|A switch in retrograde signaling from survival to stress in rapid-onset neurodegeneration.|
Perlson, E; Jeong, GB; Ross, JL; Dixit, R; Wallace, KE; Kalb, RG; Holzbaur, EL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Retrograde axonal transport of cellular signals driven by dynein is vital for neuronal survival. Mouse models with defects in the retrograde transport machinery, including the Loa mouse (point mutation in dynein) and the Tg(dynamitin) mouse (overexpression of dynamitin), exhibit mild neurodegenerative disease. Transport defects have also been observed in more rapidly progressive neurodegeneration, such as that observed in the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse model for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we test the hypothesis that alterations in retrograde signaling lead to neurodegeneration. In vivo, in vitro, and live-cell imaging motility assays show misregulation of transport and inhibition of retrograde signaling in the SOD1(G93A) model. However, similar inhibition is also seen in the Loa and Tg(dynamitin) mouse models. Thus, slowing of retrograde signaling leads only to mild degeneration and cannot explain ALS etiology. To further pursue this question, we used a proteomics approach to investigate dynein-associated retrograde signaling. These data indicate a significant decrease in retrograde survival factors, including P-Trk (phospho-Trk) and P-Erk1/2, and an increase in retrograde stress factor signaling, including P-JNK (phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase), caspase-8, and p75(NTR) cleavage fragment in the SOD1(G93A) model; similar changes are not seen in the Loa mouse. Cocultures of motor neurons and glia expressing mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) in compartmentalized chambers indicate that inhibition of retrograde stress signaling is sufficient to block activation of cellular stress pathways and to rescue motor neurons from mSOD1-induced toxicity. Hence, a shift from survival-promoting to death-promoting retrograde signaling may be key to the rapid onset of neurodegeneration seen in ALS.Full Text Article
|Functional and topological analysis of the Burkholderia cenocepacia priming glucosyltransferase BceB, involved in the biosynthesis of the cepacian exopolysaccharide.|
Videira, PA; Garcia, AP; Sá-Correia, I
Journal of bacteriology
The BceB protein of the cystic fibrosis mucoid isolate Burkholderia cenocepacia IST432 is proposed to catalyze the first step of the exopolysaccharide repeat unit assembly. Extracts of Escherichia coli cells overexpressing BceB were shown to contain glycosyltransferase activity and mediate incorporation of glucose-1-phosphate into membrane lipids. The amino acid sequence of BceB exhibits two conserved regions, one comprising two invariant aspartic acid residues (Asp339 and Asp355) that are essential for catalysis, as substantiated by site-directed mutagenesis, and the other comprising a putative Rossmann fold motif. The results of protein topology analysis using PhoA and LacZ fusions supported in silico predictions that BceB has at least six transmembrane segments and two major cytoplasmic loops comprising the conserved regions described above.