Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Description||Anti-GABA (No Gluteraldehyde) Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified immunoglobulin. