Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R, M, Mk, Gp, Ht, Gr||IH(P), ICC, IHC, IP, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 µg|
|Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2 3 - 2147065||2147065|
|Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2 3 - 2026386||2026386|
|Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2 3 - 2064714||2064714|
|Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2 3 - LV1495573||LV1495573|
|Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2 3 - LV1583031||LV1583031|
|Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2 3 - LV1689937||LV1689937|
|Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2 3 - LV1785805||LV1785805|
|Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2 3 - NG1839534||NG1839534|
|Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2 3 - NG1895144||NG1895144|
|Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2 & 3||2475707|
|Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2 & 3 - 2395769||2395769|
|Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2 & 3 - 2292189||2292189|
|Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2 & 3 -2500592||2500592|
|Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2 & 3 -2524666||2524666|
|Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2 & 3 -2551194||2551194|
|Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2 & 3 -2646944||2646944|
|Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2 & 3 -2691278||2691278|
|Anti-Glutamate Receptor 2 & 3 -2710604||2710604|
References | 82 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Cellular plasticity induced by anti-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor encephalitis antibodies. |
Peng, X; Hughes, EG; Moscato, EH; Parsons, TD; Dalmau, J; Balice-Gordon, RJ
Annals of neurology 77 381-98 2015
Autoimmune-mediated anti-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) encephalitis is a severe but treatment-responsive disorder with prominent short-term memory loss and seizures. The mechanisms by which patient antibodies affect synapses and neurons leading to symptoms are poorly understood.The effects of patient antibodies on cultures of live rat hippocampal neurons were determined with immunostaining, Western blot, and electrophysiological analyses.We show that patient antibodies cause a selective decrease in the total surface amount and synaptic localization of GluA1- and GluA2-containing AMPARs, regardless of receptor subunit binding specificity, through increased internalization and degradation of surface AMPAR clusters. In contrast, patient antibodies do not alter the density of excitatory synapses, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) clusters, or cell viability. Commercially available AMPAR antibodies directed against extracellular epitopes do not result in a loss of surface and synaptic receptor clusters, suggesting specific effects of patient antibodies. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of spontaneous miniature postsynaptic currents show that patient antibodies decrease AMPAR-mediated currents, but not NMDAR-mediated currents. Interestingly, several functional properties of neurons are also altered: inhibitory synaptic currents and vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid transporter (vGAT) staining intensity decrease, whereas the intrinsic excitability of neurons and short-interval firing increase.These results establish that antibodies from patients with anti-AMPAR encephalitis selectively eliminate surface and synaptic AMPARs, resulting in a homeostatic decrease in inhibitory synaptic transmission and increased intrinsic excitability, which may contribute to the memory deficits and epilepsy that are prominent in patients with this disorder.
|Glutamatergic signaling at the vestibular hair cell calyx synapse. |
Sadeghi, SG; Pyott, SJ; Yu, Z; Glowatzki, E
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 14536-50 2014
In the vestibular periphery a unique postsynaptic terminal, the calyx, completely covers the basolateral walls of type I hair cells and receives input from multiple ribbon synapses. To date, the functional role of this specialized synapse remains elusive. There is limited data supporting glutamatergic transmission, K(+) or H(+) accumulation in the synaptic cleft as mechanisms of transmission. Here the role of glutamatergic transmission at the calyx synapse is investigated. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from calyx endings were performed in an in vitro whole-tissue preparation of the rat vestibular crista, the sensory organ of the semicircular canals that sense head rotation. AMPA-mediated EPSCs showed an unusually wide range of decay time constants, from less than 5 to greater than 500 ms. Decay time constants of EPSCs increased (or decreased) in the presence of a glutamate transporter blocker (or a competitive glutamate receptor blocker), suggesting a role for glutamate accumulation and spillover in synaptic transmission. Glutamate accumulation caused slow depolarizations of the postsynaptic membrane potentials, and thereby substantially increased calyx firing rates. Finally, antibody labelings showed that a high percentage of presynaptic ribbon release sites and postsynaptic glutamate receptors were not juxtaposed, favoring a role for spillover. These findings suggest a prominent role for glutamate spillover in integration of inputs and synaptic transmission in the vestibular periphery. We propose that similar to other brain areas, such as the cerebellum and hippocampus, glutamate spillover may play a role in gain control of calyx afferents and contribute to their high-pass properties.
|Parkin regulates kainate receptors by interacting with the GluK2 subunit. |
Maraschi, A; Ciammola, A; Folci, A; Sassone, F; Ronzitti, G; Cappelletti, G; Silani, V; Sato, S; Hattori, N; Mazzanti, M; Chieregatti, E; Mulle, C; Passafaro, M; Sassone, J
Nature communications 5 5182 2014
Although loss-of-function mutations in the PARK2 gene, the gene that encodes the protein parkin, cause autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism, the responsible molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Evidence suggests that a loss of parkin dysregulates excitatory synapses. Here we show that parkin interacts with the kainate receptor (KAR) GluK2 subunit and regulates KAR function. Loss of parkin function in primary cultured neurons causes GluK2 protein to accumulate in the plasma membrane, potentiates KAR currents and increases KAR-dependent excitotoxicity. Expression in the mouse brain of a parkin mutant causing autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism results in GluK2 protein accumulation and excitotoxicity. These findings show that parkin regulates KAR function in vitro and in vivo, and suggest that KAR upregulation may have a pathogenetic role in parkin-related autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism.
|GluA1 phosphorylation contributes to postsynaptic amplification of neuropathic pain in the insular cortex. |
Qiu, S; Zhang, M; Liu, Y; Guo, Y; Zhao, H; Song, Q; Zhao, M; Huganir, RL; Luo, J; Xu, H; Zhuo, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 13505-15 2014
Long-term potentiation of glutamatergic transmission has been observed after physiological learning or pathological injuries in different brain regions, including the spinal cord, hippocampus, amygdala, and cortices. The insular cortex is a key cortical region that plays important roles in aversive learning and neuropathic pain. However, little is known about whether excitatory transmission in the insular cortex undergoes plastic changes after peripheral nerve injury. Here, we found that peripheral nerve ligation triggered the enhancement of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission in the insular cortex. The synaptic GluA1 subunit of AMPAR, but not the GluA2/3 subunit, was increased after nerve ligation. Genetic knock-in mice lacking phosphorylation of the Ser845 site, but not that of the Ser831 site, blocked the enhancement of the synaptic GluA1 subunit, indicating that GluA1 phosphorylation at the Ser845 site by protein kinase A (PKA) was critical for this upregulation after nerve injury. Furthermore, A-kinase anchoring protein 79/150 (AKAP79/150) and PKA were translocated to the synapses after nerve injury. Genetic deletion of adenylyl cyclase subtype 1 (AC1) prevented the translocation of AKAP79/150 and PKA, as well as the upregulation of synaptic GluA1-containing AMPARs. Pharmacological inhibition of calcium-permeable AMPAR function in the insular cortex reduced behavioral sensitization caused by nerve injury. Our results suggest that the expression of AMPARs is enhanced in the insular cortex after nerve injury by a pathway involving AC1, AKAP79/150, and PKA, and such enhancement may at least in part contribute to behavioral sensitization together with other cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate and the prefrontal cortices.
|Distribution of Na,K-ATPase α subunits in rat vestibular sensory epithelia. |
Schuth, O; McLean, WJ; Eatock, RA; Pyott, SJ
Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology : JARO 15 739-54 2014
The afferent encoding of vestibular stimuli depends on molecular mechanisms that regulate membrane potential, concentration gradients, and ion and neurotransmitter clearance at both afferent and efferent relays. In many cell types, the Na,K-ATPase (NKA) is essential for establishing hyperpolarized membrane potentials and mediating both primary and secondary active transport required for ion and neurotransmitter clearance. In vestibular sensory epithelia, a calyx nerve ending envelopes each type I hair cell, isolating it over most of its surface from support cells and posing special challenges for ion and neurotransmitter clearance. We used immunofluorescence and high-resolution confocal microscopy to examine the cellular and subcellular patterns of NKAα subunit expression within the sensory epithelia of semicircular canals as well as an otolith organ (the utricle). Results were similar for both kinds of vestibular organ. The neuronal NKAα3 subunit was detected in all afferent endings-both the calyx afferent endings on type I hair cells and bouton afferent endings on type II hair cells-but was not detected in efferent terminals. In contrast to previous results in the cochlea, the NKAα1 subunit was detected in hair cells (both type I and type II) but not in supporting cells. The expression of distinct NKAα subunits by vestibular hair cells and their afferent endings may be needed to support and shape the high rates of glutamatergic neurotransmission and spike initiation at the unusual type I-calyx synapse.
|Adult human nasal mesenchymal-like stem cells restore cochlear spiral ganglion neurons after experimental lesion. |
Bas, E; Van De Water, TR; Lumbreras, V; Rajguru, S; Goss, G; Hare, JM; Goldstein, BJ
Stem cells and development 23 502-14 2014
A loss of sensory hair cells or spiral ganglion neurons from the inner ear causes deafness, affecting millions of people. Currently, there is no effective therapy to repair the inner ear sensory structures in humans. Cochlear implantation can restore input, but only if auditory neurons remain intact. Efforts to develop stem cell-based treatments for deafness have demonstrated progress, most notably utilizing embryonic-derived cells. In an effort to bypass limitations of embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells that may impede the translation to clinical applications, we sought to utilize an alternative cell source. Here, we show that adult human mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) obtained from nasal tissue can repair spiral ganglion loss in experimentally lesioned cochlear cultures from neonatal rats. Stem cells engraft into gentamicin-lesioned organotypic cultures and orchestrate the restoration of the spiral ganglion neuronal population, involving both direct neuronal differentiation and secondary effects on endogenous cells. As a physiologic assay, nasal MSC-derived cells engrafted into lesioned spiral ganglia demonstrate responses to infrared laser stimulus that are consistent with those typical of excitable cells. The addition of a pharmacologic activator of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway concurrent with stem cell treatment promoted robust neuronal differentiation. The availability of an effective adult autologous cell source for inner ear tissue repair should contribute to efforts to translate cell-based strategies to the clinic.
|Suppressing aberrant GluN3A expression rescues synaptic and behavioral impairments in Huntington's disease models. |
Marco, S; Giralt, A; Petrovic, MM; Pouladi, MA; Martínez-Turrillas, R; Martínez-Hernández, J; Kaltenbach, LS; Torres-Peraza, J; Graham, RK; Watanabe, M; Luján, R; Nakanishi, N; Lipton, SA; Lo, DC; Hayden, MR; Alberch, J; Wesseling, JF; Pérez-Otaño, I
Nature medicine 19 1030-8 2013
Huntington's disease is caused by an expanded polyglutamine repeat in the huntingtin protein (HTT), but the pathophysiological sequence of events that trigger synaptic failure and neuronal loss are not fully understood. Alterations in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) have been implicated. Yet, it remains unclear how the HTT mutation affects NMDAR function, and direct evidence for a causative role is missing. Here we show that mutant HTT redirects an intracellular store of juvenile NMDARs containing GluN3A subunits to the surface of striatal neurons by sequestering and disrupting the subcellular localization of the endocytic adaptor PACSIN1, which is specific for GluN3A. Overexpressing GluN3A in wild-type mouse striatum mimicked the synapse loss observed in Huntington's disease mouse models, whereas genetic deletion of GluN3A prevented synapse degeneration, ameliorated motor and cognitive decline and reduced striatal atrophy and neuronal loss in the YAC128 Huntington's disease mouse model. Furthermore, GluN3A deletion corrected the abnormally enhanced NMDAR currents, which have been linked to cell death in Huntington's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. Our findings reveal an early pathogenic role of GluN3A dysregulation in Huntington's disease and suggest that therapies targeting GluN3A or pathogenic HTT-PACSIN1 interactions might prevent or delay disease progression.
|Protease-activated receptor-1 modulates hippocampal memory formation and synaptic plasticity. |
Almonte, AG; Qadri, LH; Sultan, FA; Watson, JA; Mount, DJ; Rumbaugh, G; Sweatt, JD
Journal of neurochemistry 124 109-22 2013
Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is an unusual G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that is activated through proteolytic cleavage by extracellular serine proteases. Although previous work has shown that inhibiting PAR1 activation is neuroprotective in models of ischemia, traumatic injury, and neurotoxicity, surprisingly little is known about PAR1's contribution to normal brain function. Here, we used PAR1-/- mice to investigate the contribution of PAR1 function to memory formation and synaptic function. We demonstrate that PAR1-/- mice have deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory. We also show that while PAR1-/- mice have normal baseline synaptic transmission at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, they exhibit severe deficits in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP). Mounting evidence indicates that activation of PAR1 leads to potentiation of NMDAR-mediated responses in CA1 pyramidal cells. Taken together, this evidence and our data suggest an important role for PAR1 function in NMDAR-dependent processes subserving memory formation and synaptic plasticity.
|Two cell circuits of oriented adult hippocampal neurons on self-assembled monolayers for use in the study of neuronal communication in a defined system. |
Edwards, D; Stancescu, M; Molnar, P; Hickman, JJ
ACS chemical neuroscience 4 1174-82 2013
In this study, we demonstrate the directed formation of small circuits of electrically active, synaptically connected neurons derived from the hippocampus of adult rats through the use of engineered chemically modified culture surfaces that orient the polarity of the neuronal processes. Although synaptogenesis, synaptic communication, synaptic plasticity, and brain disease pathophysiology can be studied using brain slice or dissociated embryonic neuronal culture systems, the complex elements found in neuronal synapses makes specific studies difficult in these random cultures. The study of synaptic transmission in mature adult neurons and factors affecting synaptic transmission are generally studied in organotypic cultures, in brain slices, or in vivo. However, engineered neuronal networks would allow these studies to be performed instead on simple functional neuronal circuits derived from adult brain tissue. Photolithographic patterned self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were used to create the two-cell "bidirectional polarity" circuit patterns. This pattern consisted of a cell permissive SAM, N-1[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] diethylenetriamine (DETA), and was composed of two 25 μm somal adhesion sites connected with 5 μm lines acting as surface cues for guided axonal and dendritic regeneration. Surrounding the DETA pattern was a background of a non-cell-permissive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) SAM. Adult hippocampal neurons were first cultured on coverslips coated with DETA monolayers and were later passaged onto the PEG-DETA bidirectional polarity patterns in serum-free medium. These neurons followed surface cues, attaching and regenerating only along the DETA substrate to form small engineered neuronal circuits. These circuits were stable for more than 21 days in vitro (DIV), during which synaptic connectivity was evaluated using basic electrophysiological methods.
