Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, Ch, H, M, Po, R, Rb||ICC, IHC, IH(P), WB||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Unpurified mouse monoclonal IgG1 liquid in buffer containing 15 mM sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Early pro-inflammatory cytokine elevations in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma.|
Wilson, GN; Inman, DM; Dengler Crish, CM; Denger-Crish, CM; Smith, MA; Crish, SD
Journal of neuroinflammation 12 176 2015
Neuroinflammation-astrogliosis, microglial activation, and changes in cytokine signaling-is a prominent feature of neurodegenerative disorders. Glaucoma is a group of chronic neurodegenerative conditions that make up the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Neuroinflammation has been postulated to play a significant role in the pathogenesis and progression of glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Though much is known regarding inflammation in the eye in glaucoma, little is known about cytokine activity outside of the retina where pathologies develop early.We traced the primary visual projection from the eye to the superior colliculus (SC) in DBA/2J and DBA/2J.Gpnmb (+) (control) mice using the anterograde tracer cholera toxin-B (CTB) to assay axonal transport deficits. Forty-eight hours later, visual structures were microdissected from fresh tissue based on transport outcome. Using magnetic bead multiplexing assays, we measured levels of 20 cytokines in the retina, proximal and distal optic nerves, CTB-positive and negative SC subdivisions, cerebellum, and serum at different ages representing different stages of pathology.Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in mice often changed in the same direction based on strain, age, and tissue. Significant elevations in retinal pro-inflammatory cytokines were observed in young DBA/2J mice compared to controls, followed by an age-dependent decrease in the DBA/2J mice. Proximal optic nerve of young DBA/2J mice showed a 50 % or greater decrease in levels of certain cytokines compared to older DBA/2J cohorts and controls, while both proximal and distal optic nerve of DBA/2Js showed elevations in IL-1β at all ages compared to controls. Pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 levels varied in accordance with transport outcome in the SC: IL-6 was elevated 44-80 % in glaucomatous DBA/2J collicular regions deficient in anterograde transport from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) compared to areas with intact transport.Dysregulation of cytokine signaling in the RGC projection of DBA/2J mice was evident early in distal retinal targets, well before intraocular pressure elevation or axonal degeneration begins.
|Dopamine D1 receptor activation regulates the expression of the estrogen synthesis gene aromatase B in radial glial cells.|
Xing, L; McDonald, H; Da Fonte, DF; Gutierrez-Villagomez, JM; Trudeau, VL
Frontiers in neuroscience 9 310 2015
Radial glial cells (RGCs) are abundant stem-like non-neuronal progenitors that are important for adult neurogenesis and brain repair, yet little is known about their regulation by neurotransmitters. Here we provide evidence for neuronal-glial interactions via a novel role for dopamine to stimulate RGC function. Goldfish were chosen as the model organism due to the abundance of RGCs and regenerative abilities of the adult central nervous system. A close anatomical relationship was observed between tyrosine hydroxylase-positive catecholaminergic cell bodies and axons and dopamine-D1 receptor expressing RGCs along the ventricular surface of telencephalon, a site of active neurogenesis. A primary cell culture model was established and immunofluorescence analysis indicates that in vitro RGCs from female goldfish retain their major characteristics in vivo, including expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and brain lipid binding protein. The estrogen synthesis enzyme aromatase B is exclusively found in RGCs, but this is lost as cells differentiate to neurons and other glial types in adult teleost brain. Pharmacological experiments using the cultured RGCs established that specific activation of dopamine D1 receptors up-regulates aromatase B mRNA through a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent molecular mechanism. These data indicate that dopamine enhances the steroidogenic function of this neuronal progenitor cell.
