Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M, R||IHC, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-GABA Transporter-2 Antibody|
|Presentation||Affinity purified antibody. Purified in PBS with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain lyophilized material at 2-8°C for up to 12 months. Maintain reconstituted material at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 6 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||10 µg|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Heterotopic neurons with altered inhibitory synaptic function in an animal model of malformation-associated epilepsy. |
Calcagnotto, Maria Elisa, et al.
J. Neurosci., 22: 7596-605 (2002) 2002
Children with brain malformations often exhibit an intractable form of epilepsy. Although alterations in cellular physiology and abnormal histology associated with brain malformations has been studied extensively, synaptic function in malformed brain regions remains poorly understood. We used an animal model, rats exposed to methylazoxymethanol (MAM) in utero, featuring loss of lamination and distinct nodular heterotopia to examine inhibitory synaptic function in the malformed brain. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated an enhanced susceptibility to seizure activity and neuronal hyperexcitability in these animals. Here we demonstrate that inhibitory synaptic function is enhanced in rats exposed to MAM in utero. Using in vitro hippocampal slices and whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from visualized neurons, we observed a dramatic prolongation of GABAergic IPSCs onto heterotopic neurons. Spontaneous IPSC decay time constants were increased by 195% and evoked IPSC decay time constants by 220% compared with age-matched control CA1 pyramidal cells; no change in IPSC amplitude or rise time was observed. GABA transport inhibitors (tiagabine and NO-711) prolonged evoked IPSC decay kinetics of control CA1 pyramidal cells (or normotopic cells) but had no effect on heterotopic neurons. Immunohistochemical staining for GABA transporters (GAT-1 and GAT-3) revealed a low level of expression in heterotopic cell regions, suggesting a reduced ability for GABA reuptake at these synapses. Together, our data demonstrate that GABA-mediated synaptic function at heterotopic synapses is altered and suggests that inhibitory systems are enhanced in the malformed brain.
|Multiple gamma-Aminobutyric acid plasma membrane transporters (GAT-1, GAT-2, GAT-3) in the rat retina. |
Johnson, J, et al.
J. Comp. Neurol., 375: 212-24 (1996) 1996
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) plasma membrane transporters (GATs) influence synaptic neurotransmission by high-affinity uptake and release of GABA. The distribution and cellular localization of GAT-1, GAT-2, and GAT-3 in the rat retina have been evaluated by using affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies directed to the C terminus of each of these GAT subtypes. Small GAT-1-immunoreactive cell bodies were located in the proximal inner nuclear layer (INL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL), and processes were distributed to all laminae of the interplexiform layer (IPL). Varicose processes were in the optic fiber layer (OFL) and the outer plexiform layer (OPL). Weak GAT-1 immunostaining surrounded cells in the INL and GCL, and it was found in the OFL and OPL and in numerous processes in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) that ended at the outer limiting membrane. GAT-1 is therefore strongly expressed by amacrine, displaced amacrine, and interplexiform cells and weakly expressed by Müller cells. GAT-2 immunostaining was observed in the retina pigment epithelium and the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium. GAT-3 immunoreactivity was distributed to the OFL, to all laminae of the IPL, GCL and INL, and to processes in the ONL that ended at the outer limiting membrane. Small GAT-3-immunoreactive cell bodies were in the proximal INL and GCL. GAT-3 is therefore strongly expressed by Müller cells, and by some amacrine and displaced amacrine cells. Together, these observations demonstrate a heterologous distribution of GATs in the retina. These transporters are likely to take up GABA from, and perhaps release GABA into, the synaptic cleft and extracellular space. This suggests that GATs regulate GABA levels in these areas and thus influence synaptic neurotransmission.
|RABBIT ANTI-GABA TRANSPORTER-2 (GAT-2)|