|Myelin basic protein induces neuron-specific toxicity by directly damaging the neuronal plasma membrane. |
Zhang, J; Sun, X; Zheng, S; Liu, X; Jin, J; Ren, Y; Luo, J
The central nervous system (CNS) insults may cause massive demyelination and lead to the release of myelin-associated proteins including its major component myelin basic protein (MBP). MBP is reported to induce glial activation but its effect on neurons is still little known. Here we found that MBP specifically bound to the extracellular surface of the neuronal plasma membrane and induced neurotoxicity in vitro. This effect of MBP on neurons was basicity-dependent because the binding was blocked by acidic lipids and competed by other basic proteins. Further studies revealed that MBP induced damage to neuronal membrane integrity and function by depolarizing the resting membrane potential, increasing the permeability to cations and other molecules, and decreasing the membrane fluidity. At last, artificial liposome vesicle assay showed that MBP directly disturbed acidic lipid bilayer and resulted in increased membrane permeability. These results revealed that MBP induces neurotoxicity through its direct interaction with acidic components on the extracellular surface of neuronal membrane, which may suggest a possible contribution of MBP to the pathogenesis in the CNS disorders with myelin damage.
|Ganglioside-linked terminal sialic acid moieties on murine macrophages function as attachment receptors for murine noroviruses. |
Stefan Taube,Jeffrey W Perry,Kristen Yetming,Sagar P Patel,Heather Auble,Liming Shu,Hesham F Nawar,Chang Hoon Lee,Terry D Connell,James A Shayman,Christiane E Wobus
Journal of virology
Noroviruses are the major cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans. However, little is known regarding the norovirus life cycle, including cell binding and entry. In contrast to human noroviruses, the recently discovered murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) readily infects murine macrophages and dendritic cells in culture. Many viruses, including the related feline calicivirus, use terminal sialic acids (SA) as receptors for infection. Therefore, we tested whether SA moieties play a role during MNV-1 infection of murine macrophages. Competition with SA-binding lectins and neuraminidase treatment led to a reduction in MNV-1 binding and infection in cultured and primary murine macrophages, suggesting a role for SA during the initial steps of the MNV-1 life cycle. Because SA moieties can be attached to glycolipids (i.e., gangliosides), we next determined whether MNV-1 uses gangliosides during infection. The gangliosides GD1a, GM1, and asialo-GM1 (GA1) are natural components of murine macrophages. MNV-1 bound to ganglioside GD1a, which is characterized by an SA on the terminal galactose, but not to GM1 or asialo-GM1 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The depletion of gangliosides using an inhibitor of glycosylceramide synthase (d-threo-P4) led to a reduction of MNV-1 binding and infection in cultured and primary murine macrophages. This defect was specifically rescued by the addition of GD1a. A similar phenotype was observed for MNV field strains WU11 (GV/WU11/2005/USA) and S99 (GV/Berlin/2006/DE). In conclusion, our data indicate that MNV can use terminal SA on gangliosides as attachment receptors during binding to murine macrophages.Full Text Article
|Localization of major gangliosides in the PNS: implications for immune neuropathies. |
Gong, Y; Tagawa, Y; Lunn, MP; Laroy, W; Heffer-Lauc, M; Li, CY; Griffin, JW; Schnaar, RL; Sheikh, KA
Brain : a journal of neurology
Antibodies targeting major gangliosides that are broadly distributed in the nervous system are sometimes associated with clinical symptoms that imply selective nerve damage. For example, anti-GD1a antibodies are associated with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), a form of Guillain-Barré syndrome that selectively affects motor nerves, despite reports that GD1a is present in human axons and myelin and is not expressed differentially in motor versus sensory roots. We used a series of high-affinity monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the major nervous system gangliosides GM1, GD1a, GD1b and GT1b to test whether any of them bind motor or sensory fibres differentially in rodent and human peripheral nerves. The following observations were made. (i) Some of the anti-GD1a antibodies preferentially stained motor fibres, supporting the association of human anti-GD1a antibodies with predominant motor neuropathies such as AMAN. (ii) A GD1b antibody preferentially stained the large dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones, in keeping with the proposed role of human anti-GD1b antibodies in sensory ataxic neuropathies. (iii) Two mAbs with broad structural cross-reactivity bound to both gangliosides and peripheral nerve proteins. (iv) Myelin was poorly stained; all clones stained axons nearly exclusively. Our findings suggest that anti-ganglioside antibody fine specificity as well as differences in ganglioside accessibility in axons and myelin influence the selectivity of injury to different fibre systems and cell types in human autoimmune neuropathies.
|Immunohistochemistry (Tissue)||Rat, Human, Mouse||12390975