|Effects of dextromethorphan and oxycodone on treatment of neuropathic pain in mice.|
Yang, PP; Yeh, GC; Huang, EY; Law, PY; Loh, HH; Tao, PL
Journal of biomedical science 22 81 2015
Neuropathic pain is a very troublesome and difficult pain to treat. Although opioids are the best analgesics for cancer and surgical pain in clinic, only oxycodone among opioids shows better efficacy to alleviate neuropathic pain. However, many side effects associated with the use of oxycodone render the continued use of it in neuropathic pain treatment undesirable. Hence, we explored whether dextromethorphan (DM, a known N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist with neuroprotective properties) could potentiate the anti-allodynic effect of oxycodone and underlying mechanisms regarding to glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) activation and proinflammatory cytokines release in a spinal nerve injury (SNL) mice model.Oxycodone produced a dose-dependent anti-allodynic effect. Co-administration of DM at a dose of 10 mg/kg (i.p.) (DM10) which had no anti-allodynic effect by itself enhanced the acute oxycodone (1 mg/kg, s.c.) effect. When the chronic anti-allodynic effects were examined, co-administration of DM10 also significantly enhanced the oxycodone effect at 3 mg/kg. Furthermore, oxycodone decreased SNL-induced activation of glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) and plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α). Co-administration of DM10 potentiated these effects of oxycodone.The combined use of DM with oxycodone may have therapeutic potential for decreasing the effective dose of oxycodone on the treatment of neuropathic pain. Attenuation of the glial activation and proinflammatory cytokines in the spinal cord may be important mechanisms for these effects of DM.
|Buyang Huanwu decoction increases the expression of glutamate transporter-1 and glutamate synthetase in association with PACAP-38 following focal ischemia.|
Ding, W; Yu, P; Liu, W; Zhou, L; Guan, LI; Lin, R
Biomedical reports 3 651-656 2015
The neuroprotective role of Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD) in focal ischemia is associated with decreasing glutamate concentration. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study aimed to explore whether glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and glutamine synthetase (GS) participated in the decreased level of glutamate and whether pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP-38) was involved in this process. BYHWD was found to significantly upregulate the expression of GLT-1 and GS in the hippocampal CA1 area compared to the ischemia group, with the difference on day 3 being most significant. BYHWD increased the level of PACAP-38, and PACAP-(6-38) (PACAP receptor antagonist) significantly attenuated the effect of BYHWD on GLT-1 and GS, suggesting that PACAP-38 was involved in the upregulation of GLT-1 and GS induced by BYHWD. In addition, as GLT-1 and GS are mainly located in astrocytes, the changes of astrocytes were detected by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; an astrocytic marker) immunostaining. The results showed that BYHWD inhibited the expression of GFAP compared with the ischemia group, however, co-administration with PACAP-(6-38), which inhibited the effect of BYHWD on GLT-1 and GS in astrocytes, attenuated this effect, indicating that astrocytes participated in the protective role of BYHWD following focal ischemia. These results provided the evidence for the first time that not only neurons but also astrocytes contribute to the protective role of BYHWD, which opposes previous studies and may be a starting point for traditional medicine.
|NFκB signaling drives pro-granulocytic astroglial responses to neuromyelitis optica patient IgG.|
Walker-Caulfield, ME; Guo, Y; Johnson, RK; McCarthy, CB; Fitz-Gibbon, PD; Lucchinetti, CF; Howe, CL
Journal of neuroinflammation 12 185 2015
Astrocytes expressing the aquaporin-4 water channel are a primary target of pathogenic, disease-specific immunoglobulins (IgG) found in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Immunopathological analyses of active NMO lesions highlight a unique inflammatory phenotype marked by infiltration of granulocytes. Previous studies characterized this granulocytic infiltrate as a response to vasculocentric complement activation and localized tissue destruction. In contrast, we observe that granulocytic infiltration in NMO lesions occurs independently of complement-mediated tissue destruction or active demyelination. These immunopathological findings led to the hypothesis that NMO IgG stimulates astrocyte signaling that is responsible for granulocytic recruitment in NMO.Histopathology was performed on archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded autopsy-derived CNS tissue from 23 patients clinically and pathologically diagnosed with NMO or NMO spectrum disorder. Primary murine astroglial cultures were stimulated with IgG isolated from NMO patients or control IgG from healthy donors. Transcriptional responses were assessed by microarray, and translational responses were measured by ELISA. Signaling through the NFκB pathway was measured by western blotting and immunostaining.Stimulation of primary murine astroglial cultures with NMO IgG elicited a reactive and inflammatory transcriptional response that involved signaling through the canonical NFκB pathway. This signaling resulted in the release of pro-granulocytic chemokines and was inhibited by the clinically relevant proteasome inhibitors bortezomib and PR-957.We propose that the astrocytic NFκB-dependent inflammatory response to stimulation by NMO IgG represents one of the earliest events in NMO pathogenesis, providing a target for therapeutic intervention upstream of irreversible cell death and tissue damage.
