA mini excitatory post synaptic currents (mEPSCs). With biotinylation and precipitation assays, we also show that the ICAM-5 ectodomain stimulates an increase in membrane levels of GluA1, but not GluA2, AMPAR subunits. In addition, we observe an ICAM-5 associated increase in GluA1 phosphorylation at serine 845. Concomitantly, ICAM-5 affects an increase in GluA1 surface staining along dendrites without affecting an increase in dendritic spine number. Together these data are consistent with the possibility that soluble ICAM-5 increases glutamatergic transmission and that post-synaptic changes, including increased phosphorylation and dendritic insertion of GluA1, could contribute. We suggest that future studies are warranted to determine whether ICAM-5 is one of a select group of synaptic CAMs whose shedding contributes to MMP dependent effects on learning and memory.
|Semaphorin 3E-Plexin-D1 signaling controls pathway-specific synapse formation in the striatum. |
Ding, JB; Oh, WJ; Sabatini, BL; Gu, C
Nature neuroscience 15 215-23 2012
The proper formation of synaptic connectivity in the mammalian brain is critical for complex behavior. In the striatum, balanced excitatory synaptic transmission from multiple sources onto two classes of principal neurons is required for coordinated and voluntary motor control. Here we show that the interaction between the secreted semaphorin 3E (Sema3E) and its receptor Plexin-D1 is a critical determinant of synaptic specificity in cortico-thalamo-striatal circuits in mice. We find that Sema3e (encoding Sema3E) is highly expressed in thalamostriatal projection neurons, whereas in the striatum Plxnd1 (encoding Plexin-D1) is selectively expressed in direct-pathway medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Despite physical intermingling of the MSNs, genetic ablation of Plxnd1 or Sema3e results in functional and anatomical rearrangement of thalamostriatal synapses specifically in direct-pathway MSNs without effects on corticostriatal synapses. Thus, our results demonstrate that Sema3E and Plexin-D1 specify the degree of glutamatergic connectivity between a specific source and target in the complex circuitry of the basal ganglia.
|Genetic deletion of TNF receptor suppresses excitatory synaptic transmission via reducing AMPA receptor synaptic localization in cortical neurons. |
He, P; Liu, Q; Wu, J; Shen, Y
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 26 334-45 2012
The distribution of postsynaptic glutamate receptors has been shown to be regulated by proimmunocytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) signaling. The role of TNF-α receptor subtypes in mediating glutamate receptor expression, trafficking, and function still remains unclear. Here, we report that TNF receptor subtypes (TNFR1 and TNFR2) differentially modulate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) clustering and function in cultured cortical neurons. We find that genetic deletion of TNFR1 decreases surface expression and synaptic localization of the AMPAR GluA1 subunit, reduces the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC), and reduces AMPA-induced maximal whole-cell current. In addition, these results are not observed in TNFR2-deleted neurons. The decreased AMPAR expression and function in TNFR1-deleted cells are not significantly restored by short (2 h) or long (24 h) term exposure to TNF-α. In TNFR2-deleted cells, TNF-α promotes AMPAR trafficking to the synapse and increases mEPSC frequency. In the present study, we find no significant change in the GluN1 subunit of NMDAR clusters, location, and mEPSC. This includes applying or withholding the TNF-α treatment in both TNFR1- and TNFR2-deleted neurons. Our results indicate that TNF receptor subtype 1 but not 2 plays a critical role in modulating AMPAR clustering, suggesting that targeting TNFR1 gene might be a novel approach to preventing neuronal AMPAR-mediated excitotoxicity.
|Selective loss of AMPA receptors at corticothalamic synapses in the epileptic stargazer mouse. |
Z Barad,O Shevtsova,G W Arbuthnott,B Leitch
Neuroscience 217 2012
Absence seizures are common in the stargazer mutant mouse. The mutation underlying the epileptic phenotype in stargazers is a defect in the gene encoding the normal expression of the protein stargazin. Stargazin is involved in the membrane trafficking and synaptic targeting of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) at excitatory glutamatergic synapses. Thus, the genetic defect in the stargazer results in a loss of AMPARs and consequently, excitation at glutamatergic synapses. Absence seizures are known to arise in thalamocortical networks. In the present study we show for the first time, using Western blot analysis and quantitative immunogold cytochemistry, that in the epileptic stargazer mouse, there is a global loss of AMPAR protein in nucleus reticularis (RTN) and a selective loss of AMPARs at corticothalamic synapses in inhibitory neurons of the RTN thalamus. In contrast, there is no significant loss of AMPARs at corticothalamic synapses in excitatory relay neurons in the thalamic ventral posterior (VP) region. The findings of this study thus provide cellular and molecular evidence for a selective regional loss of synaptic AMPAR within the RTN that could account for the loss of function at these inhibitory neuron synapses, which has previously been reported from electrophysiological studies. The specific loss of AMPARs at RTN but not relay synapses in the thalamus of the stargazer, could contribute to the absence epilepsy phenotype by altering thalamocortical network oscillations. This is supported by recent evidence that loss of glutamate receptor subunit 4 (GluA4) (the predominant AMPAR-subtype in the thalamus), also leads to a specific reduction in strength in the cortico-RTN pathway and enhanced thalamocortical oscillations, in the Gria4(-/-) model of absence epilepsy. Thus further study of thalamic changes in these models could be important for future development of drugs targeted to absence epilepsy.
|Genetic deletion of NR3A accelerates glutamatergic synapse maturation. |
Henson, MA; Larsen, RS; Lawson, SN; Pérez-Otaño, I; Nakanishi, N; Lipton, SA; Philpot, BD
PloS one 7 e42327 2012
Glutamatergic synapse maturation is critically dependent upon activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs); however, the contributions of NR3A subunit-containing NMDARs to this process have only begun to be considered. Here we characterized the expression of NR3A in the developing mouse forebrain and examined the consequences of NR3A deletion on excitatory synapse maturation. We found that NR3A is expressed in many subcellular compartments, and during early development, NR3A subunits are particularly concentrated in the postsynaptic density (PSD). NR3A levels dramatically decline with age and are no longer enriched at PSDs in juveniles and adults. Genetic deletion of NR3A accelerates glutamatergic synaptic transmission, as measured by AMPAR-mediated postsynaptic currents recorded in hippocampal CA1. Consistent with the functional observations, we observed that the deletion of NR3A accelerated the expression of the glutamate receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and GluR1 in the PSD in postnatal day (P) 8 mice. These data support the idea that glutamate receptors concentrate at synapses earlier in NR3A-knockout (NR3A-KO) mice. The precocious maturation of both AMPAR function and glutamate receptor expression are transient in NR3A-KO mice, as AMPAR currents and glutamate receptor protein levels are similar in NR3A-KO and wildtype mice by P16, an age when endogenous NR3A levels are normally declining. Taken together, our data support a model whereby NR3A negatively regulates the developmental stabilization of glutamate receptors involved in excitatory neurotransmission, synaptogenesis, and spine growth.
|Altered glutamate receptor function in the cerebellum of the Ppt1-/- mouse, a murine model of infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. |
Rozzy Finn,Attila D Kovács,David A Pearce
Journal of neuroscience research 90 2012
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a family of devastating pediatric neurodegenerative disorders and currently represent the most common form of pediatric-onset neurodegeneration. Infantile NCL (INCL), the most aggressive of these disorders, is caused by mutations in the CLN1 gene that encodes the enzyme palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1 (PPT1). Previous studies have suggested that glutamatergic neurotransmission may be disrupted in INCL, so the present study investigates glutamate receptor function in the Ppt1(-/-) mouse model of INCL by comparing the sensitivity of cultured wild-type (WT) and Ppt1(-/-) cerebellar granule cells to glutamate receptor-mediated toxicity. Ppt1(-/-) neurons were significantly less sensitive to AMPA receptor-mediated toxicity but markedly more vulnerable to NMDA receptor-mediated cell death. Because glutamate receptor function is regulated primarily by the surface expression level of the receptor, the surface level of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits in the cerebella of WT and Ppt1(-/-) mice was also examined. Western blotting of surface cross-linked cerebellar samples showed a significantly lower surface level of the GluR4 AMPA receptor subunit in Ppt1(-/-) mice, providing a plausible explanation for the decreased vulnerability of Ppt1(-/-) cerebellar neurons to AMPA receptor-mediated cell death. The surface expression of the NR1, NR2A, and NR2B NMDA receptor subunits was similar in the cerebella of WT and Ppt1(-/-) mice, indicating that there is another mechanism behind the increased sensitivity of Ppt1(-/-) cerebellar granule cells to NMDA toxicity. Our results indicate an AMPA receptor hypofunction and NMDA receptor hyperfunction phenotype in Ppt1(-/-) neurons and provide new therapeutic targets for INCL.
|Deficits in LTP induction by 5-HT2A receptor antagonist in a mouse model for fragile X syndrome. |
Xu, ZH; Yang, Q; Ma, L; Liu, SB; Chen, GS; Wu, YM; Li, XQ; Liu, G; Zhao, MG
PloS one 7 e48741 2012
Fragile X syndrome is a common inherited form of mental retardation caused by the lack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) because of Fmr1 gene silencing. Serotonin (5-HT) is significantly increased in the null mutants of Drosophila Fmr1, and elevated 5-HT brain levels result in cognitive and behavioral deficits in human patients. The serotonin type 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) is highly expressed in the cerebral cortex; it acts on pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons to modulate cortical functions. 5-HT2AR and FMRP both regulate synaptic plasticity. Therefore, the lack of FMRP may affect serotoninergic activity. In this study, we determined the involvement of FMRP in the 5-HT modulation of synaptic potentiation with the use of primary cortical neuron culture and brain slice recording. Pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT2AR by R-96544 or ketanserin facilitated long-term potentiation (LTP) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of WT mice. The prefrontal LTP induction was dependent on the activation of NMDARs and elevation of postsynaptic Ca(2+) concentrations. By contrast, inhibition of 5-HT2AR could not restore the induction of LTP in the ACC of Fmr1 knock-out mice. Furthermore, 5-HT2AR inhibition induced AMPA receptor GluR1 subtype surface insertion in the cultured ACC neurons of Fmr1 WT mice, however, GluR1 surface insertion by inhibition of 5-HT2AR was impaired in the neurons of Fmr1KO mice. These findings suggested that FMRP was involved in serotonin receptor signaling and contributed in GluR1 surface expression induced by 5-HT2AR inactivation.
|Rapid enrichment of presynaptic protein in boutons undergoing classical conditioning is mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. |
Li, W and Keifer, J
Neuroscience, 203: 50-8 (2012) 2012
Presynaptic structural modifications are thought to accompany activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and learning. This may involve the conversion of nonfunctional synapses into active ones or the generation of entirely new synapses. Here, using an in vitro neural analog of classical conditioning, we investigated presynaptic structural changes restricted to auditory nerve synapses that convey the conditioned stimulus (CS) by tract tracing using fluorescent tracers combined with immunostaining for the synaptic vesicle-associated protein synaptophysin. The results show that the size of presynaptic auditory boutons increased and the area and fluorescence intensity of punctate staining for synaptophysin were enhanced after conditioning. This occurred only for auditory nerve boutons apposed to the dendrites but not the somata of abducens motor neurons. Conditioning increased the percentage of boutons that were immunopositive for synaptophysin and enhanced the number of synaptophysin puncta they contained. Pretreatment with antibodies against brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) inhibited these conditioning-induced structural changes. There was also a net increase in the number of boutons apposed to abducens motor neurons after conditioning or BDNF treatment. These data indicate that the rapid enrichment of presynaptic boutons with proteins required for neurotransmitter recycling and release occurs during classical conditioning and that these processes are mediated by BDNF.
|Distinct regional and subcellular localization of the actin-binding protein filamin a in the mature rat brain. |
Yoav Noam,Lise Phan,Shawn McClelland,Erik M Manders,Markus U Ehrengruber,Wytse J Wadman,Tallie Z Baram,Yuncai Chen
The Journal of comparative neurology 520 2012
Filamin A (FLNa) is an actin-binding protein that regulates cell motility, adhesion, and elasticity by cross-linking filamentous actin. Additional roles of FLNa include regulation of protein trafficking and surface expression. Although the functions of FLNa during brain development are well studied, little is known on its expression, distribution, and function in the adult brain. Here we characterize in detail the neuroanatomical distribution and subcellular localization of FLNa in the mature rat brain, by using two antisera directed against epitopes at either the N' or the C' terminus of the protein, further validated by mRNA expression. FLNa was widely and selectively expressed throughout the brain, and the intensity of immunoreactivity was region dependent. The most intensely FLNa-labeled neurons were found in discrete neuronal systems, including basal forebrain structures, anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and hypothalamic parvocellular neurons. Pyramidal neurons in neocortex and hippocampus and magnocellular cells in basolateral amygdaloid nucleus were also intensely FLNa immunoreactive, and strong FLNa labeling was evident in the pontine and medullary raphe nuclei and in sensory and spinal trigeminal nuclei. The subcellular localization of FLNa was evaluated in situ as well as in primary hippocampal neurons. Punctate expression was found in somata and along the dendritic shaft, but FLNa was not detected in dendritic spines. These subcellular distribution patterns were recapitulated in hippocampal and neocortical pyramidal neurons in vivo. The characterization of the expression and subcellular localization of FLNa may provide new clues to the functional roles of this cytoskeletal protein in the adult brain. J. Comp. Neurol. 520:3013-3034, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
|Two-stage AMPA receptor trafficking in classical conditioning and selective role for glutamate receptor subunit 4 (tGluA4) flop splice variant. |
Zheng, Zhaoqing, et al.
