Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||IH(P), IF, WB||Gp||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Guinea pig antiserum containing no preservatives.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||50 µL|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Buyang Huanwu decoction increases the expression of glutamate transporter-1 and glutamate synthetase in association with PACAP-38 following focal ischemia.|
Ding, W; Yu, P; Liu, W; Zhou, L; Guan, LI; Lin, R
Biomedical reports 3 651-656 2015
The neuroprotective role of Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD) in focal ischemia is associated with decreasing glutamate concentration. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study aimed to explore whether glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and glutamine synthetase (GS) participated in the decreased level of glutamate and whether pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP-38) was involved in this process. BYHWD was found to significantly upregulate the expression of GLT-1 and GS in the hippocampal CA1 area compared to the ischemia group, with the difference on day 3 being most significant. BYHWD increased the level of PACAP-38, and PACAP-(6-38) (PACAP receptor antagonist) significantly attenuated the effect of BYHWD on GLT-1 and GS, suggesting that PACAP-38 was involved in the upregulation of GLT-1 and GS induced by BYHWD. In addition, as GLT-1 and GS are mainly located in astrocytes, the changes of astrocytes were detected by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; an astrocytic marker) immunostaining. The results showed that BYHWD inhibited the expression of GFAP compared with the ischemia group, however, co-administration with PACAP-(6-38), which inhibited the effect of BYHWD on GLT-1 and GS in astrocytes, attenuated this effect, indicating that astrocytes participated in the protective role of BYHWD following focal ischemia. These results provided the evidence for the first time that not only neurons but also astrocytes contribute to the protective role of BYHWD, which opposes previous studies and may be a starting point for traditional medicine.
|Decreased EAAT2 protein expression in the essential tremor cerebellar cortex.|
Lee, M; Cheng, MM; Lin, CY; Louis, ED; Faust, PL; Kuo, SH
Acta neuropathologica communications 2 157 2014
Genetic polymorphisms in Solute carrier family 1 (glial high affinity glutamate transporter), member 2 (SLC1A2) have been linked with essential tremor. SLC1A2 encodes excitatory amino acid transporter type 2 (EAAT2), which clears glutamate from the synaptic cleft. One postulated mechanism for essential tremor is the over-excitation of glutamatergic olivo-cerebellar climbing fibers, leading to excitotoxic death of Purkinje cells. Other glutamatergic excitatory signals are transmitted to Purkinje cells via parallel fibers of cerebellar granule neurons. Therefore, the expression level of glutamate transporters could be important in essential tremor pathogenesis. Using Western blotting, we compared the expression levels of the two main glutamate transporters in the cerebellar cortex, EAAT1 and EAAT2, in postmortem tissue from 16 essential tremor cases and 13 age-matched controls. We also studied the localization of EAAT1 and EAAT2 using immunohistochemistry in 10 essential tremor cases and 12 controls. EAAT1 protein levels were similar in cases and controls (1.12 ± 0.83 vs. 1.01 ± 0.69, p =0.71) whereas EAAT2 protein levels in essential tremor cases were only 1/3 of that in controls (0.35 ± 0.23 vs. 1.00 ± 0.62, p less than 0.01). Interestingly, EAAT2, but not EAAT1, was expressed in astrocytic processes surrounding the Purkinje cell axon initial segment, a region of previously observed pathological changes in essential tremor. Our main finding, a significant reduction in cerebellar cortical EAAT2 protein levels in essential tremor, suggests that Purkinje cells in essential tremor might be more vulnerable to excitotoxic damage than those of controls.
|Western Blotting, Immunohistochemistry||25391854|
|Novel treatment with neuroprotective and antiviral properties against a neuroinvasive human respiratory virus.|
Brison, E; Jacomy, H; Desforges, M; Talbot, PJ
Journal of virology 88 1548-63 2014
Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are recognized respiratory pathogens with neuroinvasive and neurotropic properties in mice and humans. HCoV strain OC43 (HCoV-OC43) can infect and persist in human neural cells and activate neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative mechanisms, suggesting that it could be involved in neurological disease of unknown etiology in humans. Moreover, we have shown that HCoV-OC43 is neurovirulent in susceptible mice, causing encephalitis, and that a viral mutant with a single point mutation in the viral surface spike (S) protein induces a paralytic disease that involves glutamate excitotoxicity in susceptible mice. Herein, we show that glutamate recycling via the glial transporter 1 protein transporter and glutamine synthetase are central to the dysregulation of glutamate homeostasis and development of motor dysfunctions and paralytic disease in HCoV-OC43-infected mice. Moreover, memantine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist widely used in the treatment of neurological diseases in humans, improved clinical scores related to paralytic disease and motor disabilities by partially restoring the physiological neurofilament phosphorylation state in virus-infected mice. Interestingly, memantine attenuated mortality rates and body weight loss and reduced HCoV-OC43 replication in the central nervous system in a dose-dependent manner. This novel action of memantine on viral replication strongly suggests that it could be used as an antiviral agent to directly limit viral replication while improving neurological symptoms in various neurological diseases with a viral involvement. Mutations in the surface spike (S) protein of human respiratory coronavirus OC43 appear after persistent infection of human cells of the central nervous system, a possible viral adaptation to this environment. Furthermore, a single amino acid change in the viral S protein modulated virus-induced neuropathology in mice from an encephalitis to a neuropathology characterized by flaccid paralysis, which involves glutamate excitotoxicity. We now show that memantine, a drug that is used for alleviating symptoms associated with neuropathology, such as Alzheimer's disease, can partially restore the physiological state of infected mice by limiting both neurodegeneration and viral replication. This suggests that memantine could be used as an antiviral agent while improving neurological symptoms in various neurological diseases with a viral involvement.
|Activity of D-amino acid oxidase is widespread in the human central nervous system.|
Sasabe, J; Suzuki, M; Imanishi, N; Aiso, S
Frontiers in synaptic neuroscience 6 14 2014
It has been proposed that D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) plays an essential role in degrading D-serine, an endogenous coagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors. DAO shows genetic association with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and schizophrenia, in whose pathophysiology aberrant metabolism of D-serine is implicated. Although the pathology of both essentially involves the forebrain, in rodents, enzymatic activity of DAO is hindbrain-shifted and absent in the region. Here, we show activity-based distribution of DAO in the central nervous system (CNS) of humans compared with that of mice. DAO activity in humans was generally higher than that in mice. In the human forebrain, DAO activity was distributed in the subcortical white matter and the posterior limb of internal capsule, while it was almost undetectable in those areas in mice. In the lower brain centers, DAO activity was detected in the gray and white matters in a coordinated fashion in both humans and mice. In humans, DAO activity was prominent along the corticospinal tract, rubrospinal tract, nigrostriatal system, ponto-/olivo-cerebellar fibers, and in the anterolateral system. In contrast, in mice, the reticulospinal tract and ponto-/olivo-cerebellar fibers were the major pathways showing strong DAO activity. In the human corticospinal tract, activity-based staining of DAO did not merge with a motoneuronal marker, but colocalized mostly with excitatory amino acid transporter 2 and in part with GFAP, suggesting that DAO activity-positive cells are astrocytes seen mainly in the motor pathway. These findings establish the distribution of DAO activity in cerebral white matter and the motor system in humans, providing evidence to support the involvement of DAO in schizophrenia and ALS. Our results raise further questions about the regulation of D-serine in DAO-rich regions as well as the physiological/pathological roles of DAO in white matter astrocytes.
|Localization of excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 in human postmortem cortex: a light and electron microscopic study.|
Roberts, RC; Roche, JK; McCullumsmith, RE
Neuroscience 277 522-40 2014
The process of glutamate release, activity, and reuptake involves the astrocyte, the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. Glutamate is released into the synapse and may occupy and activate receptors on both neurons and astrocytes. Glutamate is rapidly removed from the synapse by a family of plasma membrane excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs), also localized to neurons and astrocytes. The purpose of the present study was to examine EAAT labeling in the postmortem human cortex at the light and electron microscopic (EM) levels. The postmortem prefrontal cortex was processed for EAAT1 and EAAT2 immunohistochemistry. At the light microscopic level, EAAT1 and EAAT2 labeling was found in both gray and white matter. Most cellular labeling was in small cells which were morphologically similar to glia. In addition, EAAT1-labeled neurons were scattered throughout, some of which were pyramidal in shape. At the EM level, EAAT1 and EAAT2 labeling was found in astrocytic soma and processes surrounding capillaries. EAAT labeling was also found in small astrocytic processes adjacent to axon terminals forming asymmetric (glutamatergic) synapses. While EAAT2 labeling was most prevalent in astrocytic processes, EAAT1 labeling was also present in neuronal processes including the soma, axons, and dendritic spines. Expression of EAAT1 protein on neurons may be due to the hypoxia associated with the postmortem interval, and requires further confirmation. The localization of EAATs on the astrocytic plasma membrane and adjacent to excitatory synapses is consistent with the function of facilitating glutamate reuptake and limiting glutamate spillover. Establishment that EAAT1 and EAAT2 can be measured at the EM level in human postmortem tissues will permit testing of hypotheses related to these molecules in diseases lacking analogous animal models.
|Astrocytosis in parkinsonism: considering tripartite striatal synapses in physiopathology?|
Charron, G; Doudnikoff, E; Canron, MH; Li, Q; Véga, C; Marais, S; Baufreton, J; Vital, A; Oliet, SH; Bezard, E
Frontiers in aging neuroscience 6 258 2014
The current concept of basal ganglia organization and function in physiological and pathophysiological conditions excludes the most numerous cells in the brain, i.e., the astrocytes, present with a ratio of 10:1 neuron. Their role in neurodegenerative condition such as Parkinson's disease (PD) remains to be elucidated. Before embarking into physiological investigations of the yet-to-be-identified "tripartite" synapses in the basal ganglia in general and the striatum in particular, we therefore characterized anatomically the PD-related modifications in astrocytic morphology, the changes in astrocytic network connections and the consequences on the spatial relationship between astrocytic processes and asymmetric synapses in normal and PD-like conditions in experimental and human PD. Our results unravel a dramatic regulation of striatal astrocytosis supporting the hypothesis of a key role in (dys) regulating corticostriatal transmission. Astrocytes and their various properties might thus represent a therapeutic target in PD.
|Cxcl12/Cxcr4 signaling controls the migration and process orientation of A9-A10 dopaminergic neurons.|
Yang, S; Edman, LC; Sánchez-Alcañiz, JA; Fritz, N; Bonilla, S; Hecht, J; Uhlén, P; Pleasure, SJ; Villaescusa, JC; Marín, O; Arenas, E
Development (Cambridge, England) 140 4554-64 2013
CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling has been reported to regulate three essential processes for the establishment of neural networks in different neuronal systems: neuronal migration, cell positioning and axon wiring. However, it is not known whether it regulates the development of A9-A10 tyrosine hydroxylase positive (TH(+)) midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. We report here that Cxcl12 is expressed in the meninges surrounding the ventral midbrain (VM), whereas CXCR4 is present in NURR1(+) mDA precursors and mDA neurons from E10.5 to E14.5. CXCR4 is activated in NURR1(+) cells as they migrate towards the meninges. Accordingly, VM meninges and CXCL12 promoted migration and neuritogenesis of TH(+) cells in VM explants in a CXCR4-dependent manner. Moreover, in vivo electroporation of Cxcl12 at E12.5 in the basal plate resulted in lateral migration, whereas expression in the midline resulted in retention of TH(+) cells in the IZ close to the midline. Analysis of Cxcr4(-/-) mice revealed the presence of VM TH(+) cells with disoriented processes in the intermediate zone (IZ) at E11.5 and marginal zone (MZ) at E14. Consistently, pharmacological blockade of CXCR4 or genetic deletion of Cxcr4 resulted in an accumulation of TH(+) cells in the lateral aspect of the IZ at E14, indicating that CXCR4 is required for the radial migration of mDA neurons in vivo. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that CXCL12/CXCR4 regulates the migration and orientation of processes in A9-A10 mDA neurons.
|Unique features of extracellular matrix in the mouse medial nucleus of trapezoid body - Implications for physiological functions.|
Blosa, M, et al.