|Protein carbonylation after traumatic brain injury: cell specificity, regional susceptibility, and gender differences.|
Lazarus, RC; Buonora, JE; Jacobowitz, DM; Mueller, GP
Free radical biology & medicine 78 89-100 2015
Protein carbonylation is a well-documented and quantifiable consequence of oxidative stress in several neuropathologies, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer׳s disease, and Parkinson׳s disease. Although oxidative stress is a hallmark of traumatic brain injury (TBI), little work has explored the specific neural regions and cell types in which protein carbonylation occurs. Furthermore, the effect of gender on protein carbonylation after TBI has not been studied. The present investigation was designed to determine the regional and cell specificity of TBI-induced protein carbonylation and how this response to injury is affected by gender. Immunohistochemistry was used to visualize protein carbonylation in the brains of adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) as an injury model of TBI. Cell-specific markers were used to colocalize the presence of carbonylated proteins in specific cell types, including astrocytes, neurons, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Results also indicated that the injury lesion site, ventral portion of the dorsal third ventricle, and ventricular lining above the median eminence showed dramatic increases in protein carbonylation after injury. Specifically, astrocytes and limited regions of ependymal cells adjacent to the dorsal third ventricle and the median eminence were most susceptible to postinjury protein carbonylation. However, these patterns of differential susceptibility to protein carbonylation were gender dependent, with males showing significantly greater protein carbonylation at sites distant from the lesion. Proteomic analyses were also conducted and determined that the proteins most affected by carbonylation in response to TBI include glial fibrillary acidic protein, dihydropyrimidase-related protein 2, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A. Many other proteins, however, were not carbonylated by CCI. These findings indicate that there is both regional and protein specificity in protein carbonylation after TBI. The marked increase in carbonylation seen in ependymal layers distant from the lesion suggests a mechanism involving the transmission of a cerebral spinal fluid-borne factor to these sites. Furthermore, this process is affected by gender, suggesting that hormonal mechanisms may serve a protective role against oxidative stress.
|Spinal autophagy is differently modulated in distinct mouse models of neuropathic pain.|
Berliocchi, L; Maiarù, M; Varano, GP; Russo, R; Corasaniti, MT; Bagetta, G; Tassorelli, C
Molecular pain 11 3 2015
Autophagy is a homeostatic degradative process essential for basal turnover of long-lived proteins and organelles as well as for removal of dysfunctional cellular components. Dysregulation of the autophagic machinery has been recently associated to several conditions including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, but only very few studies have investigated its role in pain processing.We previously described autophagy impairment at the spinal cord in the experimental model of neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL). In this study, we characterized the main autophagic markers in two other common experimental models of neuropathic pain, the chronic constriction injury (CCI) and the spared nerve injury (SNI). The different modulation of LC3-I, Beclin 1 and p62 suggested that autophagy is differentially affected in the spinal dorsal horn depending on the type of peripheral injury. Confocal analysis of p62 distribution in the spinal dorsal horn indicated its presence mainly in NeuN-positive cell bodies and occasionally in glial processes, thus suggesting a predominant expression in the neuronal compartment. Finally, we investigated the consequences of autophagy impairment on pain behaviour by using the autophagy blocker cloroquine. Intrathecal chloroquine injection in naïve mice induced spinal accumulation of LC3 and p62 paralleled by significant mechanical hypersensitivity thus confirming the block in autophagosome clearance and suggesting the participation of the autophagic process in spinal mechanisms of pain processing. Altogether, our data indicate that spinal autophagy is differentially altered in different experimental pain models of neuropathic pain and that this process may be relevant for pain control.