J. Neurophysiol., 108: 101-11 (2012) 2012
Previously, we proposed a two-stage model for an in vitro neural correlate of eyeblink classical conditioning involving the initial synaptic incorporation of glutamate receptor A1 (GluA1)-containing α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid type receptors (AMPARs) followed by delivery of GluA4-containing AMPARs that support acquisition of conditioned responses. To test specific elements of our model for conditioning, selective knockdown of GluA4 AMPAR subunits was used using small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Recently, we sequenced and characterized the GluA4 subunit and its splice variants from pond turtles, Trachemys scripta elegans (tGluA4). Analysis of the relative abundance of mRNA expression by real-time RT-PCR showed that the flip/flop variants of tGluA4, tGluA4c, and a novel truncated variant tGluA4trc1 are major isoforms in the turtle brain. Here, transfection of in vitro brain stem preparations with anti-tGluA4 siRNA suppressed conditioning, tGluA4 mRNA and protein expression, and synaptic delivery of tGluA4-containing AMPARs but not tGluA1 subunits. Significantly, transfection of abducens motor neurons by nerve injections of tGluA4 flop rescue plasmid prior to anti-tGluA4 siRNA application restored conditioning and synaptic incorporation of tGluA4-containing AMPARs. In contrast, treatment with rescue plasmids for tGluA4 flip or tGluA4trc1 failed to rescue conditioning. Finally, treatment with a siRNA directed against GluA1 subunits inhibited conditioning and synaptic delivery of tGluA1-containing AMPARs and importantly, those containing tGluA4. These data strongly support our two-stage model of conditioning and our hypothesis that synaptic incorporation of tGluA4-containing AMPARs underlies the acquisition of in vitro classical conditioning. Furthermore, they suggest that tGluA4 flop may have a critical role in conditioning mechanisms compared with the other tGluA4 splice variants.
|Evidence for a developmental role for TLR4 in learning and memory. |
Okun, E; Barak, B; Saada-Madar, R; Rothman, SM; Griffioen, KJ; Roberts, N; Castro, K; Mughal, MR; Pita, MA; Stranahan, AM; Arumugam, TV; Mattson, MP
PloS one 7 e47522 2012
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play essential roles in innate immunity and increasing evidence indicates that these receptors are expressed in neurons, astrocytes and microglia in the brain where they mediate responses to infection, stress and injury. Very little is known about the roles of TLRs in cognition. To test the hypothesis that TLR4 has a role in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory, we used mice deficient for TLR4 and mice receiving chronic TLR4 antagonist infusion to the lateral ventricles in the brain. We found that developmental TLR4 deficiency enhances spatial reference memory acquisition and memory retention, impairs contextual fear-learning and enhances motor functions, traits that were correlated with CREB up-regulation in the hippocampus. TLR4 antagonist infusion into the cerebral ventricles of adult mice did not affect cognitive behavior, but instead affected anxiety responses. Our findings indicate a developmental role for TLR4 in shaping spatial reference memory, and fear learning and memory. Moreover, we show that central TLR4 inhibition using a TLR4 antagonist has no discernible physiological role in regulating spatial and contextual hippocampus-dependent cognitive behavior.
|Natural reward experience alters AMPA and NMDA receptor distribution and function in the nucleus accumbens. |
Pitchers, KK; Schmid, S; Di Sebastiano, AR; Wang, X; Laviolette, SR; Lehman, MN; Coolen, LM
PloS one 7 e34700 2012
Natural reward and drugs of abuse converge upon the mesolimbic system which mediates motivation and reward behaviors. Drugs induce neural adaptations in this system, including transcriptional, morphological, and synaptic changes, which contribute to the development and expression of drug-related memories and addiction. Previously, it has been reported that sexual experience in male rats, a natural reward behavior, induces similar neuroplasticity in the mesolimbic system and affects natural reward and drug-related behavior. The current study determined whether sexual experience causes long-lasting changes in mating, or ionotropic glutamate receptor trafficking or function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), following 3 different reward abstinence periods: 1 day, 1 week, or 1 month after final mating session. Male Sprague Dawley rats mated during 5 consecutive days (sexual experience) or remained sexually naïve to serve as controls. Sexually experienced males displayed facilitation of initiation and performance of mating at each time point. Next, intracellular and membrane surface expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA: NR1 subunit) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA: GluA1, GluA2 subunits) receptors in the NAc was determined using a bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate (BS(3)) protein cross-linking assay followed by Western Blot analysis. NR1 expression was increased at 1 day abstinence both at surface and intracellular, but decreased at surface at 1 week of abstinence. GluA2 was increased intracellularly at 1 week and increased at the surface after 1 month of abstinence. Finally, whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiological recordings determined reduced AMPA/NMDA ratio of synaptic currents in NAc shell neurons following stimulation of cortical afferents in sexually experienced males after all reward abstinence periods. Together, these data show that sexual experience causes long-term alterations in glutamate receptor expression and function in the NAc. Although not identical, this sex experience-induced neuroplasticity has similarities to that caused by psychostimulants, suggesting common mechanisms for reinforcement of natural and drug reward.
|Brain-derived neurotrophic factor activation of CaM-kinase kinase via transient receptor potential canonical channels induces the translation and synaptic incorporation of GluA1-containing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors. |
Fortin, DA; Srivastava, T; Dwarakanath, D; Pierre, P; Nygaard, S; Derkach, VA; Soderling, TR
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 8127-37 2012
Glutamatergic synapses in early postnatal development transiently express calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs). Although these GluA2-lacking receptors are essential and are elevated in response to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), little is known regarding molecular mechanisms that govern their expression and synaptic insertion. Here we show that BDNF-induced GluA1 translation in rat primary hippocampal neurons requires the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) via calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK). Specifically, BDNF-mediated phosphorylation of threonine 308 (T308) in AKT, a known substrate of CaMKK and an upstream activator of mTOR-dependent translation, was prevented by (1) pharmacological inhibition of CaMKK with STO-609, (2) overexpression of a dominant-negative CaMKK, or (3) short hairpin-mediated knockdown of CaMKK. GluA1 surface expression induced by BDNF, as assessed by immunocytochemistry using an extracellular N-terminal GluA1 antibody or by surface biotinylation, was impaired following knockdown of CaMKK or treatment with STO-609. Activation of CaMKK by BDNF requires transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels as SKF-96365, but not the NMDA receptor antagonist d-APV, prevented BDNF-induced GluA1 surface expression as well as phosphorylation of CaMKI, AKT(T308), and mTOR. Using siRNA we confirmed the involvement of TRPC5 and TRPC6 subunits in BDNF-induced AKT(T308) phosphorylation. The BDNF-induced increase in mEPSC was blocked by IEM-1460, a selected antagonist of CP-AMPARs, as well as by the specific repression of acute GluA1 translation via siRNA to GluA1 but not GluA2. Together these data support the conclusion that newly synthesized GluA1 subunits, induced by BDNF, are readily incorporated into synapses where they enhance the expression of CP-AMPARs and synaptic strength.
|Long-lasting alterations in membrane properties, k(+) currents, and glutamatergic synaptic currents of nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons in a rat model of alcohol dependence. |
Marty, VN; Spigelman, I
Frontiers in neuroscience 6 86 2012
Chronic alcohol exposure causes marked changes in reinforcement mechanisms and motivational state that are thought to contribute to the development of cravings and relapse during protracted withdrawal. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is a key structure of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. Although the NAcc plays an important role in mediating alcohol-seeking behaviors, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced neuroadaptive changes in NAcc function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) treatment, a rat model of alcohol withdrawal and dependence, on intrinsic electrical membrane properties and glutamatergic synaptic transmission of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the NAcc core during protracted withdrawal. We show that CIE treatment followed by prolonged withdrawal increased the inward rectification of MSNs observed at hyperpolarized potentials. In addition, MSNs from CIE-treated animals displayed a lower input resistance, faster action potentials (APs), and larger fast afterhyperpolarizations (fAHPs) than MSNs from vehicle-treated animals, all suggestive of increases in K(+)-channel conductances. Significant increases in the Cs(+)-sensitive inwardly rectifying K(+)-current accounted for the increased input resistance, while increases in the A-type K(+)-current accounted for the faster APs and increased fAHPs in MSNs from CIE rats. We also show that the amplitude and the conductance of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR)-mediated mEPSCs were enhanced in CIE-treated animals due to an increase in a small fraction of functional postsynaptic GluA2-lacking AMPARs. These long-lasting modifications of excitability and excitatory synaptic receptor function of MSNs in the NAcc core could play a critical role in the neuroadaptive changes underlying alcohol withdrawal and dependence.
|Dendritic spine loss and neurodegeneration is rescued by Rab11 in models of Huntington's disease. |
Richards, P; Didszun, C; Campesan, S; Simpson, A; Horley, B; Young, KW; Glynn, P; Cain, K; Kyriacou, CP; Giorgini, F; Nicotera, P
Cell death and differentiation 18 191-200 2011
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein (htt) that mediates formation of intracellular protein aggregates. In the brains of HD patients and HD transgenic mice, accumulation of protein aggregates has been causally linked to lesions in axo-dendritic and synaptic compartments. Here we show that dendritic spines - sites of synaptogenesis - are lost in the proximity of htt aggregates because of functional defects in local endosomal recycling mediated by the Rab11 protein. Impaired exit from recycling endosomes (RE) and association of endocytosed protein with intracellular structures containing htt aggregates was demonstrated in cultured hippocampal neurons cells expressing a mutant htt fragment. Dendrites in hippocampal neurons became dystrophic around enlarged amphisome-like structures positive for Rab11, LC3 and mutant htt aggregates. Furthermore, Rab11 overexpression rescues neurodegeneration and dramatically extends lifespan in a Drosophila model of HD. Our findings are consistent with the model that mutant htt aggregation increases local autophagic activity, thereby sequestering Rab11 and diverting spine-forming cargo from RE into enlarged amphisomes. This mechanism may contribute to the toxicity caused by protein misfolding found in a number of neurodegenerative diseases.
|Expression of the AMPA Receptor Subunits GluR1 and GluR2 is Associated with Granule Cell Maturation in the Dentate Gyrus. |
Hagihara, H; Ohira, K; Toyama, K; Miyakawa, T
Frontiers in neuroscience 5 100 2011
The dentate gyrus produces new granule neurons throughout adulthood in mammals from rodents to humans. During granule cell maturation, defined markers are expressed in a highly regulated sequential process, which is necessary for directed neuronal differentiation. In the present study, we show that α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methy-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor subunits GluR1 and GluR2 are expressed in differentiated granule cells, but not in stem cells, in neonatal, and adult dentate gyrus. Using markers for neural progenitors, immature and mature granule cells, we found that GluR1 and GluR2 were expressed mainly in mature cells and in some immature cells. A time-course analysis of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine staining revealed that granule cells express GluR1 around 3 weeks after being generated. In mice heterozygous for the alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, a putative animal model of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in which dentate gyrus granule cells fail to mature normally, GluR1 and GluR2 immunoreactivities were substantially downregulated in the dentate gyrus granule cells. In the granule cells of mutant mice, the expression of both presynaptic and postsynaptic markers was decreased, suggesting that GluR1 and GluR2 are also associated with synaptic maturation. Moreover, GluR1 and GluR2 were also expressed in mature granule cells of the neonatal dentate gyrus. Taken together, these findings indicate that GluR1 and GluR2 expression closely correlates with the neuronal maturation state, and that GluR1 and GluR2 are useful markers for mature granule cells in the dentate gyrus.
|Immunohistochemical localization of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits in the nucleus of the Edinger-Westphal in embryonic chick. |
Toledo, CA; Reiner, A; Patel, RS; Vitale, AW; Klein, JM; Dalsania, BJ; Fitzgerald, ME
Neuroscience letters 498 199-203 2011
The Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) in birds is responsible for the control of pupil constriction, accommodation, and choroidal blood flow. The activation of EW neurons is mediated by the neurotransmitter glutamate, in large part through AMPA-type glutamate receptors (GluRs), whose behavior varies according to the subunit composition. We investigated the developmental expression of the GluR subunits in EW of the chick (Gallus gallus) using immunohistochemistry on tissue from embryonic days 10 through 20 (E10-E20). Of the three antibodies used, one recognized the GluR1 subunit, another the GluR4 subunit, and the third recognized a sequence common to GluR2 and GluR3 subunits. No immunolabeling of EW neurons for any GluR subunits was observed prior to E12, although immunolabeling was seen in somatic oculomotor prior to E12. At E12, immunoreactivity for each of the three antibodies was in only approximately 2% of EW neurons. By E14, the abundance of GluR1+ perikarya in EW had increased to 13%, and for GluR2/3 had increased to 48%. The perikaryal abundance of the immunoreactivity for GluR1 and GluR2/3 declined to 3% and 23%, respectively, by E16. At E14, 33% of EW neurons immunolabeled for GluR4, and their frequency increased to 43% by E16, and remained at that approximate percentage through hatching. The increased expression of GluR1 and GluR4 in EW at E14 coincides with the reported onset of the expression of the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin, and the calcium currents associated with AMPA receptors formed by these two subunits may play a role in the occurrence of parvalbumin expression.
|Effects of acute cocaine or dopamine receptor agonists on AMPA receptor distribution in the rat nucleus accumbens. |
Ferrario, CR; Li, X; Wolf, ME
Synapse (New York, N.Y.) 65 54-63 2011
Changes in α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor (AMPAR) surface expression in the rodent nucleus accumbens (NAc) are produced by cocaine exposure and implicated in addiction-related behaviors. The direction of change depends on the animal's prior drug history. However, little is known about the effect of a single exposure to cocaine on AMPAR distribution in the NAc of untreated rats. This is essential information for interpreting the literature on AMPAR trafficking after repeated cocaine exposure. In this study, we used a protein crosslinking assay to determine the effect of a single cocaine injection on surface and intracellular AMPAR subunit levels in the rat NAc. We found increased AMPAR surface expression in the NAc 24 h, but not 30 min or 2 h, after cocaine injection. A major effect of cocaine is to increase extracellular dopamine (DA) levels, leading to DA receptor activation. Therefore, we also evaluated the effects of directly acting DA receptor agonists. In contrast to the effects of cocaine, AMPAR surface expression was significantly decreased 24 h after injection of the D2-class agonist quinpirole, whereas no significant effects were produced by the D1-class agonist SKF 81297 or the mixed DA agonist apomorphine. Our results show that the effects of a single cocaine exposure in drug- and injection-naïve rats are distinct from those previously reported after repeated cocaine administration. They further suggest that cocaine exerts these effects by influencing neuronal circuits rather than simply stimulating NAc DA transmission.
|Immunohistochemical identification and synaptic inputs to the diffuse bipolar cell type DB1 in macaque retina. |
Puthussery, T; Gayet-Primo, J; Taylor, WR; Haverkamp, S
The Journal of comparative neurology 519 3640-56 2011
Detailed analysis of the synaptic inputs to the primate DB1 bipolar cell has been precluded by the absence of a suitable immunohistochemical marker. Here we demonstrate that antibodies for the EF-hand calcium-binding protein, secretagogin, strongly label the DB1 bipolar cell as well as a mixed population of GABAergic amacrine cells in the macaque retina. Using secretagogin as a marker, we show that the DB1 bipolar makes synaptic contact with both L/M as well as S-cone photoreceptors and only minimal contact with rod photoreceptors. Electron microscopy showed that the DB1 bipolar makes flat contacts at both triad-associated and nontriad-associated positions on the cone pedicle. Double labeling with various glutamate receptor subunit antibodies failed to conclusively determine the subunit composition of the glutamate receptors on DB1 bipolar cells. In the IPL, DB1 bipolar cell axon terminals expressed the glycine receptor, GlyRα1, at sites of contact with AII amacrine cells, suggesting that these cells receive input from the rod pathway.
|Morphological changes and synaptogenesis of corticothalamic neurons in the somatosensory cortex of rat during perinatal development. |
Hsu, CI; Ho, TS; Liou, YR; Chang, YC
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 21 884-95 2011
When rat fetuses grew from embryonic day (E) 18 to the day of birth (P0), the corticothalamic (CT) neurons, as identified by back labeling with 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine (DiI), in the somatosensory cortex underwent gradual changes in the shape of their cell bodies, in their distribution in the cortical plate and in the complexity of dendritic branching. Fluorescence immunocytochemical studies indicated that in the marginal zone (MZ) the apical dendrites of the CT neurons formed contacts with horizontally oriented axons and contained putative glutamatergic, as clusters exhibiting both synaptophysin and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor GluR1 subunit immunoreactivities, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic synapses, as clusters exhibiting both synaptophysin and gephyrin immunoreactivities. Quantitative analyses further revealed that during this perinatal period, the proportion of CT neurons containing glutamatergic synapses increased significantly, whereas the proportion of CT neurons containing GABAergic synapses remained virtually unchanged. Our results indicate that glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses between the CT neurons and the axons in the MZ are already formed in rat cortices as early as E18 and further suggest that the activities of the neural networks in the somatosensory cortex could be conveyed to their targets in the thalamus in rat brains at least 3 days before birth.
|Quantitative analysis of AMPA receptor subunit composition in addiction-related brain regions. |
Reimers, JM; Milovanovic, M; Wolf, ME
Brain research 1367 223-33 2011
The subunit composition of α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (AMPARs) is an important determinant of AMPAR biophysical properties and trafficking. To date, AMPAR subunit composition has been quantitatively evaluated only for the hippocampus, where different experimental approaches have yielded different results. Here, we used quantitative co-immunoprecipitation to characterize GluA1-3 associations in the adult rat nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus, and blue native electrophoresis (BNE) to study GluA1-3 assembly state. In all brain regions, co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that ~90% of GluA1 was associated with GluA2 or GluA3 (most was GluA1A2). All regions contained a small number of GluA1A3 receptors. Homomeric GluA1 receptors may also exist. More than half of the GluA2 (53%-65% depending on the region) was not associated with GluA1. However, this represents an over-estimate of the percent of GluA2 present in GluA2A3 receptors, based on BNE results demonstrating that the majority of GluA2 exists as dimers, rather than functional tetrameric receptors. Relatively more GluA1 was present in tetramers. Together with other findings, our results suggest a dominant role for GluA1A2 receptors in all brain regions examined. They also help explain why different results for hippocampal AMPAR subunit composition were obtained using co-immunoprecipitation, which assesses the total cellular pool of AMPARs including partially assembled AMPARs in intracellular compartments, and electrophysiological approaches, which can selectively assess tetrameric (functional) AMPARs on the cell surface.
|Alterations in AMPA receptor subunits and TARPs in the rat nucleus accumbens related to the formation of Ca²⁺-permeable AMPA receptors during the incubation of cocaine craving. |
Ferrario, CR; Loweth, JA; Milovanovic, M; Ford, KA; Galiñanes, GL; Heng, LJ; Tseng, KY; Wolf, ME
Neuropharmacology 61 1141-51 2011
Cue-induced cocaine seeking intensifies or incubates after withdrawal from extended access cocaine self-administration, a phenomenon termed incubation of cocaine craving. The expression of incubated craving is mediated by Ca²⁺-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Thus, CP-AMPARs are a potential target for therapeutic intervention, making it important to understand mechanisms that govern their accumulation. Here we used subcellular fractionation and biotinylation of NAc tissue to examine the abundance and distribution of AMPAR subunits, and GluA1 phosphorylation, in the incubation model. We also studied two transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs), γ-2 and γ-4. Our results, together with earlier findings, suggest that some of the new CP-AMPARs are synaptic. These are probably associated with γ-2, but they are loosely tethered to the PSD. Levels of GluA1 phosphorylated at serine 845 (pS845 GluA1) were significantly increased in biotinylated tissue and in an extrasynaptic membrane-enriched fraction. These results suggest that increased synaptic levels of CP-AMPARs may result in part from an increase in pS845 GluA1 in extrasynaptic membranes, given that S845 phosphorylation primes GluA1-containing AMPARs for synaptic insertion and extrasynaptic AMPARs supply the synapse. Some of the new extrasynaptic CP-AMPARs are likely associated with γ-4, rather than γ-2. The maintenance of CP-AMPARs in NAc synapses during withdrawal is accompanied by activation of CaMKII and ERK2 but not CaMKI. Overall, AMPAR plasticity in the incubation model shares some features with better described forms of synaptic plasticity, although the timing of the phenomenon and the persistence of related neuroadaptations are significantly different.
|Acute neuregulin-1 signaling influences AMPA receptor mediated responses in cultured cerebellar granule neurons. |
Fenster C, Vullhorst D, Buonanno A
Brain research bulletin 2011
Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is a trophic and differentiation factor that signals through ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases to regulate nervous system development. Previous studies have demonstrated that NRG1 affects plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in principal glutamatergic neurons of the hippocampus and frontal cortex; however, immunohistochemical and genetic analyses strongly suggest these effects are indirect and mediated via ErbB4 receptors on GABAergic interneurons. Here, we used cultured cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) that express ErbB4 to analyze the cell-autonomous effects of NRG1 stimulation on glutamatergic function. These cultures have the advantage that they are relatively homogenous and consist primarily of granule neurons that express ErbB4. We show that acute NRG1 treatment does not affect whole-cell AMPA or NMDA receptor (NMDAR) mediated currents in CGCs at 10-12 days in vitro. NRG1 also does not affect the frequency or amplitude of spontaneous AMPAR or NMDAR mediated miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs). To further investigate the effects of NRG1 on activity-dependent plasticity of glutamatergic synapses in CGCs, we characterized the effects of high-glyine/0 Mg(2+) (which activates synaptic NMDARs) on AMPAR-mEPSC frequency and amplitude. We show that high-glycine induces a form of chemical long-term potentiation (chemLTP) in CGCs characterized by an increase in AMPAR-mEPSC frequency but not amplitude. Moreover, NRG1 induces a decrease in AMPAR-mEPSC frequency following chemLTP, but does not affect AMPAR-mEPSC amplitude. CGCs in our cultures conditions express low levels of GluR1, in contrast to dissociated hippocampal cultures, but do express the long isoform of GluR4. This study provides first evidence that (1) high-glycine can induce plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in CGCs, and (2) that acute NRG1/ErbB-signaling can regulate glutamatergic plasticity in CGCs. Taken together with previous reports, our results suggest that, similar to Schaeffer collateral to CA1 synapses, NRG1 effects are activity dependent and mediated via modulation of synaptic AMPARs.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Cannabinoid receptor type 1 expression during postnatal development of the rat retina. |
Zabouri N, Bouchard JF, Casanova C
J Comp Neurol 519 1258-80. doi 2011
|Cornichon-2 modulates AMPA receptor-transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein assembly to dictate gating and pharmacology. |
Gill, MB; Kato, AS; Roberts, MF; Yu, H; Wang, H; Tomita, S; Bredt, DS
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 6928-38 2011
Neuronal AMPA receptor complexes comprise a tetramer of GluA pore-forming subunits as well as accessory components, including transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) and cornichon-2/3 (CNIH-2/3). The mechanisms that control AMPA receptor complex assembly remain unclear. AMPA receptor responses in neurons differ from those in cell lines transfected with GluA plus TARPs γ-8 or γ-7, which show unusual resensitization kinetics and non-native AMPA receptor pharmacologies. Using tandem GluA/TARP constructs to constrain stoichiometry, we show here that these peculiar kinetic and pharmacological signatures occur in channels with four TARP subunits per complex. Reducing the number of TARPs per complex produces AMPA receptors with neuron-like kinetics and pharmacologies, suggesting a neuronal mechanism controls GluA/TARP assembly. Importantly, we find that coexpression of CNIH-2 with GluA/TARP complexes reduces TARP stoichiometry within AMPA receptors. In both rat and mouse hippocampal neurons, CNIH-2 also associates with AMPA receptors on the neuronal surface in a γ-8-dependent manner to dictate receptor pharmacology. In the cerebellum, however, CNIH-2 expressed in Purkinje neurons does not reach the neuronal surface. In concordance, stargazer Purkinje neurons, which express CNIH-2 and γ-7, display AMPA receptor kinetics/pharmacologies that can only be recapitulated recombinantly by a low γ-7/GluA stoichiometry. Together, these data suggest that CNIH-2 modulates neuronal AMPA receptor auxiliary subunit assembly by regulating the number of TARPs within an AMPA receptor complex to modulate receptor gating and pharmacology.
|Gestational nicotine exposure regulates expression of AMPA and NMDA receptors and their signaling apparatus in developing and adult rat hippocampus. |
Wang, H; Dávila-García, MI; Yarl, W; Gondré-Lewis, MC
Neuroscience 188 168-81 2011
Untimely activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by nicotine results in short- and long-term consequences on learning and behavior. In this study, the aim was to determine how prenatal nicotine exposure affects components of glutamatergic signaling in the hippocampus during postnatal development. We investigated regulation of both nAChRs and glutamate receptors for AMPA and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), from postnatal day 1 (P1) to P63 after a temporally restricted exposure to saline or nicotine for 14 days in utero. We analyzed postsynaptic density components associated with AMPA receptor (AMPAR) and NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling: calmodulin (CaM), CaM Kinase II alpha (CaMKIIα), and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95), as well as presynaptically localized synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25). At P1, there was significantly heightened expression of AMPAR subunit GluR1 but not GluR2, and of NMDAR subunits NR1, NR2a, and NR2d but not NR2b. NR2c was not detectable. CaM, CaMKIIα, and PSD95 were also significantly upregulated at P1, together with presynaptic SNAP25. This enhanced expression of glutamate receptors and signaling proteins was concomitant with elevated levels of [³H]epibatidine (³H]EB) binding in prenatal nicotine-exposed hippocampus, indicating that α4β2 nAChR may influence glutamatergic function in the hippocampus at P1. By P14, neither [³H]EB binding nor the expression levels of subunits GluR1, GluR2, NR1, NR2a, NR2b, NR2c, or NR2d seemed changed with prenatal nicotine. However, CaMKIIα was significantly upregulated with nicotine treatment while CaM showed downregulation at P14. The effects of nicotine persisted in P63 young adult brains which exhibited significantly downregulated GluR2, NR1, and NR2c expression levels in hippocampal homogenates and a considerably muted overall distribution of [³H]AMPA binding in areas CA1, CA2 and CA3, and the dentate gyrus. Our results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure can regulate the glutamatergic signaling system throughout postnatal development by enhancing or inhibiting availability of AMPAR and NMDAR or their signaling components. The persistent depression, in adults, of the requisite NR1 subunit for NMDAR assembly, and of GluR2, important for assembly, trafficking, and biophysical properties of AMPAR, indicates that nicotine may alter ionotropic glutamate receptor stoichiometry and functional properties in adults after prenatally restricted nicotine exposure.
|Endogenous GluR1-containing AMPA receptors translocate to asymmetric synapses in the lateral amygdala during the early phase of fear memory formation: an electron microscopic immunocytochemical study. |
Nedelescu, H; Kelso, CM; Lázaro-Muñoz, G; Purpura, M; Cain, CK; Ledoux, JE; Aoki, C
The Journal of comparative neurology 518 4723-39 2010
Although glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1)-containing α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (GluR1-AMPARs) are implicated in synaptic plasticity, it has yet to be demonstrated whether endogenous GluR1-AMPARs undergo activity-dependent trafficking in vivo to synapses to support short-term memory (STM) formation. The paradigm of pavlovian fear conditioning (FC) can be used to address this question, because a discrete region-the lateral amygdala (LA)-has been shown unambiguously to be necessary for the formation of the associative memory between a neutral stimulus (tone [CS]) and a noxious stimulus (foot shock [US]). Acquisition of STM for FC can occur even in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors, indicating that redistribution of pre-existing molecules to synaptic junctions underlies STM. We employed electron microscopic immunocytochemistry to evaluate alterations in the distribution of endogenous AMPAR subunits at LA synapses during the STM phase of FC. Rats were sacrificed 40 minutes following three CS-US pairings. In the LA of paired animals, relative to naïve animals, the proportion of GluR1-AMPAR-labeled synapses increased 99% at spines and 167% in shafts. In the LA of unpaired rats, for which the CS was never associated with the US, GluR1 immunoreactivity decreased 84% at excitatory shaft synapses. GluR2/3 immunoreactivity at excitatory synapses did not change detectably following paired or unpaired conditioning. Thus, the early phase of FC involves rapid redistribution specifically of the GluR1-AMPARs to the postsynaptic membranes in the LA, together with the rapid translocation of GluR1-AMPARs from remote sites into the spine head cytoplasm, yielding behavior changes that are specific to stimulus contingencies.
|SNAP-25 is a target of protein kinase C phosphorylation critical to NMDA receptor trafficking. |
Lau, CG; Takayasu, Y; Rodenas-Ruano, A; Paternain, AV; Lerma, J; Bennett, MV; Zukin, RS
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 242-54 2010
Protein kinase C (PKC) enhances NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated currents and promotes NMDAR delivery to the cell surface via SNARE-dependent exocytosis. Although the mechanisms of PKC potentiation are established, the molecular target of PKC is unclear. Here we show that synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25), a SNARE protein, is functionally relevant to PKC-dependent NMDAR insertion, and identify serine residue-187 as the molecular target of PKC phosphorylation. Constitutively active PKC delivered via the patch pipette potentiated NMDA (but not AMPA) whole-cell currents in hippocampal neurons. Expression of RNAi targeting SNAP-25 or mutant SNAP-25(S187A) and/or acute disruption of the SNARE complex by treatment with BoNT A, BoNT B or SNAP-25 C-terminal blocking peptide abolished NMDAR potentiation. A SNAP-25 peptide and function-blocking antibody suppressed PKC potentiation of NMDA EPSCs at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. These findings identify SNAP-25 as the target of PKC phosphorylation critical to PKC-dependent incorporation of synaptic NMDARs and document a postsynaptic action of this major SNARE protein relevant to synaptic plasticity.