|Maturation profile of inferior olivary neurons expressing ionotropic glutamate receptors in rats: role in coding linear accelerations. |
Li, C; Han, L; Ma, CW; Lai, SK; Lai, CH; Shum, DK; Chan, YS
Brain structure & function 218 833-50 2013
Using sinusoidal oscillations of linear acceleration along both the horizontal and vertical planes to stimulate otolith organs in the inner ear, we charted the postnatal time at which responsive neurons in the rat inferior olive (IO) first showed Fos expression, an indicator of neuronal recruitment into the otolith circuit. Neurons in subnucleus dorsomedial cell column (DMCC) were activated by vertical stimulation as early as P9 and by horizontal (interaural) stimulation as early as P11. By P13, neurons in the β subnucleus of IO (IOβ) became responsive to horizontal stimulation along the interaural and antero-posterior directions. By P21, neurons in the rostral IOβ became also responsive to vertical stimulation, but those in the caudal IOβ remained responsive only to horizontal stimulation. Nearly all functionally activated neurons in DMCC and IOβ were immunopositive for the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor and the GluR2/3 subunit of the AMPA receptor. In situ hybridization studies further indicated abundant mRNA signals of the glutamate receptor subunits by the end of the second postnatal week. This is reinforced by whole-cell patch-clamp data in which glutamate receptor-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents of rostral IOβ neurons showed postnatal increase in amplitude, reaching the adult level by P14. Further, these neurons exhibited subthreshold oscillations in membrane potential as from P14. Taken together, our results support that ionotropic glutamate receptors in the IO enable postnatal coding of gravity-related information and that the rostral IOβ is the only IO subnucleus that encodes spatial orientations in 3-D.
|Locomotor sensitization to ethanol impairs NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens and increases ethanol self-administration. |
Abrahao, KP; Ariwodola, OJ; Butler, TR; Rau, AR; Skelly, MJ; Carter, E; Alexander, NP; McCool, BA; Souza-Formigoni, ML; Weiner, JL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 4834-42 2013
Although alcoholism is a worldwide problem resulting in millions of deaths, only a small percentage of alcohol users become addicted. The specific neural substrates responsible for individual differences in vulnerability to alcohol addiction are not known. In this study, we used rodent models to study behavioral and synaptic correlates related to individual differences in the development of ethanol locomotor sensitization, a form of drug-dependent behavioral plasticity associated with addiction vulnerability. Male Swiss Webster mice were treated daily with saline or 1.8 g/kg ethanol for 21 d. Locomotor activity tests were performed once a week for 15 min immediately after saline or ethanol injections. After at least 11 d of withdrawal, cohorts of saline- or ethanol-treated mice were used to characterize the relationships between locomotor sensitization, ethanol drinking, and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the nucleus accumbens. Ethanol-treated mice that expressed locomotor sensitization to ethanol drank significantly more ethanol than saline-treated subjects and ethanol-treated animals resilient to this form of behavioral plasticity. Moreover, ethanol-sensitized mice also had reduced accumbal NMDA receptor function and expression, as well as deficits in NMDA receptor-dependent long-term depression in the nucleus accumbens core after a protracted withdrawal. These findings suggest that disruption of accumbal core NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity may represent a synaptic correlate associated with ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization and increased propensity to consume ethanol.
|A protein cross-linking assay for measuring cell surface expression of glutamate receptor subunits in the rodent brain after in vivo treatments. |
Boudreau, AC; Milovanovic, M; Conrad, KL; Nelson, C; Ferrario, CR; Wolf, ME
Current protocols in neuroscience / editorial board, Jacqueline N. Crawley ... [et al.] Chapter 5 Unit 5.30.1-19 2012
Trafficking of neurotransmitter receptors between intracellular and cell surface compartments is important for regulating neurotransmission. We developed a method for determining if an in vivo treatment has altered receptor distribution in a particular region of rodent brain. After the treatment, brain slices are rapidly prepared from the region of interest. Then, cell surface-expressed proteins are covalently cross-linked using the membrane-impermeable, bifunctional cross-linker bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate (BS(3)). This increases the apparent molecular weight of surface receptors, while intracellular receptors are not modified. Thus, surface and intracellular receptor pools can be separated and quantified using SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. This method is particularly useful for analyzing AMPA receptor subunits, offering advantages in accuracy, efficiency, and cost compared to biotinylation. A disadvantage is that some antibodies no longer recognize their target protein after cross-linking. We have used this method to quantify changes in receptor distribution after acute and chronic exposure to psychomotor stimulants.
|Two-stage AMPA receptor trafficking in classical conditioning and selective role for glutamate receptor subunit 4 (tGluA4) flop splice variant. |
Zheng, Zhaoqing, et al.
J. Neurophysiol., 108: 101-11 (2012) 2012
Previously, we proposed a two-stage model for an in vitro neural correlate of eyeblink classical conditioning involving the initial synaptic incorporation of glutamate receptor A1 (GluA1)-containing α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid type receptors (AMPARs) followed by delivery of GluA4-containing AMPARs that support acquisition of conditioned responses. To test specific elements of our model for conditioning, selective knockdown of GluA4 AMPAR subunits was used using small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Recently, we sequenced and characterized the GluA4 subunit and its splice variants from pond turtles, Trachemys scripta elegans (tGluA4). Analysis of the relative abundance of mRNA expression by real-time RT-PCR showed that the flip/flop variants of tGluA4, tGluA4c, and a novel truncated variant tGluA4trc1 are major isoforms in the turtle brain. Here, transfection of in vitro brain stem preparations with anti-tGluA4 siRNA suppressed conditioning, tGluA4 mRNA and protein expression, and synaptic delivery of tGluA4-containing AMPARs but not tGluA1 subunits. Significantly, transfection of abducens motor neurons by nerve injections of tGluA4 flop rescue plasmid prior to anti-tGluA4 siRNA application restored conditioning and synaptic incorporation of tGluA4-containing AMPARs. In contrast, treatment with rescue plasmids for tGluA4 flip or tGluA4trc1 failed to rescue conditioning. Finally, treatment with a siRNA directed against GluA1 subunits inhibited conditioning and synaptic delivery of tGluA1-containing AMPARs and importantly, those containing tGluA4. These data strongly support our two-stage model of conditioning and our hypothesis that synaptic incorporation of tGluA4-containing AMPARs underlies the acquisition of in vitro classical conditioning. Furthermore, they suggest that tGluA4 flop may have a critical role in conditioning mechanisms compared with the other tGluA4 splice variants.
|Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma regulates synapse structure, function and plasticity. |
Katherine E Horn,Bin Xu,Delphine Gobert,Bassam N Hamam,Katherine M Thompson,Chia-Lun Wu,Jean-François Bouchard,Noriko Uetani,Ronald J Racine,Michel L Tremblay,Edward S Ruthazer,C Andrew Chapman,Timothy E Kennedy
Journal of neurochemistry 122 2012
The mechanisms that regulate synapse formation and maintenance are incompletely understood. In particular, relatively few inhibitors of synapse formation have been identified. Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase σ (RPTPσ), a transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase, is widely expressed by neurons in developing and mature mammalian brain, and functions as a receptor for chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that inhibits axon regeneration following injury. In this study, we address RPTPσ function in the mature brain. We demonstrate increased axon collateral branching in the hippocampus of RPTPσ null mice during normal aging or following chemically induced seizure, indicating that RPTPσ maintains neural circuitry by inhibiting axonal branching. Previous studies demonstrated a role for pre-synaptic RPTPσ promoting synaptic differentiation during development; however, subcellular fractionation revealed enrichment of RPTPσ in post-synaptic densities. We report that neurons lacking RPTPσ have an increased density of pre-synaptic varicosities in vitro and increased dendritic spine density and length in vivo. RPTPσ knockouts exhibit an increased frequency of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents, and greater paired-pulse facilitation, consistent with increased synapse density but reduced synaptic efficiency. Furthermore, RPTPσ nulls exhibit reduced long-term potentiation and enhanced novel object recognition memory. We conclude that RPTPσ limits synapse number and regulates synapse structure and function in the mature CNS.
|Knockout of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit α4 reduces functional δ-containing extrasynaptic receptors in hippocampal pyramidal cells at the onset of puberty. |
Sabaliauskas, N; Shen, H; Homanics, GE; Smith, SS; Aoki, C
Brain research 1450 11-23 2012
Increased plasmalemmal localization of α4βδ GABA(A) receptors (GABARs) occurs in the hippocampal pyramidal cells of female mice at pubertal onset (Shen et al., 2010). This increase occurs on both dendritic spines and shafts of CA1 pyramidal cells and is in response to hormone fluctuations that occur at pubertal onset. However, little is known about how the α4 and δ subunits individually mediate the formation of functional, plasmalemmal α4βδ GABARs. To determine whether expression of the α4 subunit is necessary for plasmalemmal δ subunit localization at pubertal onset, electron microscopic-immunocytochemistry (EM-ICC) was employed. CA1 pyramidal cells of female α4 knockout (KO) mice were tested for plasmalemmal levels of the δ subunit within dendritic spine and shaft profiles at the onset of puberty. EM-ICC revealed that the α4 and δ subunits localize on dendritic spines and shafts at sites extrasynaptic to GABAergic input at pubertal onset in tissue of wild-type (WT) mice. At pubertal onset, plasmalemmal localization of the δ subunit is reduced 45.9% on dendritic spines, and 56.7% on dendritic shafts with KO of the α4 subunit, as compared to WT tissue, yet levels of intracellular δ immunoreactivity remain unchanged. The decline in plasmalemmal localization is manifested as decreased responsiveness to the GABA agonist gaboxadol at concentrations that are selective for δ-containing GABARs. Additionally, α4 KO mice have larger dendritic spine and shaft profiles. Our findings demonstrate that α4 subunit expression strongly influences the pubertal increase of δ subunits at the plasma membrane, and that genetic deletion of α4 serves as a functional knock-down of δ-containing GABARs.
|Rapid enrichment of presynaptic protein in boutons undergoing classical conditioning is mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. |
Li, W and Keifer, J
Neuroscience, 203: 50-8 (2012) 2012
Presynaptic structural modifications are thought to accompany activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and learning. This may involve the conversion of nonfunctional synapses into active ones or the generation of entirely new synapses. Here, using an in vitro neural analog of classical conditioning, we investigated presynaptic structural changes restricted to auditory nerve synapses that convey the conditioned stimulus (CS) by tract tracing using fluorescent tracers combined with immunostaining for the synaptic vesicle-associated protein synaptophysin. The results show that the size of presynaptic auditory boutons increased and the area and fluorescence intensity of punctate staining for synaptophysin were enhanced after conditioning. This occurred only for auditory nerve boutons apposed to the dendrites but not the somata of abducens motor neurons. Conditioning increased the percentage of boutons that were immunopositive for synaptophysin and enhanced the number of synaptophysin puncta they contained. Pretreatment with antibodies against brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) inhibited these conditioning-induced structural changes. There was also a net increase in the number of boutons apposed to abducens motor neurons after conditioning or BDNF treatment. These data indicate that the rapid enrichment of presynaptic boutons with proteins required for neurotransmitter recycling and release occurs during classical conditioning and that these processes are mediated by BDNF.
|Quantitative analysis of AMPA receptor subunit composition in addiction-related brain regions. |
Reimers, JM; Milovanovic, M; Wolf, ME
Brain research 1367 223-33 2011
The subunit composition of α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (AMPARs) is an important determinant of AMPAR biophysical properties and trafficking. To date, AMPAR subunit composition has been quantitatively evaluated only for the hippocampus, where different experimental approaches have yielded different results. Here, we used quantitative co-immunoprecipitation to characterize GluA1-3 associations in the adult rat nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus, and blue native electrophoresis (BNE) to study GluA1-3 assembly state. In all brain regions, co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that ~90% of GluA1 was associated with GluA2 or GluA3 (most was GluA1A2). All regions contained a small number of GluA1A3 receptors. Homomeric GluA1 receptors may also exist. More than half of the GluA2 (53%-65% depending on the region) was not associated with GluA1. However, this represents an over-estimate of the percent of GluA2 present in GluA2A3 receptors, based on BNE results demonstrating that the majority of GluA2 exists as dimers, rather than functional tetrameric receptors. Relatively more GluA1 was present in tetramers. Together with other findings, our results suggest a dominant role for GluA1A2 receptors in all brain regions examined. They also help explain why different results for hippocampal AMPAR subunit composition were obtained using co-immunoprecipitation, which assesses the total cellular pool of AMPARs including partially assembled AMPARs in intracellular compartments, and electrophysiological approaches, which can selectively assess tetrameric (functional) AMPARs on the cell surface.
|Stereologic estimation of hippocampal gluR23- and calretinin-immunoreactive hilar neurons (presumptive mossy cells) in two Mouse Models of temporal lobe epilepsy. |
Volz F, Bock HH, Gierthmuehlen M, Zentner J, Haas CA, Freiman TM
Purpose: Hippocampal mossy cells receive dense innervation from dentate granule cells and, in turn, mossy cells innervate both granule cells and interneurons. Mossy cell loss is thought to trigger granule cell mossy fiber sprouting, which may affect granule cell excitability. The aim of this study was to quantify mossy cell loss in two animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy, and determine whether there exists a relationship between mossy cell loss, mossy fiber sprouting, and granule cell dispersion. Methods: Representative hippocampal sections from p35 knockout mice and mice with unilateral intrahippocampal kainate injection were immunolabeled for GluR2/3, two subunits of the amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor and calretinin to identify mossy cells. Mossy fibers were immunostained against synaptoporin. Key Findings: p35 Knockout mice showed no hilar cell death, but moderate mossy fiber sprouting and granule cell dispersion. In the kainate-injected hippocampus, there was an 80% and 85% reduction of GluR2/3- and GluR2/3/calretinin-positive hilar neurons, respectively, and dense mossy fiber sprouting and significant granule cell dispersion. In the contralateral hippocampus there was a 52% loss of GluR2/3-, but only a 20% loss of GluR2/3-calretinin-immunoreactive presumptive mossy cells, and granule cell dispersion; no mossy fiber sprouting was observed. Significance: These results indicate a probable lack of causality between mossy cell death and mossy fiber sprouting.Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.