Neuroscience, 228: 215-34 (2013) 2013
The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) is a vital structure of sound localization circuits in the auditory brainstem. Each principal cell of MNTB is contacted by a very large presynaptic glutamatergic terminal, the calyx of Held. The MNTB principal cells themselves are surrounded by extracellular matrix components forming prominent perineuronal nets (PNs). Throughout the CNS, PNs, which form lattice-like structures around the somata and proximal dendrites, are associated with distinct types of neurons. PNs are highly enriched in hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans therefore providing a charged surface structure surrounding the cell body and proximal neurites of these neurons. The localization and composition of PNs have lead investigators to a number of hypotheses about their functions including: creating a specific extracellular ionic milieu around these neurons, stabilizing synapses, and influencing the outgrowth of axons. However, presently the precise functions of PNs are still quite unclear primarily due to the lack of an ideal experimental model system that is highly enriched in PNs and in which the synaptic transmission properties can be precisely measured. The MNTB principal cells could offer such a model, since they have been extensively characterized electrophysiologically. However, extracellular matrix (ECM) in these neurons has not yet been precisely detailed. The present study gives a detailed examination of the ECM organization and structural differences in PNs of the mouse MNTB. The different PN components and their distribution pattern are scrutinized throughout the MNTB. The data are complemented by electron microscopic investigations of the unique ultrastructural localization of PN-components and their interrelation with distinct pre- and postsynaptic MNTB cell structures. Therefore, we believe this work identifies the MNTB as an ideal system for studying PN function.
|Lesion-induced alterations in astrocyte glutamate transporter expression and function in the hippocampus.|
Schreiner, AE; Berlinger, E; Langer, J; Kafitz, KW; Rose, CR
ISRN neurology 2013 893605 2013
Astrocytes express the sodium-dependent glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1, which are critical to maintain low extracellular glutamate concentrations. Here, we analyzed changes in their expression and function following a mechanical lesion in the CA1 area of organotypic hippocampal slices. 6-7 days after lesion, a glial scar had formed along the injury site, containing strongly activated astrocytes with increased GFAP and S100 β immunoreactivity, enlarged somata, and reduced capability for uptake of SR101. Astrocytes in the scar's periphery were swollen as well, but showed only moderate upregulation of GFAP and S100 β and efficiently took up SR101. In the scar, clusters of GLT-1 and GLAST immunoreactivity colocalized with GFAP-positive fibers. Apart from these, GLT-1 immunoreactivity declined with increasing distance from the scar, whereas GLAST expression appeared largely uniform. Sodium imaging in reactive astrocytes indicated that glutamate uptake was strongly reduced in the scar but maintained in the periphery. Our results thus show that moderately reactive astrocytes in the lesion periphery maintain overall glutamate transporter expression and function. Strongly reactive astrocytes in the scar, however, display clusters of GLAST and GLT-1 immunoreactivity together with reduced glutamate transport activity. This reduction might contribute to increased extracellular glutamate concentrations and promote excitotoxic cell damage at the lesion site.
|Mislocalization of the exitatory amino-acid transporters (EAATs) in human astrocytoma and non-astrocytoma cancer cells: effect of the cell confluence.|
Varini, K; Benzaria, A; Taïeb, N; Di Scala, C; Azmi, A; Graoudi, S; Maresca, M
Journal of biomedical science 19 10 2012
Astrocytomas are cancers of the brain in which high levels of extracellular glutamate plays a critical role in tumor growth and resistance to conventional treatments. This is due for part to a decrease in the activity of the glutamate transporters, i.e. the Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters or EAATs, in relation to their nuclear mislocalization in astrocytoma cells. Although non-astrocytoma cancers express EAATs, the localization of EAATs and the handling of L-glutamate in that case have not been investigated.We looked at the cellular localization and activity of EAATs in human astrocytoma and non-astrocytoma cancer cells by immunofluorescence, cell fractionation and L-glutamate transport studies.We demonstrated that the nuclear mislocalization of EAATs was not restricted to astrocytoma and happened in all sub-confluent non-astrocytoma cancer cells we tested. In addition, we found that cell-cell contact caused the relocalization of EAATs from the nuclei to the plasma membrane in all human cancer cells tested, except astrocytoma.Taken together, our results demonstrated that the mislocalization of the EAATs and its associated altered handling of glutamate are not restricted to astrocytomas but were also found in human non-astrocytoma cancers. Importantly, we found that a cell contact-dependent signal caused the relocalization of EAATs at the plasma membrane at least in human non-astrocytoma cancer cells, resulting in the correction of the altered transport of glutamate in such cancer cells but not in astrocytoma.
|Pathways and Biomarkers of Glutamatergic Synapse Flyer (EMD)|
|Anti-Glutamate Transporter, Glial - Data Sheet|