|Two populations of neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing projection neurons in lamina I of the rat spinal cord that differ in AMPA receptor subunit composition and density of excitatory synaptic input. |
Polgár, E; Al Ghamdi, KS; Todd, AJ
Neuroscience 167 1192-204 2010
Lamina I of the spinal cord contains many projection neurons that express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r). It has been reported that these cells can undergo long-term potentiation (LTP), which may result from insertion of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPArs) containing GluA1 or GluA4 subunits. We therefore investigated synaptic AMPAr expression on these cells with immunocytochemistry following antigen-retrieval. We also examined their density of glutamatergic input (by analysing AMPAr synaptic puncta and contacts from glutamatergic boutons), and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (pERKs) following noxious stimulation. Our results indicate that there are two populations of NK1r-expressing projection neurons: large GluA4(+)/GluA1(-) cells with a high density of glutamatergic input and small GluA1(+)/GluA4(-) cells with a much lower input density. Results from pERK experiments suggested that the two groups may not differ in the types of noxious stimulus that activate them. Glutamatergic synapses on distal dendrites of the large cells were significantly longer than those on proximal dendrites, which presumably compensates for the greater attenuation of distally-generated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Both types of cell received contacts from peptidergic primary afferents, however, on the large cells these appeared to constitute over half of the glutamatergic synapses, and were often associated with elongated AMPAr puncta. This suggests that these afferents, which probably contain substance P, provide a powerful, secure synaptic input to large NK1r-expressing projection neurons. These results demonstrate the importance of GluA4-containing AMPArs in nociceptive transmission and raise the possibility that different forms of LTP in lamina I projection neurons may be related to differential expression of GluA1/GluA4.Full Text Article
|Phosphodiesterase 11A in brain is enriched in ventral hippocampus and deletion causes psychiatric disease-related phenotypes. |
Kelly MP, Logue SF, Brennan J, Day JP, Lakkaraju S, Jiang L, Zhong X, Tam M, Sukoff Rizzo SJ, Platt BJ, Dwyer JM, Neal S, Pulito VL, Agostino MJ, Grauer SM, Navarra RL, Kelley C, Comery TA, Murrills RJ, Houslay MD, Brandon NJ.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010
Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) is the most recently identified family of phosphodiesterases (PDEs), the only known enzymes to break down cyclic nucleotides. The tissue expression profile of this dual specificity PDE is controversial, and little is understood of its biological function, particularly in the brain. We seek here to determine if PDE11A is expressed in the brain and to understand its function, using PDE11A(-/-) knockout (KO) mice. We show that PDE11A mRNA and protein are largely restricted to hippocampus CA1, subiculum, and the amygdalohippocampal area, with a two- to threefold enrichment in the ventral vs. dorsal hippocampus, equal distribution between cytosolic and membrane fractions, and increasing levels of protein expression from postnatal day 7 through adulthood. Interestingly, PDE11A KO mice show subtle psychiatric-disease-related deficits, including hyperactivity in an open field, increased sensitivity to the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801, as well as deficits in social behaviors (social odor recognition memory and social avoidance). In addition, PDE11A KO mice show enlarged lateral ventricles and increased activity in CA1 (as per increased Arc mRNA), phenotypes associated with psychiatric disease. The increased sensitivity to MK-801 exhibited by PDE11A KO mice may be explained by the biochemical dysregulation observed around the glutamate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isozazolepropionic (AMPA) receptor, including decreased levels of phosphorylated-GluR1 at Ser845 and the prototypical transmembrane AMPA-receptor-associated proteins stargazin (gamma2) and gamma8. Together, our data provide convincing evidence that PDE11A expression is restricted in the brain but plays a significant role in regulating brain function.
|Increased insertion of GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors at hippocampal synapses upon repeated morphine administration. |
Billa SK, Liu J, Bjorklund NL, Sinha N, Fu Y, Shinnick-Gallagher P, MorÃ³n JA
Molecular pharmacology 77 874-83 Epub 2010 Feb 16 2010
Evidence suggests that the long-term adaptations in the hippocampus after repeated drug treatment may parallel its role during memory formation. The neuroplasticity that subserves learning and memory is also believed to underlie addictive processes. We have reported previously that repeated morphine administration alters local distribution of endocytic proteins at hippocampal synapses, which could in turn affect expression of glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic systems, including alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPARs), are believed to be involved in opiate-induced neuronal and behavioral plasticity, although the mechanisms underlying these effects are only beginning to be understood. The present study further examines the effects of repeated morphine administration on the expression and composition of AMPARs and the functional ramifications. Twelve hours after the last morphine injection, we observed an increased expression of AMPARs lacking glutamate receptor (GluR) 2 in hippocampal synaptic fractions. Immunoblotting studies show that 12 h after morphine treatment, GluR1 subunits are increased at the postsynaptic density (PSD) and at extrasynaptic sites, whereas GluR3 subunits are only increased at the PSD, and they show how this alters receptor subunit composition. In addition, we provide electrophysiological evidence that AMPARs are switched to Ca(2+)-permeable (GluR2-lacking) at the synapse 12 h after repeated morphine treatment, affecting the magnitude of long-term depression at hippocampal neurons. We propose that morphine-induced changes in glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampus may play an important role in the neuroadaptations induced by repeated morphine administration.
|Morphine induces AMPA receptor internalization in primary hippocampal neurons via calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation of GluR1 subunits. |
Kam, AY; Liao, D; Loh, HH; Law, PY
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 15304-16 2010
Chronic morphine treatment resulting in the alteration of postsynaptic levels of AMPA receptors, thereby modulating synaptic strength, has been reported. However, the mechanism underlying such drug-induced synaptic modification has not been resolved. By monitoring the GluR1 trafficking in primary hippocampal neurons using the pHluorin-GluR1 imaging and biotinylation studies, we observed that prolonged morphine exposure significantly induced loss of synaptic and extrasynaptic GluR1 by internalization. The morphine-induced GluR1 endocytosis was independent of neural network activities or NMDA receptor activities, as neither blocking the sodium channels with tetrodotoxin nor NMDA receptors with dl-APV altered the effects of morphine. Instead, morphine-induced GluR1 endocytosis is attributed to a change in the phosphorylation state of the GluR1 at Ser(845) as morphine significantly decreased the dephosphorylation of GluR1 at this site. Such changes in Ser(845) phosphorylation required morphine-induced activation of calcineurin, based on the observations that a calcineurin inhibitor, FK506, completely abrogated the dephosphorylation, and morphine treatment led to an increase in calcineurin enzymatic activity, even in the presence of dl-APV. Importantly, pretreatment with FK506 and overexpression of the GluR1 mutants, S845D (phospho-mimic) or S845A (phospho-blocking) attenuated the morphine-induced GluR1 endocytosis. Therefore, the calcineurin-mediated GluR1-S845 dephosphorylation is critical for the morphine-induced changes in the postsynaptic AMPA receptor level. Together, these findings reveal a novel molecular mechanism for opioid-induced neuronal adaptation and/or synaptic impairment.
|Ionotropic glutamate receptor AMPA 1 is associated with ovulation rate. |
Sugimoto, M; Sasaki, S; Watanabe, T; Nishimura, S; Ideta, A; Yamazaki, M; Matsuda, K; Yuzaki, M; Sakimura, K; Aoyagi, Y; Sugimoto, Y
PloS one 5 e13817 2010
Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate most excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system by opening ion channels upon the binding of glutamate. Despite the essential roles of glutamate in the control of reproduction and anterior pituitary hormone secretion, there is a limited understanding of how glutamate receptors control ovulation. Here we reveal the function of the ionotropic glutamate receptor AMPA-1 (GRIA1) in ovulation. Based on a genome-wide association study in Bos taurus, we found that ovulation rate is influenced by a variation in the N-terminal leucine/isoleucine/valine-binding protein (LIVBP) domain of GRIA1, in which serine is replaced by asparagine. GRIA1(Asn) has a weaker affinity to glutamate than GRIA1(Ser), both in Xenopus oocytes and in the membrane fraction of bovine brain. This single amino acid substitution leads to the decreased release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in immortalized hypothalamic GT1-7 cells. Cows with GRIA1(Asn) have a slower luteinizing hormone (LH) surge than cows with GRIA1(Ser). In addition, cows with GRIA1(Asn) possess fewer immature ovarian follicles before superovulation and have a lower response to hormone treatment than cows with GRIA1(Ser). Our work identified that GRIA1 is a critical mediator of ovulation and that GRIA1 might be a useful target for reproductive therapy.Full Text Article
|Haploinsufficiency of the autism-associated Shank3 gene leads to deficits in synaptic function, social interaction, and social communication. |
Bozdagi, O; Sakurai, T; Papapetrou, D; Wang, X; Dickstein, DL; Takahashi, N; Kajiwara, Y; Yang, M; Katz, AM; Scattoni, ML; Harris, MJ; Saxena, R; Silverman, JL; Crawley, JN; Zhou, Q; Hof, PR; Buxbaum, JD
Molecular autism 1 15 2010
SHANK3 is a protein in the core of the postsynaptic density (PSD) and has a critical role in recruiting many key functional elements to the PSD and to the synapse, including components of α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA), metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) glutamate receptors, as well as cytoskeletal elements. Loss of a functional copy of the SHANK3 gene leads to the neurobehavioral manifestations of 22q13 deletion syndrome and/or to autism spectrum disorders. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of haploinsufficiency of full-length Shank3 in mice, focusing on synaptic development, transmission and plasticity, as well as on social behaviors, as a model for understanding SHANK3 haploinsufficiency in humans.We used mice with a targeted disruption of Shank3 in which exons coding for the ankyrin repeat domain were deleted and expression of full-length Shank3 was disrupted. We studied synaptic transmission and plasticity by multiple methods, including patch-clamp whole cell recording, two-photon time-lapse imaging and extracellular recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials. We also studied the density of GluR1-immunoreactive puncta in the CA1 stratum radiatum and carried out assessments of social behaviors.In Shank3 heterozygous mice, there was reduced amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and the input-output (I/O) relationship at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in acute hippocampal slices was significantly depressed; both of these findings indicate a reduction in basal neurotransmission. Studies with specific inhibitors demonstrated that the decrease in basal transmission reflected reduced AMPA receptor-mediated transmission. This was further supported by the observation of reduced numbers of GluR1-immunoreactive puncta in the stratum radiatum. Long-term potentiation (LTP), induced either with θ-burst pairing (TBP) or high-frequency stimulation, was impaired in Shank3 heterozygous mice, with no significant change in long-term depression (LTD). In concordance with the LTP results, persistent expansion of spines was observed in control mice after TBP-induced LTP; however, only transient spine expansion was observed in Shank3 heterozygous mice. Male Shank3 heterozygotes displayed less social sniffing and emitted fewer ultrasonic vocalizations during interactions with estrus female mice, as compared to wild-type littermate controls.We documented specific deficits in synaptic function and plasticity, along with reduced reciprocal social interactions in Shank3 heterozygous mice. Our results are consistent with altered synaptic development and function in Shank3 haploinsufficiency, highlighting the importance of Shank3 in synaptic function and supporting a link between deficits in synapse function and neurodevelopmental disorders. The reduced glutamatergic transmission that we observed in the Shank3 heterozygous mice represents an interesting therapeutic target in Shank3-haploinsufficiency syndromes.Full Text Article
|Altered sensitivity to excitotoxic cell death and glutamate receptor expression between two commonly studied mouse strains. |
Rozzy Finn,Attila D Kovács,David A Pearce
Journal of neuroscience research 88 2010
Alterations in glutamatergic synapse function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many different neurological disorders, including ischemia, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease. While studying glutamate receptor function in juvenile Batten disease on the C57BL/6J and 129S6/S(v)E(v) mouse backgrounds, we noticed differences unlikely to be due to mutation difference alone. We report here that primary cerebellar granule cell cultures from C57BL/6J mice are more sensitive to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated cell death. Moreover, sensitivity to AMPA-mediated excitotoxicity is more variable and is dependent on the treatment conditions and age of the cultures. Glutamate receptor surface expression levels examined in vitro by in situ ELISA and in vivo by Western blot in surface cross-linked cerebellar samples indicated that these differences in sensitivity likely are due to strain-dependent differences in cell surface receptor expression levels. We propose that differences in glutamate receptor expression and in excitotoxic vulnerability should be taken into consideration in the context of characterizing disease models on the C57BL/6J and 129S6/S(v)E(v) mouse backgrounds.Full Text Article
|Altered neurotransmission in the mesolimbic reward system of Girk mice. |
Arora D, Haluk DM, Kourrich S, Pravetoni M, Fernández-Alacid L, Nicolau JC, Luján R, Wickman K
J Neurochem 114 1487-97. Epub 2010 Jun 16. 2010
Mice lacking the Girk2 subunit of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ (Girk) channels exhibit dopamine-dependent hyperactivity and elevated responses to drugs that stimulate dopamine neurotransmission. The dopamine-dependent phenotypes seen in Girk2(-/-) mice could reflect increased intrinsic excitability of or diminished inhibitory feedback to midbrain dopamine neurons, or secondary adaptations triggered by Girk2 ablation. We addressed these possibilities by evaluating Girk(-/-) mice in behavioral, electrophysiological, and cell biological assays centered on the mesolimbic dopamine system. Despite differences in the contribution of Girk1 and Girk2 subunits to Girk signaling in midbrain dopamine neurons, Girk1(-/-) and Girk2(-/-) mice exhibited comparable baseline hyperactivities and enhanced responses to cocaine. Girk ablation also correlated with altered afferent input to dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Dopamine neurons from Girk1(-/-) and Girk2(-/-) mice exhibited elevated glutamatergic neurotransmission, paralleled by increased synaptic levels of alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate glutamate receptors. In addition, synapse density, alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptor levels, and glutamatergic neurotransmission were elevated in medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens from Girk1(-/-) and Girk2(-/-) mice. We conclude that dopamine-dependent phenotypes in Girk2(-/-) mice are not solely attributable to a loss of Girk signaling in dopamine neurons, and likely involve secondary adaptations facilitating glutamatergic signaling in the mesolimbic reward system.Full Text Article
|Neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing projection neurons in laminae III and IV of the rat spinal cord have synaptic AMPA receptors that contain GluR2, GluR3 and GluR4 subunits. |
Todd, AJ; Polgár, E; Watt, C; Bailey, ME; Watanabe, M
The European journal of neuroscience 29 718-26 2009
alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPArs), which mediate fast excitatory glutamatergic transmission, are tetramers made from four subunits (GluR1-4 or GluRA-D). Although synaptic AMPArs are not normally detected by immunocytochemistry in perfusion-fixed tissue, they can be revealed by using antigen retrieval with pepsin. All AMPAr-positive synapses in spinal cord are thought to contain GluR2, while the other subunits have specific laminar distributions. GluR4 can be alternatively spliced such that it has a long or short cytoplasmic tail. We have reported that less than 10% of AMPAr-containing synapses in lamina II have the long form of GluR4, and that these are often arranged in dorsoventrally orientated clusters. In this study, we test the hypothesis that GluR4-containing receptors are associated with dorsal dendrites of projection neurons in laminae III and IV that express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r). Immunostaining for NK1r was carried out before antigen retrieval, and sections were then reacted to reveal GluR2 and either GluR4 (long form), GluR3 or GluR1. All NK1r-positive lamina III/IV neurons had numerous GluR2-immunoreactive puncta in their dendritic plasma membranes, and virtually all (97%) of the puncta tested were labelled (usually strongly) with the GluR4 antibody. Sizes of puncta varied, but many were elongated and they were significantly larger than nearby puncta that were not associated with the NK1r cells. None of the GluR2 puncta on these cells was positive for GluR1, while 85% were GluR3-immunoreactive. These results show that synaptic AMPArs on the dendrites of the lamina III/IV NK1r projection neurons contain GluR2, GluR3 and GluR4, but not GluR1 subunits.
|Fragile X mental retardation protein regulates the levels of scaffold proteins and glutamate receptors in postsynaptic densities. |
Schütt, J; Falley, K; Richter, D; Kreienkamp, HJ; Kindler, S
The Journal of biological chemistry 284 25479-87 2009
Functional absence of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) causes the fragile X syndrome, a hereditary form of mental retardation characterized by a change in dendritic spine morphology. The RNA-binding protein FMRP has been implicated in regulating postsynaptic protein synthesis. Here we have analyzed whether the abundance of scaffold proteins and neurotransmitter receptor subunits in postsynaptic densities (PSDs) is altered in the neocortex and hippocampus of FMRP-deficient mice. Whereas the levels of several PSD components are unchanged, concentrations of Shank1 and SAPAP scaffold proteins and various glutamate receptor subunits are altered in both adult and juvenile knock-out mice. With the exception of slightly increased hippocampal SAPAP2 mRNA levels in adult animals, altered postsynaptic protein concentrations do not correlate with similar changes in total and synaptic levels of corresponding mRNAs. Thus, loss of FMRP in neurons appears to mainly affect the translation and not the abundance of particular brain transcripts. Semi-quantitative analysis of RNA levels in FMRP immunoprecipitates showed that in the mouse brain mRNAs encoding PSD components, such as Shank1, SAPAP1-3, PSD-95, and the glutamate receptor subunits NR1 and NR2B, are associated with FMRP. Luciferase reporter assays performed in primary cortical neurons from knock-out and wild-type mice indicate that FMRP silences translation of Shank1 mRNAs via their 3'-untranslated region. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors relieves translational suppression. As Shank1 controls dendritic spine morphology, our data suggest that dysregulation of Shank1 synthesis may significantly contribute to the abnormal spine development and function observed in brains of fragile X syndrome patients.
|Excitatory-inhibitory relationship in the fascia dentata in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome. |
Pavel V Belichenko,Alexander M Kleschevnikov,Eliezer Masliah,Chengbiao Wu,Ryoko Takimoto-Kimura,Ahmad Salehi,William C Mobley
The Journal of comparative neurology 512 2009
Down syndrome (DS) is a neurological disorder causing impaired learning and memory. Partial trisomy 16 mice (Ts65Dn) are a genetic model for DS. Previously, we demonstrated widespread alterations of pre- and postsynaptic elements and physiological abnormalities in Ts65Dn mice. The average diameter of presynaptic boutons and spines in the neocortex and hippocampus was enlarged. Failed induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) due to excessive inhibition was observed. In this paper we investigate the morphological substrate for excessive inhibition in Ts65Dn. We used electron microscopy (EM) to characterize synapses, confocal microscopy to analyze colocalization of the general marker for synaptic vesicle protein with specific protein markers for inhibitory and excitatory synapses, and densitometry to characterize the distribution of the receptor and several proteins essential for synaptic clustering of neurotransmitter receptors. EM analysis of synapses in the Ts65Dn vs. 2N showed that synaptic opposition lengths were significantly greater for symmetric synapses (approximately 18%), but not for asymmetric ones. Overall, a significant increase in colocalization coefficients of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65/p38 immunoreactivity (IR) (approximately 27%) and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)/p38 IR (approximately 41%) was found, but not in vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1)/p38 IR. A significant overall decrease of IR in the hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice compared with 2N mice for glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2; approximately 13%) and anti-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor beta2/3 subunit (approximately 20%) was also found. The study of proteins essential for synaptic clustering of receptors revealed a significant increase in puncta size for neuroligin 2 (approximately 13%) and GABA(A) receptor-associated protein (GABARAP; approximately 13%), but not for neuroligin 1 and gephyrin. The results demonstrate a significant alteration of inhibitory synapses in the fascia dentata of Ts65Dn mice.
|Ampakines cause sustained increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling at excitatory synapses without changes in AMPA receptor subunit expression. |
J C Lauterborn, E Pineda, L Y Chen, E A Ramirez, G Lynch, C M Gall, J C Lauterborn, E Pineda, L Y Chen, E A Ramirez, G Lynch, C M Gall, J C Lauterborn, E Pineda, L Y Chen, E A Ramirez, G Lynch, C M Gall, J C Lauterborn, E Pineda, L Y Chen, E A Ramirez, G Lynch, C M Gall
Neuroscience 159 283-95 2009
Recent demonstrations that positive modulators of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (ampakines) increase neuronal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression have suggested a novel strategy for treating neurodegenerative diseases. However, reports that AMPA and BDNF receptors are down-regulated by prolonged activation raise concerns about the extent to which activity-induced increases in BDNF levels can be sustained without compromising glutamate receptor function. The present study constitutes an initial test of whether ampakines can cause enduring increases in BDNF content and signaling without affecting AMPA receptor (AMPAR) expression. Prolonged (12-24 h) treatment with the ampakine CX614 reduced AMPAR subunit (glutamate receptor subunit (GluR) 1-3) mRNA and protein levels in cultured rat hippocampal slices whereas treatment with AMPAR antagonists had the opposite effects. The cholinergic agonist carbachol also depressed GluR1-3 mRNA levels, suggesting that AMPAR down-regulation is a global response to extended periods of elevated neuronal activity. Analyses of time courses and thresholds indicated that BDNF expression is influenced by lower doses of, and shorter treatments with, the ampakine than is AMPAR expression. Accordingly, daily 3 h infusions of CX614 chronically elevated BDNF content with no effect on GluR1-3 concentrations. Restorative deconvolution microscopy provided the first evidence that chronic up-regulation of BDNF is accompanied by increased activation of the neurotrophin's TrkB-Fc receptor at spine synapses. These results show that changes in BDNF and AMPAR expression are dissociable and that up-regulation of the former leads to enhanced trophic signaling at excitatory synapses. These findings are encouraging with regard to the feasibility of using ampakines to tonically enhance BDNF-dependent functions in adult brain.Full Text Article
|Nuclear respiratory factor 1 co-regulates AMPA glutamate receptor subunit 2 and cytochrome c oxidase: tight coupling of glutamatergic transmission and energy metabolism in neurons. |
Shilpa S Dhar, Huan Ling Liang, Margaret T T Wong-Riley
Journal of neurochemistry 108 1595-606 2009
Neuronal activity, especially of the excitatory glutamatergic type, is highly dependent on energy from the oxidative pathway. We hypothesized that the coupling existed at the transcriptional level by having the same transcription factor to regulate a marker of energy metabolism, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and an important subunit of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid glutamate receptors, GluR2 (Gria2). Nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) was a viable candidate because it regulates all COX subunits and potentially activates Gria2. By means of in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and promoter mutational assays, we found that NRF-1 functionally bound to Gria2 promoter. Silencing of NRF-1 with small interference RNA prevented the depolarization-stimulated up-regulation of Gria2 and COX, and over-expression of NRF-1 rescued neurons from tetrodotoxin-induced down-regulation of Gria2 and COX transcripts. Thus, neuronal activity and energy metabolism are tightly coupled at the molecular level, and NRF-1 is a critical agent in this process.
|The GluR2 subunit inhibits proliferation by inactivating Src-MAPK signalling and induces apoptosis by means of caspase 3/6-dependent activation in glioma cells. |
Beretta, Francesca, et al.
Eur. J. Neurosci., 30: 25-34 (2009) 2009
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most invasive and undifferentiated type of brain tumour, and so surgical interventions are ineffective. We found that GluR2 is absent in fast-growing GBM-derived tumour stem cells and high-grade glioma specimens, but is expressed in slow-growing stem cells and low-grade glioma specimens. More remarkably, GluR2 overexpression in U-87MG cells inhibits proliferation by inactivating extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2-Src phosphorylation and induces apoptosis. Mechanistically, we observed that the scaffold protein GRIP is essential for the effect of GluR2 on ERK-Src inactivation. These findings indicate that the absence of the GluR2 subunit favours malignancy.
|Modulation of agonist binding to AMPA receptors by 1-(1,4-benzodioxan-6-ylcarbonyl)piperidine (CX546): differential effects across brain regions and GluA1-4/transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory prot |
Montgomery KE, Kessler M, Arai AC
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 331 965-74 2009
Ampakines are cognitive enhancers that potentiate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor currents and synaptic responses by slowing receptor deactivation. Their efficacy varies greatly between classes of neurons and brain regions, but the factor responsible for this effect remains unclear. Ampakines also increase agonist affinity in binding tests in ways that are related to their physiological action. We therefore examined 1) whether ampakine effects on agonist binding vary across brain regions and 2) whether they differ across receptor subunits expressed alone and together with transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs), which associate with AMPA receptors in the brain. We found that the maximal increase in agonist binding (E(max)) caused by the prototypical ampakine 1-(1,4-benzodioxan-6-ylcarbonyl)piperidine (CX546) differs significantly between brain regions, with effects in hippocampus and cerebellum being nearly three times larger than that in thalamus, brainstem, and striatum, and cortex being intermediate. These differences can be explained at least in part by regional variations in receptor subunit and TARP expression because combinations prevalent in hippocampus (GluA2 with TARPs gamma3 and gamma8) exhibited E(max) values nearly twice those of combinations abundant in thalamus (GluA4 with gamma2 or gamma4). TARPs seem to be critical because GluA2 and GluA4 alone had comparable E(max) and also because hippocampal and thalamic receptors had similar E(max) after solubilization with Triton X-100, which probably removes associated proteins. Taken together, our data suggest that variations in physiological drug efficacy, such as the 3-fold difference previously seen in recordings from hippocampus versus thalamus, may be explained by region-specific expression of GluA1-4 as well as TARPs.Full Text Article
|Involvement of AMPA receptors in the antidepressant-like effects of lithium in the mouse tail suspension test and forced swim test. |
Gould, TD; O'Donnell, KC; Dow, ER; Du, J; Chen, G; Manji, HK
Neuropharmacology 54 577-87 2008
In addition to its clinical antimanic effects, lithium also has efficacy in the treatment of depression. However, the mechanism by which lithium exerts its antidepressant effects is unclear. Our objective was to further characterize the effects of peripheral and central administration of lithium in mouse models of antidepressant efficacy as well as to investigate the role of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors in these behaviors. We utilized the mouse forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), intracerebroventricular (ICV) lithium administration, AMPA receptor inhibitors, and BS3 crosslinking followed by Western blot. Both short- and long-term administration of lithium resulted in robust antidepressant-like effects in the mouse FST and TST. Using ICV administration of lithium, we show that these effects are due to actions of lithium on the brain, rather than to peripheral effects of the drug. Both ICV and rodent chow (0.4% LiCl) administration paradigms resulted in brain lithium concentrations within the human therapeutic range. The antidepressant-like effects of lithium in the FST and TST were blocked by administration of AMPA receptor inhibitors. Additionally, administration of lithium increased the cell surface expression of GluR1 and GluR2 in the mouse hippocampus. Collectively, these data show that lithium exerts centrally mediated antidepressant-like effects in the mouse FST and TST that require AMPA receptor activation. Lithium may exert its antidepressant effects in humans through AMPA receptors, thus further supporting a role of targeting AMPA receptors as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of depression.
|Integrin regulation of cytoplasmic calcium in excitatory neurons depends upon glutamate receptors and release from intracellular stores. |
Lin, CY; Hilgenberg, LG; Smith, MA; Lynch, G; Gall, CM
Molecular and cellular neurosciences 37 770-80 2008
Integrins regulate cytoplasmic calcium levels ([Ca(2+)]i) in various cell types but information on activities in neurons is limited. The issue is of current interest because of the evidence that both integrins and changes in [Ca(2+)]i are required for Long-Term Potentiation. Accordingly, the present studies evaluated integrin ligand effects in cortical neurons. Integrin ligands or alpha5beta1 integrin activating antisera rapidly increased [Ca(2+)]i with effects greater in glutamatergic than GABAergic neurons, absent in astroglia, and blocked by beta1 integrin neutralizing antisera and the tyrosine kinase antagonist genistein. Increases depended upon extracellular calcium and intracellular store release. Ligand-induced effects were reduced by voltage-sensitive calcium channel and NMDA receptor antagonists, but blocked by tetrodotoxin or AMPA receptor antagonists. These results indicate that integrin ligation triggers AMPA receptor/depolarization-dependent calcium influx followed by intracellular store release and suggest the possibility that integrin modulation of activity-induced changes in [Ca(2+)]i contributes importantly to lasting synaptic plasticity in forebrain neurons.Full Text Article
|Early alterations of AMPA receptors mediate synaptic potentiation induced by neonatal seizures. |
Rakhade, SN; Zhou, C; Aujla, PK; Fishman, R; Sucher, NJ; Jensen, FE
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 7979-90 2008
The highest incidence of seizures during lifetime is found in the neonatal period and neonatal seizures lead to a propensity for epilepsy and long-term cognitive deficits. Here, we identify potential mechanisms that elucidate a critical role for AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in epileptogenesis during this critical period in the developing brain. In a rodent model of neonatal seizures, we have shown previously that administration of antagonists of the AMPARs during the 48 h after seizures prevents long-term increases in seizure susceptibility and seizure-induced neuronal injury. Hypoxia-induced seizures in postnatal day 10 rats induce rapid and reversible alterations in AMPAR signaling resembling changes implicated previously in models of synaptic potentiation in vitro. Hippocampal slices removed after hypoxic seizures exhibited potentiation of AMPAR-mediated synaptic currents, including an increase in the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous and miniature EPSCs as well as increased synaptic potency. This increased excitability was temporally associated with a rapid increase in phosphorylation at GluR1 S845/S831 and GluR2 S880 sites and increased activity of the protein kinases CaMKII (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II), PKA, and PKC, which mediate the phosphorylation of these AMPAR subunits. Postseizure administration of AMPAR antagonists NBQX (2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfonyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline), topiramate, or GYKI-53773 [(1)-1-(4-aminophenyl)-3-acetyl-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-3,4-dihydro-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine] attenuated the AMPAR potentiation, phosphorylation, and kinase activation and prevented the concurrent increase in in vivo seizure susceptibility. Thus, the potentiation of AMPAR-containing synapses is a reversible, early step in epileptogenesis that offers a novel therapeutic target in the highly seizure-prone developing brain.