|Evidence for a novel functional role of astrocytes in the acute homeostatic response to high-fat diet intake in mice.|
Buckman, LB; Thompson, MM; Lippert, RN; Blackwell, TS; Yull, FE; Ellacott, KL
Molecular metabolism 4 58-63 2015
Introduction of a high-fat diet to mice results in a period of voracious feeding, known as hyperphagia, before homeostatic mechanisms prevail to restore energy intake to an isocaloric level. Acute high-fat diet hyperphagia induces astrocyte activation in the rodent hypothalamus, suggesting a potential role of these cells in the homeostatic response to the diet. The objective of this study was to determine physiologic role of astrocytes in the acute homeostatic response to high-fat feeding.We bred a transgenic mouse model with doxycycline-inducible inhibition of NFkappaB (NFκB) signaling in astrocytes to determine the effect of loss of NFκB-mediated astrocyte activation on acute high-fat hyperphagia. ELISA was used to measure the levels of markers of astrocyte activation, glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100B, in the medial basal hypothalamus.Inhibition of NFκB signaling in astrocytes prevented acute high-fat diet-induced astrocyte activation and resulted in a 15% increase in caloric intake (P less than 0.01) in the first 24 h after introduction of the diet.These data reveal a novel homeostatic role for astrocytes in the acute physiologic regulation of food intake in response to high-fat feeding.
|Cuprizone-induced demyelination and demyelination-associated inflammation result in different proton magnetic resonance metabolite spectra.|
Praet, J; Orije, J; Kara, F; Guglielmetti, C; Santermans, E; Daans, J; Hens, N; Verhoye, M; Berneman, Z; Ponsaerts, P; Van der Linden, A
NMR in biomedicine 28 505-13 2015
Conventional MRI is frequently used during the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis but provides only little additional pathological information. Proton MRS ((1) H-MRS), however, provides biochemical information on the lesion pathology by visualization of a spectrum of metabolites. In this study we aimed to better understand the changes in metabolite concentrations following demyelination of the white matter. Therefore, we used the cuprizone model, a well-established mouse model to mimic type III human multiple sclerosis demyelinating lesions. First, we identified CX3 CL1/CX3 CR1 signaling as a major regulator of microglial activity in the cuprizone mouse model. Compared with control groups (heterozygous CX3 CR1(+/-) C57BL/6 mice and wild type CX3 CR1(+/+) C57BL/6 mice), microgliosis, astrogliosis, oligodendrocyte cell death and demyelination were shown to be highly reduced or absent in CX3 CR1(-/-) C57BL/6 mice. Second, we show that (1) H-MRS metabolite spectra are different when comparing cuprizone-treated CX3 CR1(-/-) mice showing mild demyelination with cuprizone-treated CX3 CR1(+/+) mice showing severe demyelination and demyelination-associated inflammation. Following cuprizone treatment, CX3 CR1(+/+) mice show a decrease in the Glu, tCho and tNAA concentrations as well as an increased Tau concentration. In contrast, following cuprizone treatment CX3 CR1(-/-) mice only showed a decrease in tCho and tNAA concentrations. Therefore, (1) H-MRS might possibly allow us to discriminate demyelination from demyelination-associated inflammation via changes in Tau and Glu concentration. In addition, the observed decrease in tCho concentration in cuprizone-induced demyelinating lesions should be further explored as a possible diagnostic tool for the early identification of human MS type III lesions.
|The clinical heterogeneity of coenzyme Q10 deficiency results from genotypic differences in the Coq9 gene.|
Luna-Sánchez, M; Díaz-Casado, E; Barca, E; Tejada, MÁ; Montilla-García, Á; Cobos, EJ; Escames, G; Acuña-Castroviejo, D; Quinzii, CM; López, LC
EMBO molecular medicine 7 670-87 2015
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is due to mutations in genes involved in CoQ biosynthesis. The disease has been associated with five major phenotypes, but a genotype-phenotype correlation is unclear. Here, we compare two mouse models with a genetic modification in Coq9 gene (Coq9(Q95X) and Coq9(R239X)), and their responses to 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4-diHB). Coq9(R239X) mice manifest severe widespread CoQ deficiency associated with fatal encephalomyopathy and respond to 2,4-diHB increasing CoQ levels. In contrast, Coq9(Q95X) mice exhibit mild CoQ deficiency manifesting with reduction in CI+III activity and mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle, and late-onset mild mitochondrial myopathy, which does not respond to 2,4-diHB. We show that these differences are due to the levels of COQ biosynthetic proteins, suggesting that the presence of a truncated version of COQ9 protein in Coq9(R239X) mice destabilizes the CoQ multiprotein complex. Our study points out the importance of the multiprotein complex for CoQ biosynthesis in mammals, which may provide new insights to understand the genotype-phenotype heterogeneity associated with human CoQ deficiency and may have a potential impact on the treatment of this mitochondrial disorder.
|Anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, clone GA5 - Data Sheet|