|Brain-derived neurotrophic factor rapidly increases AMPA receptor surface expression in rat nucleus accumbens. |
Li, X; Wolf, ME
The European journal of neuroscience 34 190-8 2011
In the rodent nucleus accumbens (NAc), cocaine elevates levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Conversely, BDNF can augment cocaine-related behavioral responses. The latter could reflect enhancement of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) transmission, because AMPARs in the NAc mediate some cocaine-induced behaviors. Furthermore, in vitro studies in other cell types show that BDNF can promote AMPAR synaptic delivery. In this study, we investigated whether BDNF similarly promotes AMPAR trafficking in the adult rat NAc. After unilateral intracranial injection of BDNF into NAc core or shell, rats were killed at post-injection times ranging from 30 min to 3 days. NAc core or shell tissue from both injected and non-injected hemispheres was analysed by Western blotting. A protein cross-linking assay was used to measure AMPAR surface expression. Assessment of tropomyosin receptor kinase B signaling demonstrated that injected BDNF was biologically active. BDNF injection into NAc core, but not NAc shell, led to a protein synthesis- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent increase in cell surface GluA1 and a trend towards increased total GluA1. This was detected 30 min post-injection but not at longer time-points. GluA2 and GluA3 were unaffected, suggesting an effect of BDNF on homomeric GluA1 Ca(2+) -permeable AMPARs. These results demonstrate that exogenous BDNF rapidly increases AMPAR surface expression in the rat NAc core, raising the possibility of a relationship between increases in endogenous BDNF levels and alterations in AMPAR transmission observed in the NAc of cocaine-experienced rats.
|Conditional deletion of NRSF in forebrain neurons accelerates epileptogenesis in the kindling model. |
Hu, XL; Cheng, X; Cai, L; Tan, GH; Xu, L; Feng, XY; Lu, TJ; Xiong, H; Fei, J; Xiong, ZQ
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 21 2158-65 2011
Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF), also known as repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor, is a transcriptional repressor that plays important roles in embryonic development and neurogenesis. Recent findings show that NRSF is upregulated after seizures activity however, the link between NRSF and epileptogenesis remains poorly understood. To investigate the role of NRSF in epilepsy, we employed a Cre-loxp system to specifically delete NRSF in excitatory neurons of the postnatal mouse forebrain. In the kindling model of epileptogenesis, conditional NRSF knockout (NRSF-cKO) mice exhibited dramatically accelerated seizure progression and prolonged afterdischarge duration compared with control mice. Moreover, seizures activity-induced mossy fiber sprouting was enhanced in the NRSF-cKO mice. The degree of upregulation of Fibroblast growth factor 14 and Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) following kainic acid-induced status epilepticus was significantly increased in the cortex of NRSF-cKO mice compared with control mice. Furthermore, the derepression of BDNF was associated by activation of PLCγ and PI(3)K signaling pathways. These findings indicate that NRSF functions as an intrinsic repressor of limbic epileptogenesis.
|Synaptic proteins are tonotopically graded in postnatal and adult type I and type II spiral ganglion neurons. |
Flores-Otero, J; Davis, RL
The Journal of comparative neurology 519 1455-75 2011
Inherent in the design of the mammalian auditory system is the precision necessary to transduce complex sounds and transmit the resulting electrical signals to higher neural centers. Unique specializations in the organ of Corti are required to make this conversion, such that mechanical and electrical properties of hair cell receptors are tailored to their specific role in signal coding. Electrophysiological and immunocytochemical characterizations have shown that this principle also applies to neurons of the spiral ganglion, as evidenced by distinctly different firing features and synaptic protein distributions of neurons that innervate high- and low-frequency regions of the cochlea. However, understanding the fine structure of how these properties are distributed along the cochlear partition and within the type I and type II classes of spiral ganglion neurons is necessary to appreciate their functional significance fully. To address this issue, we assessed the localization of the postsynaptic AMPA receptor subunits GluR2 and GluR3 and the presynaptic protein synaptophysin by using immunocytochemical labeling in both postnatal and adult tissue. We report that these presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins are distributed oppositely in relation to the tonotopic map and that they are equally distributed in each neuronal class, thus having an overall gradation from one end of the cochlea to the other. For synaptophysin, an additional layer of heterogeneity was superimposed orthogonal to the tonotopic axis. The highest anti-synaptophysin antibody levels were observed within neurons located close to the scala tympani compared with those located close to the scala vestibuli. Furthermore, we noted that the protein distribution patterns observed in postnatal preparations were largely retained in adult tissue sections, indicating that these features characterize spiral ganglion neurons in the fully developed ear.
|Immunohistochemical localization of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits in the nucleus of the Edinger-Westphal in embryonic chick. |
Toledo, CA; Reiner, A; Patel, RS; Vitale, AW; Klein, JM; Dalsania, BJ; Fitzgerald, ME
Neuroscience letters 498 199-203 2011
The Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) in birds is responsible for the control of pupil constriction, accommodation, and choroidal blood flow. The activation of EW neurons is mediated by the neurotransmitter glutamate, in large part through AMPA-type glutamate receptors (GluRs), whose behavior varies according to the subunit composition. We investigated the developmental expression of the GluR subunits in EW of the chick (Gallus gallus) using immunohistochemistry on tissue from embryonic days 10 through 20 (E10-E20). Of the three antibodies used, one recognized the GluR1 subunit, another the GluR4 subunit, and the third recognized a sequence common to GluR2 and GluR3 subunits. No immunolabeling of EW neurons for any GluR subunits was observed prior to E12, although immunolabeling was seen in somatic oculomotor prior to E12. At E12, immunoreactivity for each of the three antibodies was in only approximately 2% of EW neurons. By E14, the abundance of GluR1+ perikarya in EW had increased to 13%, and for GluR2/3 had increased to 48%. The perikaryal abundance of the immunoreactivity for GluR1 and GluR2/3 declined to 3% and 23%, respectively, by E16. At E14, 33% of EW neurons immunolabeled for GluR4, and their frequency increased to 43% by E16, and remained at that approximate percentage through hatching. The increased expression of GluR1 and GluR4 in EW at E14 coincides with the reported onset of the expression of the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin, and the calcium currents associated with AMPA receptors formed by these two subunits may play a role in the occurrence of parvalbumin expression.
|Distribution of AMPA receptor subunits and TARPs in synaptic and extrasynaptic membranes of the adult rat nucleus accumbens. |
Ferrario, CR; Loweth, JA; Milovanovic, M; Wang, X; Wolf, ME
Neuroscience letters 490 180-4 2011
We characterized the distribution of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunits and the transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) γ-2 and γ-4 in adult rat nucleus accumbens (NAc) using a method that separates plasma membranes into synaptic membrane-enriched and extrasynaptic membrane-enriched fractions. We also measured GluA1 phosphorylated at serine 845 (pS845 GluA1) and serine 831 (pS831 GluA1). GluA1-3 protein levels and pS831 GluA1/total GluA1 were higher in synaptic membranes. However, pS845 GluA1/total GluA1 was higher in extrasynaptic membranes, consistent with a role for S845 phosphorylation in GluA1 insertion at extrasynaptic sites. Homeric GluA1 receptors were detected in extrasynaptic membranes, consistent with evidence for extrasynaptic Ca(2+)-permeable AMPARs in other systems. The TARP γ-2 was enriched in synaptic membranes, whereas γ-4 was mainly found in extrasynaptic membranes, suggesting distinct roles for these proteins in the NAc. These experiments provide fundamental information that will aid in the interpretation of studies on AMPAR-related plasticity in the NAc.
|Expression of various glutamate receptors including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in an ovarian teratoma removed from a young woman with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. |
Naoko Tachibana,Takashi Shirakawa,Keiko Ishii,Yukitoshi Takahashi,Keiko Tanaka,Kunimasa Arima,Takuhiro Yoshida,Shu-Ichi Ikeda
Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan) 49 2010
A 21-year-old woman developed psychiatric symptoms, progressive unresponsiveness, generalized seizures, severe dyskinesia, marked fluctuation of blood pressure, and hypersalivation after a flu-like episode. Anti-glutamate receptor (GluR)?2 and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies were positive in both her serum and CSF. After she recovered five months later she underwent surgery to remove a right ovarian teratoma. Immunohistochemical examinations of her teratoma disclosed abundant expression of various GluRs including NR2B subunit of NMDAR, GluR1, and GluR2/3. These immunoreactivities of GluRs were seen not only in small areas of neural tissue identified as anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive areas but also in other large areas of undifferentiated neuroepithelial tissue without GFAP immunoreactivity. Our findings strongly support the recent idea that neural elements in ovarian teratoma play an important role in the production of antibodies to NMDARs in anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Additionally, the study of control ovaries clearly showed NR2B-related immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm of oocytes, indicating that the normal ovary itself has expression of NMDARs. This finding might provide a clue to understand the pathogenesis of this disease in female patients without ovarian teratoma.
|Stereological estimation of numerical densities of glutamatergic principal neurons in the mouse hippocampus. |
Jinno S, Kosaka T
Hippocampus 20 829-40. 2010
Recent studies have emphasized functional dissociations between dorsal and ventral hippocampus in learning, emotion, and affect. A rigorous quantitative analysis concerning lamellar cytoarchitecture would be important for promoting further research on the regional differentiation of the hippocampus. Here, we stereologically estimated the numerical densities (NDs) of glutamatergic principal neurons in the mouse hippocampus and encountered the significant differences along the dorsoventral axis. In the CA1 region, the NDs of CA1 pyramidal neurons were almost three times higher at the dorsal level (447.5 x 10(3)/mm(3)) than at the ventral level (180.5 x 10(3)/mm(3)); meanwhile, along the transverse axis, the NDs were significantly higher in the proximal portion than in the distal portion both at the dorsal and ventral levels. An EF-hand calcium-binding protein, calbindin D28K, was expressed in approximately 45% of CA1 pyramidal neurons both at the dorsal and ventral level. In the CA3 region, there were no significant differences in the NDs along the dorsoventral and transverse axes (dorsal, 165.2 x 10(3)/mm(3); ventral, 172.4 x 10(3)/mm(3)). In the dentate gyrus (DG), the NDs of granule cells were significantly higher at the dorsal level (916.7 x 10(3)/mm(3)) than at the ventral level (788.9 x 10(3)/mm(3)). The significant differences were observed only in the suprapyramidal blade, but not in the infrapyramidal blade. Then, we calculated the total neuron numbers contained in a 300-microm-thick hypothetical transverse slice of the hippocampus and found that the ratios of GABAergic to glutamatergic neuron numbers were two to three times higher in the ventral slice than in the dorsal slice. The ratios of numbers of eight GABAergic neuron subtypes to principal cells indicate structural dissociations in the neural network between dorsal and ventral slices. These findings provide an essential quantitative basis for elucidating mechanisms of distinct neural circuits underlying various hippocampal functions.
|Single-synapse analysis of a diverse synapse population: proteomic imaging methods and markers. |
Micheva, KD; Busse, B; Weiler, NC; O'Rourke, N; Smith, SJ
Neuron 68 639-53 2010
A lack of methods for measuring the protein compositions of individual synapses in situ has so far hindered the exploration and exploitation of synapse molecular diversity. Here, we describe the use of array tomography, a new high-resolution proteomic imaging method, to determine the composition of glutamate and GABA synapses in somatosensory cortex of Line-H-YFP Thy-1 transgenic mice. We find that virtually all synapses are recognized by antibodies to the presynaptic phosphoprotein synapsin I, while antibodies to 16 other synaptic proteins discriminate among 4 subtypes of glutamatergic synapses and GABAergic synapses. Cell-specific YFP expression in the YFP-H mouse line allows synapses to be assigned to specific presynaptic and postsynaptic partners and reveals that a subpopulation of spines on layer 5 pyramidal cells receives both VGluT1-subtype glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic inputs. These results establish a means for the high-throughput acquisition of proteomic data from individual cortical synapses in situ.Full Text Article
|Altered neurotransmission in the mesolimbic reward system of Girk mice. |
Arora D, Haluk DM, Kourrich S, Pravetoni M, Fernández-Alacid L, Nicolau JC, Luján R, Wickman K
J Neurochem 114 1487-97. Epub 2010 Jun 16. 2010
Mice lacking the Girk2 subunit of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ (Girk) channels exhibit dopamine-dependent hyperactivity and elevated responses to drugs that stimulate dopamine neurotransmission. The dopamine-dependent phenotypes seen in Girk2(-/-) mice could reflect increased intrinsic excitability of or diminished inhibitory feedback to midbrain dopamine neurons, or secondary adaptations triggered by Girk2 ablation. We addressed these possibilities by evaluating Girk(-/-) mice in behavioral, electrophysiological, and cell biological assays centered on the mesolimbic dopamine system. Despite differences in the contribution of Girk1 and Girk2 subunits to Girk signaling in midbrain dopamine neurons, Girk1(-/-) and Girk2(-/-) mice exhibited comparable baseline hyperactivities and enhanced responses to cocaine. Girk ablation also correlated with altered afferent input to dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Dopamine neurons from Girk1(-/-) and Girk2(-/-) mice exhibited elevated glutamatergic neurotransmission, paralleled by increased synaptic levels of alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate glutamate receptors. In addition, synapse density, alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptor levels, and glutamatergic neurotransmission were elevated in medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens from Girk1(-/-) and Girk2(-/-) mice. We conclude that dopamine-dependent phenotypes in Girk2(-/-) mice are not solely attributable to a loss of Girk signaling in dopamine neurons, and likely involve secondary adaptations facilitating glutamatergic signaling in the mesolimbic reward system.Full Text Article
|Endogenous GluR1-containing AMPA receptors translocate to asymmetric synapses in the lateral amygdala during the early phase of fear memory formation: an electron microscopic immunocytochemical study. |
Nedelescu, H; Kelso, CM; Lázaro-Muñoz, G; Purpura, M; Cain, CK; Ledoux, JE; Aoki, C
The Journal of comparative neurology 518 4723-39 2010
Although glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1)-containing α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (GluR1-AMPARs) are implicated in synaptic plasticity, it has yet to be demonstrated whether endogenous GluR1-AMPARs undergo activity-dependent trafficking in vivo to synapses to support short-term memory (STM) formation. The paradigm of pavlovian fear conditioning (FC) can be used to address this question, because a discrete region-the lateral amygdala (LA)-has been shown unambiguously to be necessary for the formation of the associative memory between a neutral stimulus (tone [CS]) and a noxious stimulus (foot shock [US]). Acquisition of STM for FC can occur even in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors, indicating that redistribution of pre-existing molecules to synaptic junctions underlies STM. We employed electron microscopic immunocytochemistry to evaluate alterations in the distribution of endogenous AMPAR subunits at LA synapses during the STM phase of FC. Rats were sacrificed 40 minutes following three CS-US pairings. In the LA of paired animals, relative to naïve animals, the proportion of GluR1-AMPAR-labeled synapses increased 99% at spines and 167% in shafts. In the LA of unpaired rats, for which the CS was never associated with the US, GluR1 immunoreactivity decreased 84% at excitatory shaft synapses. GluR2/3 immunoreactivity at excitatory synapses did not change detectably following paired or unpaired conditioning. Thus, the early phase of FC involves rapid redistribution specifically of the GluR1-AMPARs to the postsynaptic membranes in the LA, together with the rapid translocation of GluR1-AMPARs from remote sites into the spine head cytoplasm, yielding behavior changes that are specific to stimulus contingencies.
|Regulation of AMPA receptor trafficking and function by glycogen synthase kinase 3. |
Wei, J; Liu, W; Yan, Z
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 26369-76 2010
Accumulating evidence suggests that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a multifunctional kinase implicated in neuronal development, mood stabilization, and neurodegeneration. However, the synaptic actions of GSK-3 are largely unknown. In this study, we examined the impact of GSK-3 on AMPA receptor (AMPAR) channels, the major mediator of excitatory transmission, in cortical neurons. Application of GSK-3 inhibitors or knockdown of GSK-3 caused a significant reduction of the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC), a readout of the unitary strength of synaptic AMPARs. Treatment with GSK-3 inhibitors also decreased surface and synaptic GluR1 clusters on dendrites and increased internalized GluR1 in cortical cultures. Rab5, the small GTPase controlling the transport from plasma membrane to early endosomes, was activated by GSK-3 inhibitors. Knockdown of Rab5 prevented GSK-3 inhibitors from regulating mEPSC amplitude. Guanyl nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI), which regulates the cycle of Rab5 between membrane and cytosol, formed an increased complex with Rab5 after treatment with GSK-3 inhibitors. Blocking the function of GDI occluded the effect of GSK-3 inhibitors on mEPSC amplitude. In cells transfected with the non-phosphorylatable GDI mutant, GDI(S45A), GSK-3 inhibitors lost the capability to regulate GDI-Rab5 complex, mEPSC amplitude, and AMPAR surface expression. These results suggest that GSK-3, via altering the GDI-Rab5 complex, regulates Rab5-mediated endocytosis of AMPARs. It provides a potential mechanism underlying the role of GSK-3 in synaptic transmission and plasticity.
|Cold-induced exodus of postsynaptic proteins from dendritic spines. |
Hui-Hsuan Cheng, Zu-Han Huang, Wei-Hsiang Lin, Wei-Yuan Chow, Yen-Chung Chang, Hui-Hsuan Cheng, Zu-Han Huang, Wei-Hsiang Lin, Wei-Yuan Chow, Yen-Chung Chang, Hui-Hsuan Cheng, Zu-Han Huang, Wei-Hsiang Lin, Wei-Yuan Chow, Yen-Chung Chang
Journal of neuroscience research 87 460-9 2009
Dendritic spines are small protrusions on neuronal dendrites and the major target of the excitatory inputs in mammalian brains. Cultured neurons and brain slices are important tools in studying the biochemical and cellular properties of dendritic spines. During the processes of immunocytochemical studies of neurons and the preparation of brain slices, neurons were often kept at temperatures lower than 37 degrees C for varied lengths of time. This study sought to investigate whether and how cold treatment would affect the protein composition of dendritic spines. The results indicated that upon cold treatment four postsynaptic proteins, namely, alpha,beta-tubulins, calcium, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha, and cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain and microtubule-associated protein 2, but not PSD-95 or AMPA receptors, exited from the majority of dendritic spines of cultured rat hippocampal neurons in a Gd(3+)-sensitive manner. The cold-induced exit of tubulins from dendritic spines was further found to be an energy-dependent process involving the activation of Gd(3+)-sensitive calcium channels and ryanodine receptors. The results thus indicate that changes in temperature, calcium concentration, and energy supply of the medium surrounding neurons would affect the protein composition of the dendritic spines and conceivably the protein composition of the subcellular organizations, such as the postsynaptic density, in the cytoplasm of dendritic spines.
|ZO-1 and the spatial organization of gap junctions and glutamate receptors in the outer plexiform layer of the mammalian retina. |
Puller, C; de Sevilla Müller, LP; Janssen-Bienhold, U; Haverkamp, S
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 29 6266-75 2009
Information processing in the retina starts at the first synaptic layer, where photoreceptors and second-order neurons exhibit a complex architecture of glutamatergic and electrical synapses. To investigate the composition of this highly organized synaptic network, we determined the spatial relationship of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) with different connexins (Cx) and glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits in the outer plexiform layer (OPL) of rabbit, mouse, and monkey retinas. ZO-1 is well known as an intracellular component of tight and adherens junctions, but also interacts with various connexins at gap junctions. We found ZO-1 closely associated with Cx50 on dendrites of A-type horizontal cells in rabbit, and with Cx57 at dendro-dendritic gap junctions of mouse horizontal cells. The spatial arrangement of ZO-1 at the giant gap-junctional plaques in rabbit was particularly striking. ZO-1 formed a clear margin around the large Cx50 plaques instead of being colocalized with the connexin staining. Our finding suggests the involvement of ZO-1 in the composition of tight or adherens junctions around gap-junctional plaques instead of interacting with connexins directly. Furthermore, gap junctions were found to be clustered in close proximity to GluRs at the level of desmosome-like junctions, where horizontal cell dendrites converge before invaginating the cone pedicle. Based on this distinct spatial organization of gap junctions and GluRs, it is tempting to speculate that glutamate released from the photoreceptors may play a role in modulating the conductance of electrical synapses in the OPL.
|Fragile X mental retardation protein regulates the levels of scaffold proteins and glutamate receptors in postsynaptic densities. |
Schütt, J; Falley, K; Richter, D; Kreienkamp, HJ; Kindler, S
The Journal of biological chemistry 284 25479-87 2009
Functional absence of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) causes the fragile X syndrome, a hereditary form of mental retardation characterized by a change in dendritic spine morphology. The RNA-binding protein FMRP has been implicated in regulating postsynaptic protein synthesis. Here we have analyzed whether the abundance of scaffold proteins and neurotransmitter receptor subunits in postsynaptic densities (PSDs) is altered in the neocortex and hippocampus of FMRP-deficient mice. Whereas the levels of several PSD components are unchanged, concentrations of Shank1 and SAPAP scaffold proteins and various glutamate receptor subunits are altered in both adult and juvenile knock-out mice. With the exception of slightly increased hippocampal SAPAP2 mRNA levels in adult animals, altered postsynaptic protein concentrations do not correlate with similar changes in total and synaptic levels of corresponding mRNAs. Thus, loss of FMRP in neurons appears to mainly affect the translation and not the abundance of particular brain transcripts. Semi-quantitative analysis of RNA levels in FMRP immunoprecipitates showed that in the mouse brain mRNAs encoding PSD components, such as Shank1, SAPAP1-3, PSD-95, and the glutamate receptor subunits NR1 and NR2B, are associated with FMRP. Luciferase reporter assays performed in primary cortical neurons from knock-out and wild-type mice indicate that FMRP silences translation of Shank1 mRNAs via their 3'-untranslated region. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors relieves translational suppression. As Shank1 controls dendritic spine morphology, our data suggest that dysregulation of Shank1 synthesis may significantly contribute to the abnormal spine development and function observed in brains of fragile X syndrome patients.
|Chronic CXCL10 alters neuronal properties in rat hippocampal culture. |
Cho, J; Nelson, TE; Bajova, H; Gruol, DL
Journal of neuroimmunology 207 92-100 2009
The chemokine CXCL10 is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) during neuroinflammatory conditions. Neurons express CXCR3, the receptor for CXCL10, and neuronal function has been shown to be altered by acute exposure to CXCL10. Little is known about the effects of chronic exposure to CXCL10 on neuronal function. Results from our studies show that chronic exposure of cultured rat hippocampal neurons to CXCL10 results in altered levels of protein for GABA and glutamate receptors and altered synaptic network activity. These effects of CXCL10 may contribute to altered CNS function that occurs in some chronic neuroinflammatory conditions.
|Impairment of SLC17A8 encoding vesicular glutamate transporter-3, VGLUT3, underlies nonsyndromic deafness DFNA25 and inner hair cell dysfunction in null mice. |
Ruel, Jérôme, et al.
Am. J. Hum. Genet., 83: 278-92 (2008) 2008
|Mechanisms controlling Pax6 isoform expression in the retina have been conserved between teleosts and mammals. |
Lakowski, Jörn, et al.
Dev. Biol., 307: 498-520 (2007) 2007
The Pax6 gene plays several roles in retinal development, including control of cell proliferation, maintenance of the retinogenic potential of progenitor cells, and cell fate specification. Emerging evidence suggests that these different aspects of Pax6 gene function are mediated by different isoforms of the Pax6 protein; however, relatively little is known about the spatiotemporal expression of Pax6 isoforms in the vertebrate retina. Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology, we modified a zebrafish Pax6a BAC such that we could distinguish paired-containing Pax6a transcripts from paired-less Pax6a transcripts. In the zebrafish, the spatial and temporal onset of expression of these transcripts suggests that the paired-less isoform is involved in the cell fate decision leading to the generation of amacrine cells; however, because of limitations associated with transient transgenic analysis, it was not feasible to establish whether this promoter was active in all amacrine cells or in a specific population of amacrine cells. By making mice transgenic for the zebrafish Pax6a BAC reporter transgene, we were able to show that paired-containing and paired-less Pax6a transcripts were differentially expressed in amacrine subpopulations. Our study also directly demonstrates the functional conservation of the regulatory mechanisms governing Pax6 transcription in teleosts and mammals.
|Neocortical inhibitory terminals innervate dendritic spines targeted by thalamocortical afferents. |
Kubota, Y; Hatada, S; Kondo, S; Karube, F; Kawaguchi, Y
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 1139-50 2007
Fast inhibition in the cortex is gated primarily at GABAergic synapses formed by local interneurons onto postsynaptic targets. Although GABAergic inputs to the somata and axon initial segments of neocortical pyramidal neurons are associated with direct inhibition of action potential generation, the role of GABAergic inputs to distal dendritic segments, including spines, is less well characterized. Because a significant proportion of inhibitory input occurs on distal dendrites and spines, it will be important to determine whether these GABAergic synapses are formed selectively by certain classes of presynaptic cells onto specific postsynaptic elements. By electron microscopic observations of synapses formed by different subtypes of nonpyramidal cells, we found that a surprisingly large fraction (33.4 +/- 9.3%) of terminals formed symmetrical synaptic junctions onto a subset of cortical spines that were mostly coinnervated by an asymmetrical terminal. Using VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 isoform of the glutamate vesicular transporter immunohistochemistry, we found that the double-innervated spines selectively received thalamocortical afferents expressing the VGLUT2 but almost never intracortical inputs expressing the VGLUT1. When comparing the volumes of differentially innervated spines and their synaptic junction areas, we found that spines innervated by VGLUT2-positive terminal were significantly larger than spines innervated by VGLUT1-positive terminal and that these spines had larger, and more often perforated, synapses than those of spines innervated by VGLUT1-positive afferent. These results demonstrate that inhibitory inputs to pyramidal cell spines may preferentially reduce thalamocortical rather than intracortical synaptic transmission and are therefore positioned to selectively gate extracortical information.
|New transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein isoform, gamma-7, differentially regulates AMPA receptors. |
Kato, AS; Zhou, W; Milstein, AD; Knierman, MD; Siuda, ER; Dotzlaf, JE; Yu, H; Hale, JE; Nisenbaum, ES; Nicoll, RA; Bredt, DS
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 4969-77 2007
AMPA-type glutamate receptors (GluRs) mediate most excitatory signaling in the brain and are composed of GluR principal subunits and transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP) auxiliary subunits. Previous studies identified four mammalian TARPs, gamma-2 (or stargazin), gamma-3, gamma-4, and gamma-8, that control AMPA receptor trafficking, gating, and pharmacology. Here, we explore roles for the homologous gamma-5 and gamma-7 proteins, which were previously suggested not to serve as TARPs. Western blotting reveals high levels of gamma-5 and gamma-7 in the cerebellum, where gamma-7 is enriched in Purkinje neurons in the molecular layer and glomerular synapses in the granule cell layer. Immunoprecipitation proteomics shows that cerebellar gamma-7 avidly and selectively binds to AMPA receptor GluR subunits and also binds to the AMPA receptor clustering protein, postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95). Furthermore, gamma-7 occurs together with PSD-95 and AMPA receptor subunits in purified postsynaptic densities. In heterologous cells, gamma-7 but not gamma-5 greatly enhances AMPA receptor glutamate-evoked currents and modulates channel gating. In granule cells from stargazer mice, transfection of gamma-7 but not gamma-5 increases AMPA receptor-mediated currents. Compared with stargazin, gamma-7 differentially modulates AMPA receptor glutamate affinity and kainate efficacy. These studies define gamma-7 as a new member of the TARP family that can differentially influence AMPA receptors in cerebellar neurons.
|Reciprocal regulation of presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins in bipolar spiral ganglion neurons by neurotrophins. |
Flores-Otero, J; Xue, HZ; Davis, RL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 14023-34 2007
A unifying principle of sensory system organization is feature extraction by modality-specific neuronal maps in which arrays of neurons show systematically varied response properties and receptive fields. Only beginning to be understood, however, are the mechanisms by which these graded systems are established. In the peripheral auditory system, we have shown previously that the intrinsic firing features of spiral ganglion neurons are influenced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). We now show that is but a part of a coordinated package of neurotrophin actions that also includes effects on presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins, thus encompassing the input, transmission, and output functions of the spiral ganglion neurons. Using immunocytochemical methods, we determined that proteins targeted to opposite ends of the neuron were organized and regulated in a reciprocal manner. AMPA receptor subunits GluR2 and GluR3 were enriched in base neurons compared with their apex counterparts. This distribution pattern was enhanced by exposure to BDNF but reduced by NT-3. SNAP-25 and synaptophysin were distributed and regulated in the mirror image: enriched in the apex, enhanced by NT-3 and reduced by BDNF. Moreover, we used a novel coculture to identify potential endogenous sources of neurotrophins by showing that sensory receptors from different cochlear regions were capable of altering presynaptic and postsynaptic protein levels in these neurons. From these studies, we suggest that BDNF and NT-3, which are systematically distributed in complementary gradients, are responsible for orchestrating a comprehensive set of electrophysiological specializations along the frequency contour of the cochlea.
|Expression of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells of the rabbit retina. |
Dmitrieva, NA; Strang, CE; Keyser, KT
The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 55 461-76 2007
Cholinergic agents affect the light responses of many ganglion cells (GCs) in the mammalian retina by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Whereas retinal neurons that express beta2 subunit-containing nAChRs have been characterized in the rabbit retina, expression patterns of other nAChR subtypes remain unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of alpha7 nAChRs in retinal neurons by means of single-, double-, and triple-label immunohistochemistry. Our data demonstrate that, in the rabbit retina, several types of bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and cells in the GC layer express alpha7 nAChRs. At least three different populations of cone bipolar cells exhibited alpha7 labeling, whereas glycine-immunoreactive amacrine cells comprised the majority of alpha7-positive amacrine cells. Some GABAergic amacrine cells also displayed alpha7 immunoreactivity; alpha7 labeling was never detected in rod bipolar cells or rod amacrine cells (AII amacrine cells). Our data suggest that activation of alpha7 nAChRs by acetylcholine (ACh) or choline may affect glutamate release from several types of cone bipolar cells, modulating GC responses. ACh-induced excitation of inhibitory amacrine cells might cause either inhibition or disinhibition of other amacrine and GC circuits. Finally, ACh may act on alpha7 nAChRs expressed by GCs themselves.
|Novel subcellular distribution pattern of A-type K+ channels on neuronal surface. |
Kollo, M; Holderith, NB; Nusser, Z
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 26 2684-91 2006
Potassium channels comprise the most diverse family of ion channels. In nerve cells, their critical roles in synaptic integration and output generation have been demonstrated. Here, we provide evidence for a distribution that predicts a novel role of K+ channels in the CNS. Our experiments revealed a highly selective clustering of the Kv4.3 A-type K+ channel subunits at specialized junctions between climbing fibers and cerebellar GABAergic interneurons. High-resolution ultrastructural and immunohistochemical experiments demonstrated that these junctions are distinct from known chemical and electrical (gap junctions) synapses and also from puncta adherentia. Each cerebellar interneuron contains many such K+ channel-rich specializations, which seem to be distributed throughout the somatodendritic surface. We also show that such K+ channel-rich specializations are not only present in the cerebellum but are widespread in the rat CNS. For example, mitral cells of the main olfactory bulb establish Kv4.2 subunit-positive specializations with each other. At these specializations, both apposing membranes have a high density of K+ channels, indicating bidirectional signaling. Similar specializations with pronounced coclustering of the Kv4.2 and 4.3 subunits were observed between nerve cells in the medial nucleus of the habenula. Based on our results and on the known properties of A-type K+ channels, we propose that strategically clustered K+ channels at unique membrane specializations could mediate a novel type of communication between nerve cells.Full Text Article
|Synaptic pattern of AMPA receptor subtypes upon direction-selective retinal ganglion cells. |
Jeong, Seong-Ah, et al.
Neurosci. Res., 56: 427-34 (2006) 2006
In the search for anisotropies that might contribute to a directional preference of direction-selective (DS) retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), we studied the distributions of AMPA receptor subtypes GluR1, GluR2/3, and GluR4 upon the dendritic arbors of DS RGCs of the rabbit with antibody immunocytochemistry. DS RGCs were injected with Lucifer yellow and the cells were identified by their characteristic morphology. The double-labeled images of dendrites and receptors were visualized by confocal microscopy and were reconstructed from high-resolution confocal images. We found no evidence of asymmetry in any of the AMPA receptor subunits examined upon the dendritic arbors of both On and Off layers of DS RGCs. The present results indicate that direction selectivity appears to lie in presynaptic pattern.
|Distinct perisynaptic and synaptic localization of NMDA and AMPA receptors on ganglion cells in rat retina. |
Zhang, J; Diamond, JS
The Journal of comparative neurology 498 810-20 2006
At most excitatory synapses, AMPA and NMDA receptors (AMPARs and NMDARs) occupy the postsynaptic density (PSD) and contribute to miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) elicited by single transmitter quanta. Juxtaposition of AMPARs and NMDARs may be crucial for certain types of synaptic plasticity, although extrasynaptic NMDARs may also contribute. AMPARs and NMDARs also contribute to evoked EPSCs in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), but mEPSCs are mediated solely by AMPARs. Previous work indicates that an NMDAR component emerges in mEPSCs when glutamate uptake is reduced, suggesting that NMDARs are located near the release site but perhaps not directly beneath in the PSD. Consistent with this idea, NMDARs on RGCs encounter a lower glutamate concentration during synaptic transmission than do AMPARs. To understand better the roles of NMDARs in RGC function, we used immunohistochemical and electron microscopic techniques to determine the precise subsynaptic localization of NMDARs in RGC dendrites. RGC dendrites were labeled retrogradely with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) injected into the superior colliculus (SC) and identified using postembedding immunogold methods. Colabeling with antibodies directed toward AMPARs and/or NMDARs, we found that nearly all AMPARs are located within the PSD, while most NMDARs are located perisynaptically, 100-300 nm from the PSD. This morphological evidence for exclusively perisynaptic NMDARs localizations suggests a distinct role for NMDARs in RGC function.Full Text Article
|An AMPA glutamatergic receptor activation-nitric oxide synthesis step signals transsynaptic apoptosis in limbic cortex. |
Yueping Zhou, Lijun Zhou, Haiming Chen, Vassilis E Koliatsos
Neuropharmacology 51 67-76 2006
We have previously shown that pyramidal neurons engaged in cortico-cortical connectivity in limbic cortex are vulnerable to denervation lesions, i.e. relay pyramidal neurons in layer II of piriform cortex undergo transsynaptic apoptosis after lesions interrupting their inputs from the olfactory bulb (bulbotomies). At least one trigger of this transsynaptic degenerative phenomenon is the activation of inhibitory interneurons in layer I, which are induced to upregulate neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and release NO. Thus, we have demonstrated that cortical interneurons play an essential role in transducing injury to apoptotic signaling that selectively targets pyramidal neurons. In the present study, we confirm the role of nNOS with pharmacological inhibition of a significant approximately 30% of transsynaptic apoptosis with the selective nNOS inhibitor BRNI at optimal doses. Outcomes were studied both at the histological and molecular level using DNA blots. We also show that the first-generation competitive non-NMDA (AMPA) antagonist NBQX ameliorates transsynaptic apoptosis by the same margin of difference as BRNI and it also reduces nNOS activation as indicated by a significant decrease in NADPH diaphorase histochemical activity in layer I of piriform cortex. Our findings confirm the role of nNOS activation/NO release in transsynaptic apoptosis and show that glutamatergic agonism at AMPA sites also plays a significant role. In addition, our data suggest that AMPA agonism may occur upstream to nNOS upregulation in inhibitory interneurons of layer I. In concert, our findings indicate that transsynaptic neuronal degeneration in limbic cortex involves complex AMPA-glutamatergic and nitrinergic signaling events. An AMPA-mediated upregulation of nNOS and release of NO by inhibitory interneurons may play a prominent role in this type of injury.
|Panic-prone state induced in rats with GABA dysfunction in the dorsomedial hypothalamus is mediated by NMDA receptors. |
Johnson, PL; Shekhar, A
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 26 7093-104 2006
Rats with chronic inhibition of GABA synthesis and consequently enhanced glutamatergic excitation in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) develop panic-like responses, defined as tachycardia, tachypnea, hypertension, and increased anxiety as measured by a social interaction (SI) test, after intravenous sodium lactate infusions, a phenomenon similar to patients with panic disorder. Therefore, the present studies tested the role of the postsynaptic NMDA and AMPA type glutamatergic receptors in the lactate-induced panic-like responses in these rats. Rats were fit with femoral arterial and venous catheters and Alzet pumps [filled with the GABA synthesis inhibitor L-allylglycine (L-AG; 3.5 nmol/0.5 microl per hour) or its inactive isomer D-AG] into the DMH. After 4-5 d of recovery only those rats with L-AG pumps exhibited panic-like responses to lactate infusions. Using double immunocytochemistry, we found that rats exhibiting panic-like responses (e.g., L-AG plus lactate) had increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in DMH neurons expressing the NMDA receptor 1 (NR1) subunit, but not those expressing the glutamate receptor 2 and 3 subunits of the AMPA receptors. To confirm this pharmacologically, we tested another group of rats implanted with l-AG pumps with intravenous lactate infusions preceded by injections of either NMDA [aminophosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5) or (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801)] or non-NMDA [CNQX or 4-(8-methyl-9H-1,3-dioxolo[4,5-h][2,3]benzodazepin-5-yl)-benzenamine dihydrochloride (GYKI52466)] antagonists into the DMH. Injections of NMDA, but not non-NMDA, antagonists into the DMH resulted in dose-dependent blockade of the tachycardia, tachypnea, hypertension, and SI responses after lactate infusions. These results suggest that NMDA, and not non-NMDA, type glutamate receptors regulate lactate-induced panic-like responses in rats with GABA dysfunction in the DMH.
|The existence of opioid receptors in the cochlea of guinea pigs. |
Nopporn Jongkamonwiwat, Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito, Stefano O Casalotti, Andrew Forge, Hilary Dodson, Piyarat Govitrapong, Nopporn Jongkamonwiwat, Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito, Stefano O Casalotti, Andrew Forge, Hilary Dodson, Piyarat Govitrapong
The European journal of neuroscience 23 2701-11 2006
Several independent investigations have demonstrated the presence of opioid peptides in the inner ear organ of Corti and in particular in the efferent nerve fibers innervating the cochlear hair cells. However, the precise innervation pattern of opioid fibers remains to be investigated. In the present study the expression of opioid receptors and their peptides is demonstrated in young adult guinea pig cochlea. Opioid receptors are mainly expressed in hair cells of the organ of Corti and in inner and outer spiral bundles with different characteristics for each type of receptor. Co-localization studies were employed to compare the distribution of mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors and their respective peptides, beta-endorphin, leu-enkephalin and dynorphin. Additionally, immunostaining of synaptophysin was used in this study to identify the presynaptic site. Immunoreactivity for enkephalin and dynorphin was found in the organ of Corti. Leu-enkephalin was co-localized with synaptophysin prominently in the inner spiral bundle (ISB). Dynorphin was co-localized with synaptophysin in both inner and outer spiral bundles. Delta-opioid receptor was most prominently co-localized with its peptide in the ISB bundle. Kappa-opioid receptor was seemingly present with dynorphin in both inner and outer spiral bundles. The co-staining of both peptides and receptors with synaptophysin in the same areas suggests that some of the opioid receptors may act as auto-receptors. The results provide further evidence that opioids may function as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the cochlea establishing the basis for further electrophysiological and pharmacological investigations to understand better the roles of the opioid system in auditory function.
|PICK1 is a calcium-sensor for NMDA-induced AMPA receptor trafficking. |
Jonathan G Hanley, Jeremy M Henley
The EMBO journal 24 3266-78 2005
Regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking results in changes in receptor number at the postsynaptic membrane, and hence modifications in synaptic strength, which are proposed to underlie learning and memory. NMDA receptor-mediated postsynaptic Ca2+ influx enhances AMPAR internalisation, but the molecular mechanisms that trigger such trafficking are not well understood. We investigated whether AMPAR-associated protein-protein interactions known to regulate receptor surface expression may be directly regulated by Ca2+. PICK1 binds the AMPAR GluR2 subunit and is involved in AMPAR internalisation and LTD. We show that PICK1 is a Ca2+-binding protein, and that PICK1-GluR2 interactions are enhanced by the presence of 15 muM Ca2+. Deletion of an N-terminal acidic domain in PICK1 reduces its ability to bind Ca2+, and renders the GluR2-PICK1 interaction insensitive to Ca2+. Overexpression of this Ca2+-insensitive mutant occludes NMDA-induced AMPAR internalisation in hippocampal neurons. This work reveals a novel postsynaptic Ca2+-binding protein that provides a direct mechanistic link between NMDAR-mediated Ca2+ influx and AMPAR endocytosis.Full Text Article
|Phosphorylation state of postsynaptic density proteins. |
J C Trinidad, A Thalhammer, C G Specht, R Schoepfer, A L Burlingame
Journal of neurochemistry 92 1306-16 2005
The postsynaptic density (PSD) is an electron-dense structure located at the synaptic contacts between neurons. Its considerable complexity includes cytoskeletal and scaffold proteins, receptors, ion channels and signaling molecules, in line with the role of PSDs in signal transduction and processing. The phosphorylation state of components of the PSD is central to synaptic transmission and is known to play a role in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. The presence of a range of kinases and phosphatases in the PSD defines potential key players in this context. However, the substrates that these enzymes target have not been fully identified to date. We analyzed the protein composition of purified PSD samples from adult mouse brains by strong cation exchange chromatography fractionation of a tryptic digest followed by nano-reverse phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry. This led to the identification of 244 proteins. To gain an insight into the phosphoproteome of the PSD we then purified phosphorylated tryptic peptides by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. This approach for the specific enrichment of phosphopeptides resulted in the identification of 42 phosphoproteins in the PSD preparation, 39 of which are known PSD components. Here we present a total of 83 in vivo phosphorylation sites.
|Stargazin modulates native AMPA receptor functional properties by two distinct mechanisms. |
Turetsky, D; Garringer, E; Patneau, DK
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 25 7438-48 2005
AMPA receptors play a central role in basal excitatory synaptic transmission as well as synaptic maturation and plasticity. The transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP) stargazin (gamma2) serves multiple roles in trafficking and stabilizing synaptic AMPA receptors and may be incorporated as an auxiliary subunit. We wanted to determine whether stargazin altered channel function of neuronal AMPA receptors. Transfection of cultured hippocampal neurons with stargazin produced two distinct effects on AMPA receptor functional properties: a sixfold reduction in glutamate-evoked desensitization and a twofold increase in the relative size of responses to the partial agonist kainate. Kinetic and dose-response analyses suggest that the effect of stargazin on glutamate desensitization results from an allosteric interaction that destabilizes the desensitized state of the receptor and that potentiation of kainate responses reflects increased efficacy rather than a change in affinity. These functional effects were also observed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with various heteromeric and homomeric AMPA receptors, with distinct subunit-dependent effects on glutamate desensitization, kainate efficacy, and trafficking. Two regions of stargazin mediate its functional effects: the C-terminal intracellular domain seems to be more important for effects on glutamate-evoked desensitization and receptor trafficking, whereas the first extracellular domain makes a larger contribution to effects on kainate efficacy. These data indicate that TARPs are involved both in trafficking and direct modulation of channel function and, as auxiliary subunits of neuronal AMPA receptors, must be considered in the functional heterogeneity of neuronal AMPA receptors.
|Target-cell-specific left-right asymmetry of NMDA receptor content in schaffer collateral synapses in epsilon1/NR2A knock-out mice. |
Wu, Y; Kawakami, R; Shinohara, Y; Fukaya, M; Sakimura, K; Mishina, M; Watanabe, M; Ito, I; Shigemoto, R
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 25 9213-26 2005
Input-dependent left-right asymmetry of NMDA receptor epsilon2 (NR2B) subunit allocation was discovered in hippocampal Schaffer collateral (Sch) and commissural fiber pyramidal cell synapses (Kawakami et al., 2003). To investigate whether this asymmetrical epsilon2 allocation is also related to the types of the postsynaptic cells, we compared postembedding immunogold labeling for epsilon2 in left and right Sch synapses on pyramidal cells and interneurons. To facilitate the detection of epsilon2 density difference, we used epsilon1 (NR2A) knock-out (KO) mice, which have a simplified NMDA receptor subunit composition. The labeling density for epsilon2 but not zeta1 (NR1) and subtype 2/3 glutamate receptor (GluR2/3) in Sch-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses was significantly different between the left and right hippocampus with opposite directions in strata oriens and radiatum; the left to right ratio of epsilon2 labeling density was 1:1.50 in stratum oriens and 1.44:1 in stratum radiatum. No significant difference, however, was detected in CA1 stratum radiatum between the left and right Sch-GluR4-positive (mostly parvalbumin-positive) and Sch-GluR4-negative interneuron synapses. Consistent with the anatomical asymmetry, the amplitude ratio of NMDA EPSCs to non-NMDA EPSCs in pyramidal cells was approximately two times larger in right than left stratum radiatum and vice versa in stratum oriens of epsilon1 KO mice. Moreover, the amplitude of long-term potentiation in the Sch-CA1 synapses of left stratum radiatum was significantly larger than that in the right corresponding synapses. These results indicate that the asymmetry of epsilon2 distribution is target cell specific, resulting in the left-right difference in NMDA receptor content and plasticity in Sch-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses in epsilon1 KO mice.
|The role of AMPA receptor gating in the development of high-fidelity neurotransmission at the calyx of Held synapse. |
Joshi, Indu, et al.
J. Neurosci., 24: 183-96 (2004) 2004
During early postnatal development of auditory synapses, the decay time course of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) EPSCs accelerates markedly, but the mechanisms underlying this process remain uncertain. Using the developing calyx of Held synapse in the mouse auditory brainstem, we have examined presynaptic and postsynaptic elements that may regulate decay kinetics of AMPAR EPSCs. We found that the decay time kinetics was voltage dependent in both immature and mature synapses, being slower at positive potentials than negative potentials. By recording evoked miniature events in extracellular Ca2+ or Sr2+, we revealed a significant decrease in decay time constants of EPSCs as maturation progresses. On the basis of internal and external polyamine block of AMPAR EPSCs and immunohistochemistry assays with subunit-specific antibodies, we demonstrated that the glutamate receptor (GluR) 2 subunit is virtually absent at all developmental ages. Antibody staining patterns suggest a gradual shift in subunit composition from GluR1- to GluR3/4-dominant phenotypes. Kinetic analyses of deactivation, desensitization, and recovery from desensitization in outside-out patches in response to ultrafast application of glutamate lend supportive evidence that such a shift in the gating phenotype likely accounts for the accelerated time course throughout development. Finally, by pharmacologically manipulating AMPAR gating and using simulated EPSCs to evoke action potentials, we demonstrated that rapid decay kinetics of AMPAR EPSCs is essential for this synapse to accommodate high-frequency firing without compromising spike amplitude. Hence, developmental alterations in the subunit composition likely dictate changes in the time course of AMPAR EPSCs and play an indispensable role in the refinement of high-fidelity neurotransmission at the calyx of Held synapse.
|Increased expression of AMPA receptor subunits in the nucleus of the solitary tract in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. |
Saha, Sikha, et al.
Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res., 121: 37-49 (2004) 2004
The expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits GluR1-4 in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of adult Wistar rats was examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the neuronal localisation of these receptor subunits in the NTS were confirmed by immunohistochemistry using subunit-specific antibodies. Semi-quantitative PCR was used to investigate differences in AMPA receptor subunit expression between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SH) and age-matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). All four receptor subunits were expressed in both strains, but compared to WKY, total AMPA receptor and the GluR3 mRNA expressions were significantly higher in SH. No differences were detected in cDNA form the cerebral cortex or cerebellum. Immunolabelling for GluRs 1, 2 and 2/3 in the neuropil relative to neuronal somata in the cardioregulatory areas of the NTS appeared to be increased in SH, with an overall increase in the density of GluR2/3 labelling in the medial and commissural NTS of SH. These results indicate a possible role for changes in AMPA receptor subunit expression in NTS neurones, involving an increase in GluR3 associated with development of hypertension in SH.
|Spinal axonal injury induces brief downregulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors and no stripping of synapses in cord-projection central neurons. |
Yueh-Jan Wang, Guo-Fang Tseng
Journal of neurotrauma 21 1624-39 2004
Spinal cord injury often damages the axons of cord-projecting central neurons. To determine whether their excitatory inputs are altered following axonal injury, we used rat rubrospinal neurons as a model and examined their excitatory input following upper cervical axotomy. Anterograde tracing showed that the primary afferents from the cerebellum terminated in a pattern similar to that of control animals. Ultrastructurally, neurons in the injured nucleus were contacted by excitatory synapses of normal appearance, with no sign of glial stripping. Since cerebellar fibers are glutamatergic, we examined the expression of ionotropic receptor subunits GluR1-4 and NR1 for AMPA and NMDA receptors, respectively, in control and injured neurons using immunolabeling methods. In control neurons, GluR2 appeared to be low as compared to GluR1, GluR3, and GluR4, while NR1 labeling was intense. Following unilateral tractotomy, the levels of expression of each subunit in axotomized neurons appeared to be normal, with the exception that they were lower than those of control neurons of the nonlesioned side at 2-6 days postinjury. These findings suggest that axotomized neurons are only temporarily protected from excitotoxicity. This is in sharp contrast to the responses of central neurons that innervate peripheral targets, in which both synaptic stripping and reduction of their ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits persist following axotomy. The absence of an injury-induced trimming of afferents and stripping of synapses and the lack of a persistent downregulation of postsynaptic receptors might enable injured cord-projection neurons to continue to control their supraspinal targets during most of their postinjury survival. Although this may support neurons by providing trophic influences, it nevertheless may subject them to excitotoxicity and ultimately lead to their degenerative fate.
|Differential expression of NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits in DARPP-32-containing neurons of the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and neostriatum of rats. |
W-W Wang, R Cao, Z-R Rao, L-W Chen
Brain research 998 174-83 2004
Dopamine and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein, 32 kDa (DARPP-32) is a key element of dopamine/D1/DARPP-32/protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1) signaling cascades of mammalian brain. We are interested in the expression patterns of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptors in DARPP-32-containing neurons, which may constitute morphological basis for interaction between dopamine and ionotropic glutamate receptors in dopaminoceptive cells. Double immunofluorescence was performed to visualize neurons showing coexpression of DARPP-32 with NMDA or AMPA receptor subunits (i.e., NR1, NR2a/b, glutamate receptor subunit 1 [GluR1], GluR2/3, and GluR4) in the forebrains of rats. Distribution of DARPP-32-positive neurons completely or partially overlapped with that of NMDA receptor- or AMPA receptor-immunoreactive ones in the frontal and parietal cortex, hippocampus and neostriatum, and neurons double-labeled with DARPP-32/NR1, DARPP-32/NR2a/b, DARPP-32/GluR1, DARPP-32/GluR2/3, or DARPP-32/GluR4 immunoreactivity were numerously observed. Semiquantification analysis indicated that most of DARPP-32-containing neurons (86-98%) expressed NR1, NR2a/b and GluR2/3, while less of them (14-90%) expressed GluR1 and GluR4. Although high rates (90-98%) of DARPP-32-positive cells expressed NMDA receptors in all regions above, variant percentages of them expressing AMPA receptor subunits were observed among the cortex (54-90%), hippocampus (59-97%) and neostriatum (14-97%). The study presents differential expression patterns of NMDA and AMPA receptors in DARPP-32-postive neurons in these forebrain regions. Taken together with previous reports, the present data suggest that interaction between dopamine and glutamate receptors may occur in the dopaminoceptive neurons with distinct receptor compositions and may be involved in modulating neuronal properties and excitotoxicity in mammalian forebrain.
|Histological and immunocytochemical characterization of neurons located in the white matter of the spinal cord of the pigeon. |
Journal of chemical neuroanatomy 27 109-17 2004
In the spinal cord of birds a considerable number of neuronal somata is located outside the gray matter. Some of these neurons form segmental marginal nuclei, which lie at the border of the spinal cord near the dentate ligament. In lumbosacral segments these marginal nuclei form accessory lobes which bulge into the vertebral canal. These lobes consist in neurons which are embedded into glia-derived glycogen cells. Furthermore, there are neurons in the white matter near the accessory lobes and numerous paragriseal cells lying in the lateral and ventral funiculus. Glycogen cells are present both in the lobes and in the glycogen body which fills the lumbosacral spinal rhomboid sinus. Immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein, a marker of astrocytes, was used to characterize the surrounding of marginal neurons. Astrocytes were numerous in cervical marginal nuclei but rare in accessory lobes. There is cytological (distribution of Nissl substance) and immunocytochemical evidence (immunoreactivity of medium-sized neurofilament, glutamic acid decorboxylase and glutamatergic AMPA receptor subtype GluR2/3) that neurons of the accessory lobes and the nearby white matter are similar, whereas paragriseal cells are different.
|Ligand-gated channels in early mesencephalic neuronal precursors: immunocytochemical and electrophysiological analysis. |
F Schlesinger, J Meywirth, K Krampfl, J Grosskreutz, S Petri, C Mauth, L Just, A Bader, J Bufler
The European journal of neuroscience 19 2371-6 2004
Neuronal precursors play an important role in potential regenerative therapeutic strategies in different neurodegenerative diseases, e.g. Parkinson's disease. To understand proliferation and differentiation of these cells in vitro and in vivo, it is important to characterize functional properties of neuronal precursors in detail. The aim of the present study was to analyse the electrophysiological characteristics of ligand-gated channels of neuronal precursors prepared from the rat ventral mesencephalon (VM) of embryonic stage 12.5 during their in vitro differentiation. For the experiments we used the patch-clamp technique in combination with a system for ultrafast solution exchange and immunocytochemistry. It could be shown that functional active AMPA-type glutamate as well as GABA(A) receptor channels are expressed at an early stage of neuronal development. In culture we observed excitatory as well as inhibitory postsynaptic currents (defined by their different kinetics) which correspond to the activation of AMPAergic and GABAergic receptor channels. Two populations of glutamate-activated currents could be differentiated by their different time course of desensitization whereas the time course of resensitization and deactivation was normally distributed in all cells. GABAergic currents could be blocked by bicuculline and their kinetics correspond to that of GABA(A) receptor channel currents. Summarizing the results, in the present study it was shown for the first time that neuronal embryonic precursors of the rat VM express both functional AMPA-type glutamate and functional GABA(A) receptor channels in vitro.
|Ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR2/3-immunoreactive neurons in the cat, rabbit, and hamster superficial superior colliculus. |
Won-Mee Park, Min-Jeong Kim, Chang-Jin Jeon
Neuroscience research 49 139-55 2004
Ionotropic glutamate receptor (GluR) subtypes occur in various types of cells in the central nervous system. We studied the distribution of AMPA glutamate receptor subtype GluR2/3 in the superficial layers of cat, rabbit, and hamster superior colliculus (SC) with antibody immunocytochemistry and the effect of enucleation on this distribution. Furthermore, we compared this labeling to that of calbindin D28K and parvalbumin. Anti-GluR2/3-immunoreactive (IR) cells formed a dense band of labeled cells within the lower superficial gray layer (SGL) and upper optic layer (OL) in the cat SC. By contrast, GluR2/3-IR cells formed a dense band within the upper OL in the rabbit and within the OL in the hamster SC. Calbindin D28K-IR cells are located in three layers in the SC: one within the zonal layer (ZL) and the upper SGL in all three animals, a second within the lower OL and upper IGL in the cat, within the IGL in the rabbit and within the OL in the hamster, and a third within the deep gray layer (DGL) in all three animals. Many parvalbumin-IR neurons were found within the lower SGL and upper OL. Thus, the GluR2/3-IR band was sandwiched between the first and second layers of calbindin D28K-IR cells in the cat and rabbit SC while the distribution of GluR2/3-IR cells in the hamster matches the second layer of calbindin D28K-IR cells. The patterned distribution of GluR2/3-IR cells overlapped the tier of parvalbumin-IR neurons in cat, but only partially overlapped in hamster and rabbit. Two-color immunofluorescence revealed that more than half (55.1%) of the GluR2/3-IR cells in the hamster SC expressed calbindin D28K. By contrast, only 9.9% of GluR2/3-IR cells expressed calbindin D28K in the cat. Double-labeled cells were not found in the rabbit SC. Some (4.8%) GluR2/3-IR cells in the cat SC also expressed parvalbumin, while no GluR2/3-IR cells in rabbit and hamster SC expressed parvalbumin. In this dense band of GluR2/3, the majority of labeled cells were small to medium-sized round/oval or stellate cells. Immunoreactivity for the GluR2/3 was clearly reduced in the contralateral SC following unilateral enucleation in the hamster. By contrast, enucleation appeared to have had no effect on the GluR2/3 immunoreactivity in the cat and rabbit SC. The results indicate that neurons in the mammalian SC express GluR2/3 in specific layers, which does not correlate with the expression of calbindin D28K and parvalbumin among the animals.
|Differential preservation of AMPA receptor subunits in the hippocampi of Alzheimer's disease patients according to Braak stage. |
Troy L Carter, Robert A Rissman, Amanda J Mishizen-Eberz, Barry B Wolfe, Ronald L Hamilton, Sam Gandy, David M Armstrong
Experimental neurology 187 299-309 2004
The Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, characterized pathologically by the presence of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, contains regions that are differentially prone toward development of AD pathology. Within these vulnerable regions, specific cell populations appear to be selectively affected; the pyramidal cells of the hippocampal subiculum subfield constitute such a vulnerable region. This study investigated whether the AMPA receptor subunit content (GluR1, GluR2, GluR2/3) within vulnerable vs. resistant sectors of the hippocampus is quantitatively altered with increasing AD neuropathology, as determined by Braak staging. We hypothesize that the glutamate-mediated vulnerability is highly influenced by the repertoire of glutamate receptors expressed on hippocampal neurons. Our results indicate that AMPA receptor subunit proteins are relatively spared across all Braak stages in resistant subfields (CA2/CA3/Dentate Gyrus). However, within vulnerable sectors, i.e., subiculum, GluR2, and GluR2/3 protein levels decreased 63.77% and 60.60%, respectively, in association with Braak stages I-II and stages III-IV, respectively. In Braak stages V-VI, GluR2 and GluR2/3 protein levels were similar to those of Braak stages I-II. In contrast to GluR2 and GluR2/3, GluR1 protein levels were unchanged within vulnerable sectors throughout all stages of the disease. In interpreting these data, it may be relevant to consider that the GluR2 subunit impedes the flow of Ca(+2) through the AMPA receptor ion channel. Thus, we hypothesize that in resistant sectors, the presence of the GluR2 subunit may provide a neuroprotective role by limiting the flow of extracellular Ca(+2), whereas in vulnerable regions, the reduction of GluR2 may contribute to the vulnerability via a mechanism involving an increase in intracellular Ca(+2) and destabilization of intracellular Ca(+2) homeostasis.
|The presence of opioid receptors in rat inner ear. |
Nopporn Jongkamonwiwat, Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito, Puangkeaw Sarapoke, Banthit Chetsawang, Stefano O Casalotti, Andrew Forge, Hilary Dodson, Piyarat Govitrapong
Hearing research 181 85-93 2003
Opioid peptides have been identified in the inner ear but relatively little information is available about the expression and distribution of their receptors. The aim of the present study was therefore to identify and localize the mu (MOR), delta (DOR) and kappa (KOR) opioid receptor subtypes within the rat cochlea. The expression of these opioid receptor subtypes was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction followed by nested polymerase chain reaction analysis. Amplification of RNAs from rat cerebral cortex (positive control) and rat cochlea with MOR, DOR and KOR primers resulted in products of the predicted lengths, 564, 356 and 276 bp, respectively. Restriction digestion confirmed the identity of these products. All three receptor subtypes were identified in the cochlea and further characterized by immunocytochemistry. DOR and KOR immunoreactivity was found in inner and outer hair cells, bipolar cells of the spiral ganglion and interdental cells of the limbus. In contrast, no MOR immunoreactivity was observed in the inner and outer hair cells, and interdental cells. All three types of receptor fibers were also detected in the bipolar cells and nerve fibers within the spiral ganglion. In addition, MOR- and KOR-containing nerve fibers were observed in the limbus. These findings are the first report of the presence of all three classical opioid receptors in the inner ear and suggest that these receptors may have both presynaptic and postsynaptic roles.
|The opioid receptors in inner ear of different stages of postnatal rats. |
Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito, Ladda Saleema, Sujira Mukda, Walaiporn Tongjaroenbuangam, Nuanchan Jutapakdeegul, Stefano O Casalotti, Andrew Forge, Hilary Dodson, Piyarat Govitrapong
Hearing research 184 1-10 2003
There is increasing evidence that the opioid system has a role in hearing. To provide further evidence for such a role, the expression of opioid receptor mRNAs and proteins in the inner ear of rats was studied during development from birth (P0) to postnatal day 16 (P16). A semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed to detect changes in the expression of delta- (DOR) kappa- (KOR) and mu- (MOR) opioid receptor mRNAs in rat cochleae at P0, P4, P8 and P16. Expression of DOR mRNA levels steadily increased from P0 to P8 with no further increases by P16. KOR mRNA was expressed at a relatively high level at P0 and P4 followed by a decrease while MOR mRNA was expressed at a low level at P0 and P4 followed by an increase by P8 and P16. Immunocytochemical labelling of inner ear sections revealed unique developmental and distribution patterns of opioid receptors. In the organ of Corti DOR immunoreactivity (DOR-IR) was detected in hair cells from P4. In contrast MOR-IR was present only in supporting cells at P0-P16. In the spiral ganglion all three receptor subtypes were expressed from P0 on nerve cell soma and qualitatively appeared to increase with age. Also DOR-IR and MOR-IR were detected at P8 and P16 in nerve fibers within the spiral ganglion. In the limbus DOR-IR was detected at P8 and P16 on cells proximal to the tectorial membrane while MOR-IR was detected more distally. In general these findings demonstrate that within the inner ear each receptor subtype follows specific temporal and spatial developmental patterns, some of which may be associated to the onset of hearing. The data provide further evidence that the opioid system may play a role in the development and functioning of the inner ear.
|New potential regulators of uterine leiomyomata from DNA arrays: the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR2. |
John C M Tsibris, Stefan Maas, James H Segars, Santo V Nicosia, Steven A Enkemann,
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 312 249-54 2003
In the post-Genome era, new concepts emerge about the growth regulation of uterine leiomyomata. Screening of leiomyoma and myometrial tissues with DNA arrays revealed numerous genes up-regulated in leiomyomata that were not known to be expressed in the human uterus. GluR2, a subunit of a ligand-gated cation channel, is up-regulated in leiomyomata relative to myometrium by 15- to 30-fold at the protein and mRNA level and is localized in endothelial cells. GluR2 pre-mRNA in leiomyoma and myometrial tissues is nearly 100% edited at the Q/R site, indicative of low Ca(2+) permeability of the ion channels. In spontaneous leiomyomata in women or leiomyomata induced in the guinea pig model, there is a likely synergism linking increased production of estradiol and all-trans retinoic acid with up-regulation of nuclear receptor PPARgamma and RXRalpha proteins to support tumor growth. GluR2 might be coupled to this synergism directly or via interleukin-17B, kinesin KIF5 or related genes also up-regulated in leiomyomata. GluR antagonists should be tested as inhibitors of leiomyoma growth.
|Expression of AMPA/kainate receptors during development of chick embryo retina cells: in vitro versus in vivo studies. |
Armando J Cristóvão, Catarina R Oliveira, Caetana M Carvalho, Armando J Cristóvão, Catarina R Oliveira, Caetana M Carvalho
International journal of developmental neuroscience : the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 20 1-9 2002
The activity and the subunit expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA)/kainate ionotropic glutamate receptors were studied in retina cells developing in chick embryos and in retina cells cultured as retinospheroids, at the same stages of development. In the retinospheroids, the activity of the AMPA/kainate receptors was monitored by following the changes in the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), in response to AMPA, kainate or to L-glutamate, and the expression of the receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2/3, GluR4 and GluR6/7 was determined in the retinospheroids and in chick retinas by immunodetection using polyclonal antibodies. The changes in [Ca(2+)](i) in response to 400 microM kainate increased from 5h in vitro to 3 days, and remained constant until day 14, whereas the [Ca(2+)](i) in response to 500 microM L-glutamate or 400 microM AMPA increased from 5h in vitro to 3 days, and thereafter decreased slightly until day 14. The [Ca(2+)](i) responses to kainate are mainly due to AMPA receptor stimulation, since the signals were abolished by LY303070, the AMPA receptor antagonist, and were not affected by MK-801, the NMDA receptor antagonist. In retinospheroids, the levels of expression of GluR1 subunit increased from 5h in vitro until day 7, then decreased until day 14. The levels of expression of GluR2/3 and GluR4 subunits increased from 5h in vitro until day 10, and remained constant until day 14. The levels of kainate receptor subunits GluR6/7 increased from 5h in vitro until day 3, and thereafter decreased slightly until day 14. In the retinas, the expression of GluR1 and GluR6/7 subunits increased from day 8 until day 15, and then decreased until day 22 (post-natal 1). The subunits GluR2/3 and GluR4 increased from day 8 until day 18, and remained constant until day 22. The results suggest that AMPA/kainate receptors are expressed at early embryonic stages, although at low levels and before synapse formation (E12). However, the AMPA receptors are not completely functional at the first stage studied since they do not respond to the agonist AMPA. Also, the patterns of AMPA/kainate receptor subunit expression in retinospheroids of chick embryo retina cells cultured in vitro and in retina cells developing in the embryo (in vivo) were similar, indicating that the AMPA/kainate receptor subunits expression in these primary cultures mimics their expression in the developing chick retina.
|Assembly with the NR1 subunit is required for surface expression of NR3A-containing NMDA receptors. |
Perez-Otano, I, et al.
J. Neurosci., 21: 1228-37 (2001) 2001
Functional NMDA receptors are heteromultimeric complexes of the NR1 subunit in combination with at least one of the four NR2 subunits (A-D). Coexpression of NR3A, an additional subunit of the NMDA receptor family, modifies NMDA-mediated responses. It is unclear whether NR3A interacts directly with NR1 and/or NR2 subunits and how such association might regulate the intracellular trafficking and membrane expression of NR3A. Here we show that NR3A coassembles with NR1-1a and NR2A to form a receptor complex with distinct single-channel properties and a reduced relative calcium permeability. NR3A associates independently with both NR1-1a and NR2A in the endoplasmic reticulum, but only heteromeric complexes containing the NR1-1a NMDA receptor subunit are targeted to the plasma membrane. Homomeric NR3A complexes or complexes composed of NR2A and NR3A were not detected on the cell surface and are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. Coexpression of NR1-1a facilitates the surface expression of NR3A-containing receptors, reduces the accumulation of NR3A subunits in the endoplasmic reticulum, and induces the appearance of intracellular clusters where both subunits are colocalized. Our data demonstrate a role for subunit oligomerization and specifically assembly with the NR1 subunit in the trafficking and plasma membrane targeting of the receptor complex.
|Expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the retina of the rdta transgenic mouse |
Liu, L O, et al
BMC neuroscience, 2:7 (2001) 2001
|Distribution and colocalization of neurotransmitters and receptors in the pre-Botzinger complex of rats |
Liu, Y Y, et al
J Appl Physiol, 91:1387-95 (2001) 2001
|Differential expression of AMPA receptor subunits in dopamine neurons of the rat brain: a double immunocytochemical study. |
L W Chen, L C Wei, B Lang, G Ju, Y S Chan
Neuroscience 106 149-60 2001
We have examined the distribution of dopamine neurons expressing alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor subunits (glutamate receptors 1, 2/3 and 4) in the A8-A15 regions of the rat brain using double immunofluorescence. The distribution of glutamate receptor 1- or 2/3-like immunoreactive neurons completely overlapped that of tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactive neurons in dopamine cell groups in the retrorubral field (A8), the substantia nigra (A9), the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus raphe linealis (A10), and the rostral hypothalamic periventricular nucleus (A14, A15). In the caudal hypothalamic periventricular nucleus (A11), arcuate nucleus (A12) and zona incerta (A13), the distribution was partially overlapping. Neurons double-labeled for tyrosine hydroxylase and glutamate receptor 1 or 2/3 immunoreactivities were, however, exclusively found in certain dopamine cell regions: in areas A14-A15, 85-88% of tyrosine hydroxylase-containing neurons expressed glutamate receptor 1 and 22-25% expressed glutamate receptor 2/3, while in areas A8-A10, 20-43% expressed glutamate receptor 1 and 63-84% expressed glutamate receptor 2/3. In contrast, the double-labeled neurons were hardly detected in the A11-A13 regions. No tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons displayed glutamate receptor 4 immunoreactivity, though a partially overlapping distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase- and glutamate receptor 4-immunopositive neurons was also seen in regions A8-10, A11 and A13.The present study has demonstrated the morphological evidence for direct modulation of dopamine neurons via AMPA receptors in rat mesencephalon and hypothalamus. This distribution may provide the basis for a selective dopamine neuron loss in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease.
|Ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits are differentially regulated in the motoneuronal pools of the rat hypoglossal nucleus in response to axotomy. |
García Del Caño, G, et al.
J. Neurocytol., 29: 509-23 (2000) 2000
Unilateral hypoglossal nerve axotomy was used as a model to analyse immunohistochemically the expression of the GluR1, GluR2, GluR3, and GluR4 glutamate receptor subunits of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) subtype and the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype in the different morphofunctional hypoglossal pools from 1 to 45 days postaxotomy. Following hypoglossal nerve axotomy, the percentage of motoneurons that were GluR1-immunopositive and the labeling intensity for this subunit was increased in some hypoglossal pools. Immunolabeling for the GluR2 subunit was undetectable. These results contrast with the unchanged pattern for these two subunits after sciatic nerve axotomy previously described. Image analysis showed a significant decrease in the intensity of immunohistochemical labeling for the GluR2/3 and GluR4 subunits in motoneurons, although most motoneurons were still immunopositive for these 2 subunits after axotomy. The intensity of immunolabeling for the NR1 subunit was slightly decreased postlesion, whereas the percentage of NR1-immunopositive motoneurons increased. Immunoreactivity returned to basal levels 45 days postlesion. These findings show that in axotomized hypoglossal motoneurons, i) AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits are still expressed, ii) the composition of the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit pool is subjected to continuous changes during the regeneration process, iii) AMPA receptors, if functional, would have physiological properties different to those in intact motoneurons, and iv) the various AMPA receptor subunits are differentially regulated. The present results also suggest a faster recovery of basal levels of immunoreactivity for caudally localised groups of motoneurons which could reflect a caudo-rostral sequential functional recovery in the hypoglossal nucleus.
|Synaptic localization of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the rat substantia nigra. |
Chatha, B T, et al.
Neuroscience, 101: 1037-51 (2000) 2000
Glutamatergic neurotransmission in the substantia nigra pars compacta and pars reticulata is mediated through N-methyl-D-aspartate and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxaline propionic acid/kainate (AMPA) type receptors as well as other glutamate receptors and is critical for basal ganglia functioning. A major glutamatergic input to the substantia nigra originates in the subthalamic nucleus, and the long-lasting stimulation of the dopaminergic cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta by the subthalamic neurons has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. The objectives of the present study were to determine the subcellular and subsynaptic localization of subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate and AMPA receptors in the substantia nigra, and also to determine whether co-localization of N-methyl-D-aspartate and AMPA receptor subunits occur at individual synapses. To achieve this, pre-embedding and post-embedding immunocytochemistry was applied to sections of substantia nigra using antibodies that recognize the NR1 and NR2A/B subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and GluR2/3 subunits of the AMPA receptor.In both regions of the substantia nigra, immunolabelling for each of the subunits was observed in numerous perikarya and proximal dendrites. At the subcellular level, silver-intensified immunogold particles localizing N-methyl-D-aspartate and AMPA receptor subunits were most commonly present within dendrites where they were associated with a variety of intracellular organelles and with the internal surface of the plasma membrane. Post-embedding immunogold labelling revealed immunoparticles labelling for NR1, NR2A/B and GluR2/3 to be enriched at asymmetric synaptic specializations, although a large proportion of asymmetric synapses were immunonegative. Double immunolabelling revealed, in addition to single-labelled synapses, the co-localization of subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and subunits of the AMPA receptor at individual asymmetric synapses. Similarly, double immunolabelling also revealed the co-localization of the NRl and NR2A/B subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor at individual asymmetric synapses. Labelling for NR1 and GluR2/3 was, on average, relatively evenly distributed across the width of the synapse with a gradual reduction towards the periphery when analysed in single sections.In summary, the present results demonstrate that AMPA and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors are selectively localized at a subpopulation of asymmetric synapses in the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata and that the two receptor types, at least partially co-localize at individual synapses. It is concluded that glutamatergic transmission in the substantia nigra pars compacta and pars reticulata occurs primarily at asymmetric synapses and, at least in part, is mediated by both N-methyl-D-aspartate and AMPA receptors.
|Zinc-rich synaptic boutons in human temporal cortex biopsies. |
N Franco-Pons, C Casanovas-Aguilar, S Arroyo, J Rumià, J Pérez-Clausell, G Danscher
Neuroscience 98 429-35 2000
The distribution of zinc-rich synaptic boutons in biopsies of the temporal cortex from epileptic patients who had undergone surgery is described. Unfixed cryostat sections were exposed to H(2)S vapour to precipitate endogenous zinc, which was subsequently shown by silver enhancement. In the temporal cortex, the stain for zinc was arranged in bands: stain was heavy in layers II and VI, moderate-to-heavy in layers I, III and V, and low in layer IV. The white matter was virtually devoid of staining. At the electron microscope level, labelling was found in synaptic boutons that made asymmetric synaptic contacts. Immunohistochemical staining for glutamate receptor subunits GluR2/3 was observed in cell bodies in layers II, III, V and VI, coincident with the layers that showed heavy staining for zinc. Immunostaining for glutamate receptor subunit GluR1 was prominent in non-pyramidal neurons in deep cortical layers.These results support findings in other mammals and indicate that the human neocortex may contain an extensive system of zinc-rich cortico-cortical connections. This system may be altered in pathological conditions.
|Factors regulating AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit changes induced by sciatic nerve injury in rats. |
F J Alvarez, R E Fyffe, D E Dewey, V K Haftel, T C Cope, F J Alvarez, R E Fyffe, D E Dewey, V K Haftel, T C Cope
The Journal of comparative neurology 426 229-42 2000
Excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission at Ia afferent-motoneuron synapses is enhanced shortly after physically severing or blocking impulse propagation of the afferent and/or motoneuron axons. We considered the possibility that these synaptic changes occur because of alterations in the number or properties of motoneuron alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptors. Therefore, we quantitatively analyzed glutamate receptor (GluR)1, GluR2/3, and GluR4 AMPA subunit immunoreactivity (ir) in motoneurons 3, 7, or 14 days after axotomy or continuous tetrodotoxin (TTX) block of the sciatic nerve. GluR1-ir remained low in experimental and control motoneurons with either treatment and at any date. However, there was a large reduction of GluR2/3-ir (peak at 7 days >60% reduced) and a smaller, but statistically significant, reduction of GluR4-ir (around 10% reduction at days 3, 7, and 14) in axotomized motoneurons. TTX sciatic blockade did not affect AMPA subunit immunostainings. Axonal injury or interruption of the trophic interaction between muscle and spinal cord, but not activity disruption, appears therefore more likely responsible for altering AMPA subunit immunoreactivity in motoneurons. These findings also suggest that synaptic plasticity induced by axotomy or TTX block, although similar in the first week, could be related to different mechanisms. The effects of axotomy or TTX block on motoneuron expression of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR1a were also studied. mGluR1a-ir was also strongly decreased after axotomy but not after TTX treatment. The time course of the known stripping of synapses from the cell somas of axotomized motoneurons was studied by using synaptophysin antibodies and compared with AMPA and mGluR1a receptor changes. Coverage by synaptophysin-ir boutons was only clearly decreased 14 days post axotomy and not at shorter intervals or after TTX block.
|A Calcium/calmodulin dependent nitric oxide synthase, NMDAR2/3 receptor subunits, and glutamate in the CNS of the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: Localization in specific neural pathways controlling the inking system |
Palumbo, A et al.
J Neurochemistry, 73(3):1254-1263 (1999) 1999
|Differential expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in the outer retina |
Morigiwa, K and Vardi, N
J Comp Neurol, 405:173-84 (1999) 1999
|Postsynaptic expression of Ca2+-permeable AMPA-type glutamate receptor channels by viral-mediated gene transfer. |
M Sudo, H Okado, M Iino, K Tsuzuki, A Miwa, Y Kanegae, I Saito, S Ozawa
Brain research. Molecular brain research 65 176-85 1999
The ability to artificially express a particular receptor protein in the postsynaptic sites of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) would be useful for the study of synaptic function of cloned receptor genes as well as for gene therapy of neurological disorders caused by dysfunction of postsynaptic receptors. In this study, we aimed to express the cDNA of unedited GluR2 subunit of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor that forms inwardly rectifying and Ca2+-permeable channel in CNS neurons by using adenoviral-mediated gene transfer. For this purpose, we have constructed a recombinant adenovirus bearing an expression-switching unit, where the unedited GluR2 cDNA can be activated by the Cre recombinase-mediated excisional deletion of a stuffer DNA interposed between the promotor and the coding region. When PC12 cells were infected with this recombinant adenovirus together with an adenovirus expressing Cre recombinase, the inwardly rectifying and Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptor channels were expressed in nearly 100% of infected cells. Two days after co-infection of cultured rat hippocampal neurons with these adenoviruses, fast excitatory neurotransmission in the glutamatergic synapse was mediated predominantly by the inwardly rectifying and Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptor channels. This indicates that the native AMPA receptors in the postsynaptic sites of the glutamatergic synapse are replaced rapidly with recombinant receptors newly produced by the viral-mediated gene transfer.
|The AMPA receptor GluR2 C terminus can mediate a reversible, ATP-dependent interaction with NSF and alpha- and beta-SNAPs. |
Osten, P, et al.
Neuron, 21: 99-110 (1998) 1998
In this study, we demonstrate specific interaction of the GluR2 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor subunit C-terminal peptide with an ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and alpha- and beta-soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs), as well as dendritic colocalization of these proteins. The assembly of the GluR2-NSF-SNAP complex is ATP hydrolysis reversible and resembles the binding of NSF and SNAP with the SNAP receptor (SNARE) membrane fusion apparatus. We provide evidence that the molar ratio of NSF to SNAP in the GluR2-NSF-SNAP complex is similar to that of the t-SNARE syntaxin-NSF-SNAP complex. NSF is known to disassemble the SNARE protein complex in a chaperone-like interaction driven by ATP hydrolysis. We propose a model in which NSF functions as a chaperone in the molecular processing of the AMPA receptor.
|Glutamate receptor subunits GluR1 and GluR2/3 distribution shows reorganization in the human epileptogenic hippocampus. |
de Lanerolle, N C, et al.
Eur. J. Neurosci., 10: 1687-703 (1998) 1998
The AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits GluR1 and GluR2/3 were localized by immunohistochemistry with subunit-specific antibodies in hippocampi removed surgically from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy for the control of seizures. The flip and flop splice variants of the subunits were localized by in situ hybridization histochemistry with specific oligoprobes. In patient hippocampi that were not the seizure focus, the GluR1 subunit proteins were diffusely expressed on the dendrites of neurons in all regions. In contrast, in these same hippocampi, the GluR2/3 subunit proteins were expressed strongly on the soma and proximal dendrites of principal neurons in all regions. The flip variant of these subunits was localized in the hilus and fields of Ammon's Horn (CA), while the flop variants were prominent on the dentate granule cells. In the epileptogenic hippocampus, while immunoreactivity was decreased in all fields that showed neuronal loss, there was an increased expression of GluR1 on the dendritic excrescences on the proximal dendrites of hilar neurons and CA3 pyramidal neurons, as well as expression of GluR2/3 in hilar neuron excrescences. Electron microscopic examination confirmed that the GluR1 immunoreactivity was only in dendritic processes, particularly dense at the postsynaptic membranes. Such expression of GluR1 may provide for an enhanced glutamatergic response by these neurons. GluR2/3 was also significantly increased on the dendrites of dentate granule cells in the epileptogenic hippocampus and may provide some protection against excitotoxic injury by reducing calcium flux into neurons.
|Subcellular and subsynaptic distribution of the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor in the neostriatum and globus pallidus of the rat: co-localization at synapses with the GluR2/3 subunit of the AMPA receptor. |
V Bernard, J P Bolam
The European journal of neuroscience 10 3721-36 1998
Glutamatergic neurotransmission in the neostriatum and the globus pallidus is mediated through NMDA-type as well as other glutamate receptors and is critical in the expression of basal ganglia function. In order to characterize the cellular, subcellular and subsynaptic localization of NMDA receptors in the neostriatum and globus pallidus, multiple immunocytochemical techniques were applied using antibodies that recognize the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor. In order to determine the spatial relationship between NMDA receptors and AMPA receptors, double labelling was performed with the NR1 antibodies and an antibody that recognizes the GluR2 and 3 subunits of the AMPA receptor. In the neostriatum all neurons with characteristics of spiny projection neurons, some interneurons and many dendrites and spines were immunoreactive for NR1. In the globus pallidus most perikarya and many dendritic processes were immunopositive. Immunogold methods revealed that most NR1 labelling is associated with asymmetrical synapses and, like the labelling for GluR2/3, is evenly spread across the synapse. Double immunolabelling revealed that in neostriatum, over 80% of NR1-positive axospinous synapses are also positive for GluR2/3. In the globus pallidus most NR1-positive synapses are positive for GluR2/3. In both regions many synapses labelled only for GluR2/3 were also detected. These results, together with previous data, suggest that NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits are expressed by the same neurons in the neostriatum and globus pallidus and that NMDA and AMPA receptors are, at least in part, colocalized at individual asymmetrical synapses. The synaptic responses to glutamate in these regions are thus likely be mediated by both AMPA and NMDA receptors at the level of individual synapses.
|Distribution of glutamate receptor subunits at neurochemically characterized synapses in the entopeduncular nucleus and subthalamic nucleus of the rat. |
N P Clarke, J P Bolam
The Journal of comparative neurology 397 403-20 1998
Glutamatergic neurotransmission in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and in the output nuclei of the basal ganglia is critical in the expression of basal ganglia function, and increased glutamate transmission in these nuclei has been implicated in the pathology of Parkinson's disease. In order to determine the precise spatial relationship of subunits of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors to nerve terminals enriched in glutamate or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in one of the output nuclei, the entopeduncular nucleus (EP), and the STN, postembedding immunolabelling for glutamate receptor subunits and for glutamate and GABA was carried out in the rat. Immunolabelling for the AMPA glutamate receptor subunits 1, 2/3, and 4 (GluR1, GluR2/3, and GluR4) and the NMDA receptor subunit 1 (NR1) was localized predominantly within asymmetrical synapses in both the EP and STN. Quantitative analysis revealed that, on average for the whole population, each of the receptor subunits was evenly distributed along the synaptic specialization. Multiple AMPA receptor subunits and the GluR2/3 and NMDA (NR1) subunits were co-localized within individual synapses. The combination of immunolabelling for glutamate and GABA with the receptor immunolabelling revealed that the majority of axon terminals presynaptic to the receptor-immunoreactive synapses were enriched in glutamate immunoreactivity and were GABA-immunonegative. However, at some NR1- and GluR2/3-positive synapses, the level of glutamate immunoreactivity was low in the presynaptic terminal and, in the STN, some of them were GABA-immunopositive. It is concluded that glutamatergic transmission at individual synapses of different origins in the EP and STN is mediated by a combination ofAMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors.
|Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype-1 alpha (mGluR1 alpha) immunoreactivity in ependymal cells of the rat caudal medulla oblongata and spinal cord |
Tang, F R and Sim, M K
Neurosci Lett, 225:177-80 (1997) 1997
|Instantaneous perturbation of dentate interneuronal networks by a pressure wave-transient delivered to the neocortex |
Toth, Z. et al.
J. Neurosci., 17(21):8106-8117 (1997) 1997
|Calretinin-containing neurons in rat cerebellar granule cell cultures |
Marini, A. M. et al.
Brain Res. Bull., 42(4):279-288 (1997) 1997
|Cellular localization of GluR1, GluR2/3 and GluR4 glutamate receptor subunits in neurons of the rat neostriatum. |
Kwok, K H, et al.
Brain Res., 778: 43-55 (1997) 1997
Glutamate excitocytotoxicity is implied in the cause of neuronal degeneration in the neostriatum, in which the toxicity may be mediated by different families of glutamate receptors. The precise cellular localization of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor subunits (GluR1-4), one of the major family that involves in the mechanisms of glutamate excitocytotoxicity, in different populations of striatal neurons is therefore of special interest. Immunoreactivity for GluR2/3 subunits was detected in the medium-sized spiny neurons. By double labelling experiments, immunoreactivity for GluR1 and GluR4 was detected only in aspiny striatal neurons that display parvalbumin immunoreactivity, but not in the other neuron populations that display choline acetyltransferase or muscarinic m2 receptor immunoreactivity, nor neurons that display nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase activity. These results indicate that GluR1 and GluR4 immunoreactivity is displayed only in the GABAergic interneurons in the neostriatum. In addition, almost all of the GluR1-immunoreactive neurons were found to display GluR4 immunoreactivity. This finding indicates for the first time that the striatal GABAergic interneurons co-express GluR1 and GluR4 subunits. The results of the present study indicate that there is a differential localization of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits in different populations of striatal neurons and they may have a different susceptibility to glutamate excitocytotoxicity.
|Expression of glutamate receptor subunits 2/3 and 4 in the hypoglossal nucleus of the rat after neurectomy |
Tang, F R and Sim, M K
Experimental brain research Experimentelle Hirnforschung Experimentation cerebrale, 117:453-6 (1997) 1997
|Compartmentation of alpha-internexin and neurofilament triplet proteins in cultured hippocampal neurons. |
Benson, D L, et al.
J. Neurocytol., 25: 181-96 (1996) 1996
Intermediate filaments comprise an integral part of the neuronal cytoskeleton. However, little is known about their function, and there remains some uncertainty about their precise subcellular localization. We examined the timing of expression and distribution of alpha-internexin, neurofilament triplet proteins and peripherin using immunocytochemistry in cultured hippocampal neurons. alpha-Internexin immunostaining was present in all neurons at all developmental stages. Immunostaining appeared as long filaments in axons and short fragments in dendrites which extended into dendritic spines. The presence of alpha-internexin in dendritic spines was confirmed in situ by electron microscopy of rat hippocampal tissue sections and suggests that this intermediate filament may serve as a link between cytoskeletal elements in dendritic shafts and spines. In culture, immunostaining using antibodies against individual triplet protein subunits indicated that light (NF-L) and middle (NF-M) subunits were first expressed in cells shortly after the initiation of axonal outgrowth. Expression of the heavy (NF-H) subunit occurred a few days later. Although timing and localization of expression did not correlate with the initiation of axonal or dendritic processes, it was coincident with periods of rapid outgrowth. Triplet proteins were more abundant in axons and appeared to be incorporated into lengthier filaments than in dendrites. Highly phosphorylated NFH/M immunoreactivity was polarized to axons after 6 days in culture. The distribution of one NF-H epitope was restricted to GABAergic neurons in mature cultures, suggesting a cell-type specific modification. Peripherin was not detectable at any time in hippocampal cultures. Our results show that intermediate filaments are integral components of the neuronal cytoskeleton of cultured hippocampal neurons throughout development. Furthermore, the localization of alpha-internexin suggests that it may be involved in the formation or maintenance of dendritic spines.
|Pathways and Biomarkers of Glutamatergic Synapse Flyer (EMD)|