|Increased AMPA receptor GluR1 subunit incorporation in rat hippocampal CA1 synapses during benzodiazepine withdrawal. |
Paromita Das, Scott M Lilly, Ricardo Zerda, William T Gunning, Francisco J Alvarez, Elizabeth I Tietz
The Journal of comparative neurology 511 832-46 2008
Prolonged benzodiazepine treatment leads to tolerance and increases the risk of dependence. Flurazepam (FZP) withdrawal is associated with increased anxiety correlated with increased alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic function and AMPAR binding in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Enhanced AMPAR synaptic strength is also associated with a shift toward inward rectification of synaptic currents and increased expression of GluR1, but not GluR2, subunits, suggesting augmented membrane incorporation of GluR1-containing, GluR2-lacking AMPARs. To test this hypothesis, the postsynaptic incorporation of GluR1 and GluR2 subunits in CA1 neurons after FZP withdrawal was examined by postembedding immunogold quantitative electron microscopy. The percentage of GluR1 positively labeled stratum radiatum (SR) synapses was significantly increased in FZP-withdrawn rats (88.2% +/- 2.2%) compared with controls (74.4% +/- 1.9%). In addition, GluR1 immunogold density was significantly increased by 30% in SR synapses in CA1 neurons from FZP-withdrawn rats compared with control rats (FZP: 14.1 +/- 0.3 gold particles/mum; CON: 10.8 +/- 0.4 gold particles/mum). In contrast, GluR2 immunogold density was not significantly different between groups. Taken together with recent functional data from our laboratory, the current study suggests that the enhanced glutamatergic strength at CA1 neuron synapses during benzodiazepine withdrawal is mediated by increased incorporation of GluR1-containing AMPARs. Mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity in this model of drug dependence are therefore fundamentally similar to those that operate during activity-dependent plasticity.Full Text Article
|Expression of AMPA receptor subunits at synapses in laminae I-III of the rodent spinal dorsal horn. |
Polgár, E; Watanabe, M; Hartmann, B; Grant, SG; Todd, AJ
Molecular pain 4 5 2008
Glutamate receptors of the AMPA type (AMPArs) mediate fast excitatory transmission in the dorsal horn and are thought to underlie perception of both acute and chronic pain. They are tetrameric structures made up from 4 subunits (GluR1-4), and subunit composition determines properties of the receptor. Antigen retrieval with pepsin can be used to reveal the receptors with immunocytochemistry, and in this study we have investigated the subunit composition at synapses within laminae I-III of the dorsal horn. In addition, we have compared staining of AMPArs with that for PSD-95, a major constituent of glutamatergic synapses. We also examined tissue from knock-out mice to confirm the validity of the immunostaining.As we have shown previously, virtually all AMPAr-immunoreactive puncta were immunostained for GluR2. In laminae I-II, approximately 65% were GluR1-positive and approximately 60% were GluR3-positive, while in lamina III the corresponding values were 34% (GluR1) and 80% (GluR3). Puncta stained with antibody against the C-terminus of GluR4 (which only detects the long form of this subunit) made up 23% of the AMPAr-containing puncta in lamina I, approximately 8% of those in lamina II and 46% of those in lamina III. Some overlap between GluR1 and GluR3 was seen in each region, but in lamina I GluR1 and GluR4 were present in largely non-overlapping populations. The GluR4 puncta often appeared to outline dendrites of individual neurons in the superficial laminae. Virtually all of the AMPAr-positive puncta were immunostained for PSD-95, and 98% of PSD-95 puncta contained AMPAr-immunoreactivity. Staining for GluR1, GluR2 and GluR3 was absent in sections from mice in which these subunits had been knocked out, while the punctate staining for PSD-95 was absent in mice with a mutation that prevents accumulation of PSD-95 at synapses.Our results suggest that virtually all glutamatergic synapses in laminae I-III of adult rat spinal cord contain AMPArs. They show that synapses in laminae I-II contain GluR2 together with GluR1 and/or GluR3, while the long form of GluR4 is restricted to specific neuronal populations, which may include some lamina I projection cells. They also provide further evidence that immunostaining for AMPAr subunits following antigen retrieval is a reliable method for detecting these receptors at glutamatergic synapses.Full Text Article
|Early-life epileptiform discharges exert both rapid and long-lasting effects on AMPAR subunit composition and distribution in developing neurons. |
Qian Jiang, Jingmin Wang, Ye Wu, Xiru Wu, Jiong Qin, Yuwu Jiang, Qian Jiang, Jingmin Wang, Ye Wu, Xiru Wu, Jiong Qin, Yuwu Jiang
Neuroscience letters 444 31-5 2008
The perinatal period of brain is characterized by dynamic changes in structure and high propensity for epilepsy. Animal models have shown that alterations of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) assembly or function may be related to seizure-induced cell damage, long-lasting impairments in brain development and seizure threshold. However, effects of earlier epileptiform discharges on AMPAR composition and sub-cellular distribution remain understudied. In this study, we analyzed age-dependent variation of relative GluR1 and GluR2 protein levels in primary cultured rat cortical neurons at 7DIV, 12DIV, 17DIV and 21DIV. By inducing a single event of epileptiform activity at 6DIV, we tested the effects of early-life seizure-like insults on AMPAR subunit distribution. We found a significant increase in synaptosomal membrane GluR1 expression in magnesium-free (MGF) medium-treated neurons at each time point detected (p0.05), while GluR2 expression increased at 7DIV, and declined at 17DIV and 21DIV respectively (p0.05). That is, a trend of high GluR1 with much lower GluR2 expression on the surface membrane of epileptiform discharges experienced neurons over time in culture was presented. These findings in an in vitro model of early-life seizure may inform rodent models of epilepsy, as well as the cellular mechanism involved in epilepsy-associated brain dysfunction.
|Learning-induced glutamate receptor phosphorylation resembles that induced by long term potentiation. |
Shukla, K; Kim, J; Blundell, J; Powell, CM
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 18100-7 2007
Long term potentiation and long term depression of synaptic responses in the hippocampus are thought to be critical for certain forms of learning and memory, although until recently it has been difficult to demonstrate that long term potentiation or long term depression occurs during hippocampus-dependent learning. Induction of long term potentiation or long term depression in hippocampal slices in vitro modulates phosphorylation of the alpha-amino-3-hydrozy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid subtype of glutamate receptor subunit GluR1 at distinct phosphorylation sites. In long term potentiation, GluR1 phosphorylation is increased at the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C site serine 831, whereas in long term depression, phosphorylation of the protein kinase A site serine 845 is decreased. Indeed, phosphorylation of one or both of these sites is required for long term synaptic plasticity and for certain forms of learning and memory. Here we demonstrate that training in a hippocampus-dependent learning task, contextual fear conditioning is associated with increased phosphorylation of GluR1 at serine 831 in the hippocampal formation. This increased phosphorylation is specific to learning, has a similar time course to that in long term potentiation, and like memory and long term potentiation, is dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation during training. Furthermore, the learning-induced increase in serine 831 phosphorylation is present at synapses and is in heteromeric complexes with the glutamate receptor subunit GluR2. These data indicate that a biochemical correlate of long term potentiation occurs at synapses in receptor complexes in a final, downstream, postsynaptic effector of long term potentiation during learning in vivo, further strengthening the link between long term potentiation and memory.
|New transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein isoform, gamma-7, differentially regulates AMPA receptors. |
Kato, AS; Zhou, W; Milstein, AD; Knierman, MD; Siuda, ER; Dotzlaf, JE; Yu, H; Hale, JE; Nisenbaum, ES; Nicoll, RA; Bredt, DS
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 4969-77 2007
AMPA-type glutamate receptors (GluRs) mediate most excitatory signaling in the brain and are composed of GluR principal subunits and transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP) auxiliary subunits. Previous studies identified four mammalian TARPs, gamma-2 (or stargazin), gamma-3, gamma-4, and gamma-8, that control AMPA receptor trafficking, gating, and pharmacology. Here, we explore roles for the homologous gamma-5 and gamma-7 proteins, which were previously suggested not to serve as TARPs. Western blotting reveals high levels of gamma-5 and gamma-7 in the cerebellum, where gamma-7 is enriched in Purkinje neurons in the molecular layer and glomerular synapses in the granule cell layer. Immunoprecipitation proteomics shows that cerebellar gamma-7 avidly and selectively binds to AMPA receptor GluR subunits and also binds to the AMPA receptor clustering protein, postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95). Furthermore, gamma-7 occurs together with PSD-95 and AMPA receptor subunits in purified postsynaptic densities. In heterologous cells, gamma-7 but not gamma-5 greatly enhances AMPA receptor glutamate-evoked currents and modulates channel gating. In granule cells from stargazer mice, transfection of gamma-7 but not gamma-5 increases AMPA receptor-mediated currents. Compared with stargazin, gamma-7 differentially modulates AMPA receptor glutamate affinity and kainate efficacy. These studies define gamma-7 as a new member of the TARP family that can differentially influence AMPA receptors in cerebellar neurons.
|Synaptic anchorage of AMPA receptors by cadherins through neural plakophilin-related arm protein AMPA receptor-binding protein complexes. |
Silverman, JB; Restituito, S; Lu, W; Lee-Edwards, L; Khatri, L; Ziff, EB
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 8505-16 2007
Cadherins function in the adhesion of presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes at excitatory synapses. Here we show that the cadherin-associated protein neural plakophilin-related arm protein (NPRAP; also called delta-catenin) binds via a postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95)/discs large/zona occludens-1 (PDZ) interaction to AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-binding protein (ABP) and the related glutamate receptor (GluR)-interacting protein (GRIP), two multi-PDZ proteins that bind the GluR2 and GluR3 AMPAR subunits. The resulting cadherin-NPRAP-ABP/GRIP complexes serve as anchorages for AMPARs. Exogenous NPRAP that was bound to cadherins at adherens junctions of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells recruited ABP from the cytosol to form cadherin-NPRAP-ABP complexes, dependent on NPRAP interaction with the ABP PDZ domain 2. The cadherin-NPRAP-ABP complexes also bound GluR2. In cultured hippocampal neurons, dominant-negative mutants of NPRAP designed to disrupt tethering of ABP to NPRAP-cadherin complexes reduced surface levels of endogenous GluR2, indicating that interaction with cadherin-NPRAP-ABP complexes stabilized GluR2 at the neuronal plasma membrane. Cadherins, NPRAP, GRIP, and GluR2 copurified in the fractionation of synaptosomes and the postsynaptic density, two fractions enriched in synaptic proteins. Furthermore, synaptosomes contain NPRAP-GRIP complexes, and NPRAP localizes with the postsynaptic marker PSD-95 and with AMPARs and GRIP at spines of hippocampal neurons. Thus, tethering is likely to take place at synaptic or perisynaptic sites. NPRAP also binds PSD-95, which is a scaffold for NMDA receptors, for AMPARs in complexes with auxiliary subunits, the TARPs (transmembrane AMPA receptor regulator proteins), and for adhesion molecules. Thus, the interaction of scaffolding proteins with cadherin-NPRAP complexes may anchor diverse signaling and adhesion molecules at cadherins.
|Long-term upregulation of protein kinase A and adenylate cyclase levels in human smokers. |
Hope, BT; Nagarkar, D; Leonard, S; Wise, RA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 1964-72 2007
Repeated injections of cocaine and morphine in laboratory rats cause a variety of molecular neuroadaptations in the cAMP signaling pathway in nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. Here we report similar neuroadaptations in postmortem tissue from the brains of human smokers and former smokers. Activity levels of two major components of cAMP signaling, cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and adenylate cyclase, were abnormally elevated in nucleus accumbens of smokers and in ventral midbrain dopaminergic region of both smokers and former smokers. Protein levels of the catalytic subunit of PKA were correspondingly higher in the ventral midbrain dopaminergic region of both smokers and former smokers. Protein levels of other candidate neuroadaptations, including glutamate receptor subunits, tyrosine hydroxylase, and other protein kinases, were within normal range. These findings extend our understanding of addiction-related neuroadaptations of cAMP signaling to tobacco smoking in human subjects and suggest that smoking-induced brain neuroadaptations can persist for significant periods in former smokers.Full Text Article
|OFF midget bipolar cells in the retina of the marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, express AMPA receptors. |
Christian Puller,Silke Haverkamp,Ulrike Grünert
The Journal of comparative neurology 502 2007
Recent studies suggested that different types of OFF bipolar cells express specific types of ionotropic (AMPA or kainate) glutamate receptors (GluRs) at their contacts with cone pedicles. However, the question of which GluR type is expressed by which type of OFF bipolar cell in primate retina is still open. In this study, the expression of AMPA and kainate receptor subunits at the dendritic tips of flat (OFF) midget bipolar (FMB) cells was analyzed in the retina of the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus. We used preembedding electron microscopy and double immunofluorescence with subunit-specific antibodies. The FMB cells were labeled with antibodies against the carbohydrate epitope CD15. Cone pedicles were identified with peanut agglutinin. Immunoreactivity for the GluR1 subunit and for CD15 is preferentially located at triad-associated flat contacts. Furthermore, the large majority of GluR1 immunoreactive puncta is localized at the dendritic tips of FMB cells. These results suggest that FMB cells express the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1. In contrast, the kainate receptor subunit GluR5 is not colocalized with the dendritic tips of FMB cells or with the GluR1 subunit. Immunoreactive puncta for the GluR1 subunit are found at all M/L-cone pedicles but are only rarely associated with S-cone pedicles. This is consistent with our recent findings in marmoset retina that FMB cells do not contact S-cone pedicles. The presence of GluR5 clusters at S-cone pedicles indicates that in primate retinas OFF bipolar cells expressing kainate receptor subunits receive some S-cone input.
|Developmental period for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent synapse elimination correlated with visuotopic map refinement. |
Colonnese, MT; Constantine-Paton, M
The Journal of comparative neurology 494 738-51 2006
During a short perinatal interval, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function is essential to a process in which spontaneous retinal waves focus retinal axon arbors in the superficial layers of the rodent superior colliculus (sSC). Here we provide evidence that this NMDAR-dependent axonal refinement occurs through elimination of uncorrelated retinal synapses arising from disparate loci, rather than stabilization of topographically appropriate inputs. The density of synaptic release sites within fluorescently labeled retinal terminals was counted in double-labeling experiments using confocal microscopy and antibodies against synaptophysin or synapsin-1. Chronic NMDAR blockade from birth increased retinal axon synapse density at postnatal days (P) 6, 8, and 10, suggesting that NMDAR currents reduce synapse density during the refinement period. With assay at P14, after focal arborization has been established, the effect disappeared. Conversely, chronic NMDA treatment, known to induce functional synaptic depression in the sSC, decreased retinocollicular synapse density at P14, but not earlier, during the refinement period (P8). Thus during the development of retinocollicular topographic order, there is a period when NMDAR activity predominantly eliminates retinal axon synapses. We were able to extend this period by using retinal lesions to reduce synaptic density in a defined zone. Synapse density on intact retinocollicular axons sprouting into this zone was increased by NMDAR blockade, even when examined at P14. Thus, the period of NMDAR-dependent synaptic destabilization is terminated by a factor related to the density and refinement of retinal arbors.
|Expression of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits in the cervical spinal cord of wobbler mice. |
Bigini, P; Gardoni, F; Barbera, S; Cagnotto, A; Fumagalli, E; Longhi, A; Corsi, MM; Di Luca, M; Mennini, T
BMC neuroscience 7 71 2006
The localisation of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits was studied in a model of degeneration of cervical spinal motoneurons, the wobbler mouse. Cervical regions from early or late symptomatic wobbler mice (4 or 12 weeks of age) were compared to lumbar tracts (unaffected) and to those of healthy mice.No differences were found in the distribution of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits at both ages. Western blots analysis showed a trend of reduction in AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits, mainly GluR1 and NR2A, exclusively in the cervical region of late symptomatic mice in the triton-insoluble post-synaptic fraction but not whole homogenates. Colocalisation experiments evidenced the expression of GluR1 and NR2A receptors in activated astrocytes from the cervical spinal cord of wobbler mice, GluR2 did not colocalise with GFAP positive cells. No differences were found in the expression of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits in the lumbar tract of wobbler mice, where neither motoneuron loss nor reactive gliosis occurs.In late symptomatic wobbler mice altered levels of GluR1 and NR2A receptor subunits may be a consequence of motoneuron loss rather than an early feature of motoneuron vulnerability.Full Text Article
|Distribution of AMPA glutamate receptor GluR1 subunit-immunoreactive neurons and their co-localization with calcium-binding proteins and GABA in the mouse visual cortex. |
Kim, Tae-Jin, et al.
Mol. Cells, 21: 34-41 (2006) 2006
The neuronal localization of alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits is vital as they play key roles in the regulation of calcium permeability. We have examined the distribution of the calcium permeable AMPA glutamate receptor subunit GluR1 in the mouse visual cortex immunocytochemically. We compared this distribution to that of the calcium-binding proteins calbindin D28K, calretinin, and parvalbumin, and of GABA. The highest density of GluR1-immunoreactive (IR) neurons was found in layers II/III. Enucleation appeared to have no effect on the distribution of GluR1-IR neurons. The labeled neurons varied in morphology; the majority were round or oval and no pyramidal cells were labeled by the antibody. Two-color immunofluorescence revealed that 26.27%, 10.65%, and 40.31% of the GluR1-IR cells also contained, respectively, calbindin D28K, calretinin, and parvalbumin. 20.74% of the GluR1-IR neurons also expressed GABA. These results indicate that many neurons that express calcium-permeable GluR1 also express calcium binding proteins. They also demonstrate that one fifth of the GluR1-IR neurons in the mouse visual cortex are GABAergic interneurons.
|Synaptic pattern of AMPA receptor subtypes upon direction-selective retinal ganglion cells. |
Jeong, Seong-Ah, et al.
Neurosci. Res., 56: 427-34 (2006) 2006
In the search for anisotropies that might contribute to a directional preference of direction-selective (DS) retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), we studied the distributions of AMPA receptor subtypes GluR1, GluR2/3, and GluR4 upon the dendritic arbors of DS RGCs of the rabbit with antibody immunocytochemistry. DS RGCs were injected with Lucifer yellow and the cells were identified by their characteristic morphology. The double-labeled images of dendrites and receptors were visualized by confocal microscopy and were reconstructed from high-resolution confocal images. We found no evidence of asymmetry in any of the AMPA receptor subunits examined upon the dendritic arbors of both On and Off layers of DS RGCs. The present results indicate that direction selectivity appears to lie in presynaptic pattern.
|Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor GluR1 in the Visual Cortex of Hamster: Distribution and Co-Localization with Calcium-Binding Proteins and GABA. |
Ye, Eun-Ah, et al.
Acta histochemica et cytochemica, 39: 47-54 (2006) 2006
|An AMPA glutamatergic receptor activation-nitric oxide synthesis step signals transsynaptic apoptosis in limbic cortex. |
Yueping Zhou, Lijun Zhou, Haiming Chen, Vassilis E Koliatsos
Neuropharmacology 51 67-76 2006
We have previously shown that pyramidal neurons engaged in cortico-cortical connectivity in limbic cortex are vulnerable to denervation lesions, i.e. relay pyramidal neurons in layer II of piriform cortex undergo transsynaptic apoptosis after lesions interrupting their inputs from the olfactory bulb (bulbotomies). At least one trigger of this transsynaptic degenerative phenomenon is the activation of inhibitory interneurons in layer I, which are induced to upregulate neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and release NO. Thus, we have demonstrated that cortical interneurons play an essential role in transducing injury to apoptotic signaling that selectively targets pyramidal neurons. In the present study, we confirm the role of nNOS with pharmacological inhibition of a significant approximately 30% of transsynaptic apoptosis with the selective nNOS inhibitor BRNI at optimal doses. Outcomes were studied both at the histological and molecular level using DNA blots. We also show that the first-generation competitive non-NMDA (AMPA) antagonist NBQX ameliorates transsynaptic apoptosis by the same margin of difference as BRNI and it also reduces nNOS activation as indicated by a significant decrease in NADPH diaphorase histochemical activity in layer I of piriform cortex. Our findings confirm the role of nNOS activation/NO release in transsynaptic apoptosis and show that glutamatergic agonism at AMPA sites also plays a significant role. In addition, our data suggest that AMPA agonism may occur upstream to nNOS upregulation in inhibitory interneurons of layer I. In concert, our findings indicate that transsynaptic neuronal degeneration in limbic cortex involves complex AMPA-glutamatergic and nitrinergic signaling events. An AMPA-mediated upregulation of nNOS and release of NO by inhibitory interneurons may play a prominent role in this type of injury.
|Analysis of synaptic ultrastructure without fixative using high-pressure freezing and tomography. |
Philippe Rostaing, Eleonore Real, Léa Siksou, Jean-Pierre Lechaire, Thomas Boudier, Tobias M Boeckers, Frank Gertler, Eckart D Gundelfinger, Antoine Triller, Serge Marty
The European journal of neuroscience 24 3463-74 2006
Electron microscopy allows the analysis of synaptic ultrastructure and its modifications during learning or in pathological conditions. However, conventional electron microscopy uses aldehyde fixatives that alter the morphology of the synapse by changing osmolarity and collapsing its molecular components. We have used high-pressure freezing (HPF) to capture within a few milliseconds structural features without aldehyde fixative, and thus to provide a snapshot of living synapses. CA1 hippocampal area slices from P21 rats were frozen at -173 degrees C under high pressure to reduce crystal formation, and synapses on dendritic spines were analysed after cryosubstitution and embedding. Synaptic terminals were larger than after aldehyde fixation, and synaptic vesicles in these terminals were less densely packed. Small filaments linked the vesicles in subgroups. The postsynaptic densities (PSDs) exhibited filamentous projections extending into the spine cytoplasm. Tomographic analysis showed that these projections were connected with the spine cytoskeletal meshwork. Using immunocytochemistry, we found as expected GluR1 at the synaptic cleft and CaMKII in the PSD. Actin immunoreactivity (IR) labelled the cytoskeletal meshwork beneath the filamentous projections, but was very scarce within the PSD itself. ProSAP2/Shank3, cortactin and Ena/VASP-IRs were concentrated on the cytoplasmic face of the PSD, at the level of the PSD projections. Synaptic ultrastructure after HPF was different from that observed after aldehyde fixative. The boutons were larger, and filamentous components were preserved. Particularly, filamentous projections were observed linking the PSD to the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, synaptic ultrastructure can be analysed under more realistic conditions following HPF.
|Comprehensive identification of phosphorylation sites in postsynaptic density preparations. |
Trinidad, JC; Specht, CG; Thalhammer, A; Schoepfer, R; Burlingame, AL
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 5 914-22 2006
In the mammalian central nervous system, the structure known as the postsynaptic density (PSD) is a dense complex of proteins whose function is to detect and respond to neurotransmitter released from presynaptic axon terminals. Regulation of protein phosphorylation in this molecular machinery is critical to the activity of its components, which include neurotransmitter receptors, kinases/phosphatases, scaffolding molecules, and proteins regulating cytoskeletal structure. To characterize the phosphorylation state of proteins in PSD samples, we combined strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography with IMAC. Initially, tryptic peptides were separated by cation exchange and analyzed by reverse phase chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, which led to the identification of phosphopeptides in most SCX fractions. Because each of these individual fractions was too complex to characterize completely in single LC-MS/MS runs, we enriched for phosphopeptides by performing IMAC on each SCX fraction, yielding at least a 3-fold increase in identified phosphopeptides relative to either approach alone (SCX or IMAC). This enabled us to identify at least one site of phosphorylation on 23% (287 of 1,264) of all proteins found to be present in the postsynaptic density preparation. In total, we identified 998 unique phosphorylated peptides, mapping to 723 unique sites of phosphorylation. At least one exact site of phosphorylation was determined on 62% (621 of 998) of all phosphopeptides, and approximately 80% of identified phosphorylation sites are novel.
|Differential regulation of AMPA receptor and GABA receptor trafficking by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. |
Stellwagen, D; Beattie, EC; Seo, JY; Malenka, RC
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 25 3219-28 2005
The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) causes a rapid exocytosis of AMPA receptors in hippocampal pyramidal cells and is constitutively required for the maintenance of normal surface expression of AMPA receptors. Here we demonstrate that TNFalpha acts on neuronal TNFR1 receptors to preferentially exocytose glutamate receptor 2-lacking AMPA receptors through a phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-dependent process. This increases excitatory synaptic strength while changing the molecular stoichiometry of synaptic AMPA receptors. Conversely, TNFalpha causes an endocytosis of GABA(A) receptors, resulting in fewer surface GABA(A) receptors and a decrease in inhibitory synaptic strength. These results suggest that TNFalpha can regulate neuronal circuit homeostasis in a manner that may exacerbate excitotoxic damage resulting from neuronal insults.
|Stargazin modulates native AMPA receptor functional properties by two distinct mechanisms. |
Turetsky, D; Garringer, E; Patneau, DK
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 25 7438-48 2005
AMPA receptors play a central role in basal excitatory synaptic transmission as well as synaptic maturation and plasticity. The transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP) stargazin (gamma2) serves multiple roles in trafficking and stabilizing synaptic AMPA receptors and may be incorporated as an auxiliary subunit. We wanted to determine whether stargazin altered channel function of neuronal AMPA receptors. Transfection of cultured hippocampal neurons with stargazin produced two distinct effects on AMPA receptor functional properties: a sixfold reduction in glutamate-evoked desensitization and a twofold increase in the relative size of responses to the partial agonist kainate. Kinetic and dose-response analyses suggest that the effect of stargazin on glutamate desensitization results from an allosteric interaction that destabilizes the desensitized state of the receptor and that potentiation of kainate responses reflects increased efficacy rather than a change in affinity. These functional effects were also observed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with various heteromeric and homomeric AMPA receptors, with distinct subunit-dependent effects on glutamate desensitization, kainate efficacy, and trafficking. Two regions of stargazin mediate its functional effects: the C-terminal intracellular domain seems to be more important for effects on glutamate-evoked desensitization and receptor trafficking, whereas the first extracellular domain makes a larger contribution to effects on kainate efficacy. These data indicate that TARPs are involved both in trafficking and direct modulation of channel function and, as auxiliary subunits of neuronal AMPA receptors, must be considered in the functional heterogeneity of neuronal AMPA receptors.
|Presynaptic localization of neprilysin contributes to efficient clearance of amyloid-beta peptide in mouse brain. |
Iwata, N; Mizukami, H; Shirotani, K; Takaki, Y; Muramatsu, S; Lu, B; Gerard, NP; Gerard, C; Ozawa, K; Saido, TC
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 24 991-8 2004
A local increase in amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) is closely associated with synaptic dysfunction in the brain in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we report on the catabolic mechanism of Abeta at the presynaptic sites. Neprilysin, an Abeta-degrading enzyme, expressed by recombinant adeno-associated viral vector-mediated gene transfer, was axonally transported to presynaptic sites through afferent projections of neuronal circuits. This gene transfer abolished the increase in Abeta levels in the hippocampal formations of neprilysin-deficient mice and also reduced the increase in young mutant amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice. In the latter case, Abeta levels in the hippocampal formation contralateral to the vector-injected side were also significantly reduced as a result of transport of neprilysin from the ipsilateral side, and in both sides soluble Abeta was degraded more efficiently than insoluble Abeta. Furthermore, amyloid deposition in aged mutant amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice was remarkably decelerated. Thus, presynaptic neprilysin has been demonstrated to degrade Abeta efficiently and to retard development of amyloid pathology.
|The role of AMPA receptor gating in the development of high-fidelity neurotransmission at the calyx of Held synapse. |
Joshi, Indu, et al.
J. Neurosci., 24: 183-96 (2004) 2004
During early postnatal development of auditory synapses, the decay time course of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) EPSCs accelerates markedly, but the mechanisms underlying this process remain uncertain. Using the developing calyx of Held synapse in the mouse auditory brainstem, we have examined presynaptic and postsynaptic elements that may regulate decay kinetics of AMPAR EPSCs. We found that the decay time kinetics was voltage dependent in both immature and mature synapses, being slower at positive potentials than negative potentials. By recording evoked miniature events in extracellular Ca2+ or Sr2+, we revealed a significant decrease in decay time constants of EPSCs as maturation progresses. On the basis of internal and external polyamine block of AMPAR EPSCs and immunohistochemistry assays with subunit-specific antibodies, we demonstrated that the glutamate receptor (GluR) 2 subunit is virtually absent at all developmental ages. Antibody staining patterns suggest a gradual shift in subunit composition from GluR1- to GluR3/4-dominant phenotypes. Kinetic analyses of deactivation, desensitization, and recovery from desensitization in outside-out patches in response to ultrafast application of glutamate lend supportive evidence that such a shift in the gating phenotype likely accounts for the accelerated time course throughout development. Finally, by pharmacologically manipulating AMPAR gating and using simulated EPSCs to evoke action potentials, we demonstrated that rapid decay kinetics of AMPAR EPSCs is essential for this synapse to accommodate high-frequency firing without compromising spike amplitude. Hence, developmental alterations in the subunit composition likely dictate changes in the time course of AMPAR EPSCs and play an indispensable role in the refinement of high-fidelity neurotransmission at the calyx of Held synapse.
|Postsynaptic density assembly is fundamentally different from presynaptic active zone assembly. |
Bresler, Tal, et al.
J. Neurosci., 24: 1507-20 (2004) 2004
The cellular mechanisms involved in the formation of the glutamatergic postsynaptic density (PSD) are mainly unknown. Previous studies have indicated that PSD assembly may occur in situ by a gradual recruitment of postsynaptic molecules, whereas others have suggested that the PSD may be assembled from modular transport packets assembled elsewhere. Here we used cultured hippocampal neurons and live cell imaging to examine the process by which PSD molecules from different layers of the PSD are recruited to nascent postsynaptic sites. GFP-tagged NR1, the essential subunit of the NMDA receptor, and ProSAP1/Shank2 and ProSAP2/Shank3, scaffolding molecules thought to reside at deeper layers of the PSD, were recruited to new synaptic sites in gradual manner, with no obvious involvement of discernible discrete transport particles. The recruitment kinetics of these three PSD molecules were remarkably similar, which may indicate that PSD assembly rate is governed by a common upstream rate-limiting process. In contrast, the presynaptic active zone (AZ) molecule Bassoon was observed to be recruited to new presynaptic sites by means of a small number of mobile packets, in full agreement with previous studies. These findings indicate that the assembly processes of PSDs and AZs may be fundamentally different.
|Increased expression of AMPA receptor subunits in the nucleus of the solitary tract in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. |
Saha, Sikha, et al.
Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res., 121: 37-49 (2004) 2004
The expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits GluR1-4 in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of adult Wistar rats was examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the neuronal localisation of these receptor subunits in the NTS were confirmed by immunohistochemistry using subunit-specific antibodies. Semi-quantitative PCR was used to investigate differences in AMPA receptor subunit expression between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SH) and age-matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). All four receptor subunits were expressed in both strains, but compared to WKY, total AMPA receptor and the GluR3 mRNA expressions were significantly higher in SH. No differences were detected in cDNA form the cerebral cortex or cerebellum. Immunolabelling for GluRs 1, 2 and 2/3 in the neuropil relative to neuronal somata in the cardioregulatory areas of the NTS appeared to be increased in SH, with an overall increase in the density of GluR2/3 labelling in the medial and commissural NTS of SH. These results indicate a possible role for changes in AMPA receptor subunit expression in NTS neurones, involving an increase in GluR3 associated with development of hypertension in SH.
|Neuronal pentraxin 1: a novel mediator of hypoxic-ischemic injury in neonatal brain. |
Hossain, Mir Ahamed, et al.
J. Neurosci., 24: 4187-96 (2004) 2004
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a major cause of neurological disability and mortality. Its therapy will likely require a greater understanding of the discrete neurotoxic molecular mechanism(s) triggered by hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Here, we investigated the role of neuronal pentraxin 1 (NP1), a member of a newly recognized subfamily of "long pentraxins," in the HI injury cascade. Neonatal brains developed marked infarcts in the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere at 24 hr and showed significant loss of ipsilateral striatal, cortical, and hippocampal volumes at 7 d after HI compared with the contralateral hemisphere and sham controls. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed elevated neuronal expression of NP1 in the ipsilateral cerebral cortex from 6 hr to 7 d and in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions from 24 hr to 7 d after HI. These same brain areas developed infarcts and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling-positive cells within 24-48 hr of HI. In primary cortical neurons, NP1 protein was induced >2.5-fold (p < 0.001) after their exposure to hypoxia that caused approximately 30-40% neuronal death. Transfecting cortical neurons with antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides directed against NP1 mRNA (NP1AS) significantly inhibited (p < 0.01) hypoxia-induced NP1 protein induction and neuronal death (p < 0.001), demonstrating a specific requirement of NP1 in hypoxic neuronal injury. NP1 protein colocalized and coimmunoprecipitated with the fast excitatory AMPA glutamate receptor subunit (GluR1) in primary cortical neurons, and hypoxia induced a time-dependent increase in NP1-GluR1 interactions. NPIAS also protected against AMPA-induced neuronal death (p < 0.05), implicating a role for NP1 in the excitotoxic cascade. Our results show that NP1 induction mediates hypoxic-ischemic injury probably by interacting with and modulating GluR1 and potentially other excitatory glutamate receptors.
|Independent functions of hsp90 in neurotransmitter release and in the continuous synaptic cycling of AMPA receptors. |
Gerges, Nashaat Z, et al.
J. Neurosci., 24: 4758-66 (2004) 2004
The delivery of neurotransmitter receptors into synapses is essential for synaptic function and plasticity. In particular, AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPA receptors) reach excitatory synapses according to two distinct routes: a regulated pathway, which operates transiently during synaptic plasticity, and a constitutive pathway, which maintains synaptic function under conditions of basal transmission. However, the specific mechanisms that distinguish these two trafficking pathways are essentially unknown. Here, we evaluate the role of the molecular chaperone hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) in excitatory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. On one hand, we found that hsp90 is necessary for the efficient neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic terminal. In addition, we identified hsp90 as a critical component of the cellular machinery that delivers AMPA receptors into the postsynaptic membrane. Using the hsp90-specific inhibitors radicicol and geldanamycin, we show that hsp90 is required for the constitutive trafficking of AMPA receptors into synapses during their continuous cycling between synaptic and nonsynaptic sites. In contrast, hsp90 function is not required for either the surface delivery of AMPA receptors into the nonsynaptic plasma membrane or for the acute, regulated delivery of AMPA receptors into synapses during plasticity induction (long-term potentiation). The synaptic cycling of AMPA receptors was also blocked by an hsp90-binding tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, suggesting that the role of hsp90 in AMPA receptor trafficking is mediated by a TPR domain-containing protein. These results demonstrate new roles for hsp90 in synaptic function by controlling neurotransmitter release and, independently, by mediating the continuous cycling of synaptic AMPA receptors.
|Spinal axonal injury induces brief downregulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors and no stripping of synapses in cord-projection central neurons. |
Yueh-Jan Wang, Guo-Fang Tseng
Journal of neurotrauma 21 1624-39 2004
Spinal cord injury often damages the axons of cord-projecting central neurons. To determine whether their excitatory inputs are altered following axonal injury, we used rat rubrospinal neurons as a model and examined their excitatory input following upper cervical axotomy. Anterograde tracing showed that the primary afferents from the cerebellum terminated in a pattern similar to that of control animals. Ultrastructurally, neurons in the injured nucleus were contacted by excitatory synapses of normal appearance, with no sign of glial stripping. Since cerebellar fibers are glutamatergic, we examined the expression of ionotropic receptor subunits GluR1-4 and NR1 for AMPA and NMDA receptors, respectively, in control and injured neurons using immunolabeling methods. In control neurons, GluR2 appeared to be low as compared to GluR1, GluR3, and GluR4, while NR1 labeling was intense. Following unilateral tractotomy, the levels of expression of each subunit in axotomized neurons appeared to be normal, with the exception that they were lower than those of control neurons of the nonlesioned side at 2-6 days postinjury. These findings suggest that axotomized neurons are only temporarily protected from excitotoxicity. This is in sharp contrast to the responses of central neurons that innervate peripheral targets, in which both synaptic stripping and reduction of their ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits persist following axotomy. The absence of an injury-induced trimming of afferents and stripping of synapses and the lack of a persistent downregulation of postsynaptic receptors might enable injured cord-projection neurons to continue to control their supraspinal targets during most of their postinjury survival. Although this may support neurons by providing trophic influences, it nevertheless may subject them to excitotoxicity and ultimately lead to their degenerative fate.
|Differential expression of NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits in DARPP-32-containing neurons of the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and neostriatum of rats. |
W-W Wang, R Cao, Z-R Rao, L-W Chen
Brain research 998 174-83 2004
Dopamine and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein, 32 kDa (DARPP-32) is a key element of dopamine/D1/DARPP-32/protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1) signaling cascades of mammalian brain. We are interested in the expression patterns of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptors in DARPP-32-containing neurons, which may constitute morphological basis for interaction between dopamine and ionotropic glutamate receptors in dopaminoceptive cells. Double immunofluorescence was performed to visualize neurons showing coexpression of DARPP-32 with NMDA or AMPA receptor subunits (i.e., NR1, NR2a/b, glutamate receptor subunit 1 [GluR1], GluR2/3, and GluR4) in the forebrains of rats. Distribution of DARPP-32-positive neurons completely or partially overlapped with that of NMDA receptor- or AMPA receptor-immunoreactive ones in the frontal and parietal cortex, hippocampus and neostriatum, and neurons double-labeled with DARPP-32/NR1, DARPP-32/NR2a/b, DARPP-32/GluR1, DARPP-32/GluR2/3, or DARPP-32/GluR4 immunoreactivity were numerously observed. Semiquantification analysis indicated that most of DARPP-32-containing neurons (86-98%) expressed NR1, NR2a/b and GluR2/3, while less of them (14-90%) expressed GluR1 and GluR4. Although high rates (90-98%) of DARPP-32-positive cells expressed NMDA receptors in all regions above, variant percentages of them expressing AMPA receptor subunits were observed among the cortex (54-90%), hippocampus (59-97%) and neostriatum (14-97%). The study presents differential expression patterns of NMDA and AMPA receptors in DARPP-32-postive neurons in these forebrain regions. Taken together with previous reports, the present data suggest that interaction between dopamine and glutamate receptors may occur in the dopaminoceptive neurons with distinct receptor compositions and may be involved in modulating neuronal properties and excitotoxicity in mammalian forebrain.
|Alterations of markers related to synaptic function in aging rat brain, in normal conditions or under conditions of long-term dietary manipulation. |
Barbara Monti, Marco Virgili, Antonio Contestabile
Neurochemistry international 44 579-84 2004
Neurochemical alterations of markers related to synaptic function are potential candidates for age-related impairment of brain function and cognition. The process of aging, including brain aging, can be counteracted to some degree by maintaining animals in long-term conditions of caloric restriction, or supplementing their diet with antioxidant substances. We report here that the age-related decline of the cholinergic and GABAergic systems, that takes place in some CNS regions of aged rats, is not affected by maintaining them under conditions of dietary restriction and, therefore, of reduced calorie intake, from the 12th to the 30th month of age. We also notice the same lack of effect by adding, during the same period, the aging rat diet with the potential antioxidant substance, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The same dietary manipulations are also unable to counteract the derangement of the first step of the main biosynthetic pathway for polyamines, putative neuromodulators in the CNS, that occurs in the aged spinal cord. Some age-related alterations in the expression of different subunits of the NMDA-type glutamate receptors in some CNS regions of aged rats were instead, at least in some cases, counteracted by long-term dietary manipulation.
|Ligand-independent CXCR2 dimerization. |
Trettel, F; Di Bartolomeo, S; Lauro, C; Catalano, M; Ciotti, MT; Limatola, C
The Journal of biological chemistry 278 40980-8 2003
Homo- and hetero-oligomerization have been reported for several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The CXCR2 is a GPCR that is activated, among the others, by the chemokines CXCL8 (interleukin-8) and CXCL2 (growth-related gene product beta) to induce cell chemotaxis. We have investigated the oligomerization of CXCR2 receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney cells and generated a series of truncated mutants to determine whether they could negatively regulate the wild-type (wt) receptor functions. CXCR2 receptor oligomerization was also studied by coimmunoprecipitation of green fluorescent protein- and V5-tagged CXCR2. Truncated CXCR2 receptors retained their ability to form oligomers only if the region between the amino acids Ala-106 and Lys-163 was present. In contrast, all of the deletion mutants analyzed were able to form heterodimers with the wt CXCR2 receptor, albeit with different efficiency, competing for wt/wt dimer formation. The truncated CXCR2 mutants were not functional and, when coexpressed with wt CXCR2, interfered with receptor functions, impairing cell signaling and chemotaxis. When CXCR2 was expressed with the AMPA-type glutamate receptor GluR1, CXCR2 dimerization was again impaired in a dose-dependent way, and receptor functions were prejudiced. In contrast, CXCR1, a chemokine receptor that shares many similarities with CXCR2, did not dimerize alone or with CXCR2 and when coexpressed with CXCR2 did not impair receptor signaling and chemotaxis. The formation of CXCR2 dimers was also confirmed in cerebellar neuron cells. Taken together, we conclude from these studies that CXCR2 functions as a dimer and that truncated receptors negatively modulate receptor activities competing for the formation of wt/wt dimers.
|Synaptic glutamate receptor clustering in mice lacking the SH3 and GK domains of SAP97. |
Klöcker, Nikolaj, et al.
Eur. J. Neurosci., 16: 1517-22 (2002) 2002
Postsynaptic targeting of the Drosophila tumour suppressor discs-large (Dlg) critically depends on its SH3 and GK domains. Here, we asked whether these domains are also involved in subcellular targeting of the mammalian Dlg homolog SAP97 and its interacting partners in CNS cortical neurons by analysing a recently described mouse mutant lacking the SH3 and GK domains of SAP97. Both wildtype and truncated SAP97 were predominantly expressed in perinuclear regions, in a pattern suggesting association with the endoplasmic reticulum. Weaker immunoreactivity was found in neurites colocalizing with both dendritic and axonal markers. As SAP97 has been implicated in the early intracellular processing of the glutamate receptor GluR1, we studied biochemical maturation and subcellular localization of GluR1 in the mutants. Both the glycosylation pattern and synaptic clustering of GluR1 were indistinguishable from wildtype mice. Synaptic clustering of the guanylate kinase domain interacting protein GKAP was also intact. Our data demonstrate that truncation of the SH3 and GK domains of SAP97 in mice does neither change its subcellular distribution nor does it disrupt synaptic structure or protein clustering, as opposed to severe missorting of the respective mutant Dlg protein in Drosophila.
|Nicotine receptor inactivation decreases sensitivity to cocaine. |
Zachariou, V; Caldarone, BJ; Weathers-Lowin, A; George, TP; Elsworth, JD; Roth, RH; Changeux, JP; Picciotto, MR
Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 24 576-89 2001
The reinforcing properties of nicotine and psychomotor stimulants are thought to be mediated through the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system. This study investigates the role of high affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in cocaine place preference and examines some neurochemical changes in the mesolimbic DA system that might account for the interaction between nicotine and cocaine. 5 mg/kg is the lowest dose of cocaine able to condition a place preference in C57Bl/6 mice. Co-treatment with the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (1.0 mg/kg) disrupted place preference to 5 mg/kg cocaine. In addition, mice lacking the high affinity nAChR containing the beta2 subunit showed decreased place preference to 5 mg/kg cocaine, although higher doses of cocaine could condition a place preference in these knock out animals. In contrast, co-administration of a low dose of nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) potentiated place preference to a subthreshold dose of cocaine (3 mg/kg). DA turnover was monitored in several brain regions using tissue levels of DA and its primary metabolite DOPAC as an indication of DA release. Wild type mice showed decreased DA turnover following treatment with 5 mg/kg cocaine; whereas, this response was not seen in mice lacking the beta2 subunit of the nAChR. Induction of chronic fos-related antigens by cocaine was also reduced in mutant mice as compared to their wild type siblings, implying that downstream actions of cocaine were also affected by inactivation of the high affinity nAChR. These data indicate that activation of the high affinity nAChR may contribute to cocaine reinforcement.
|Pathways and Biomarkers of Glutamatergic Synapse Flyer (EMD)|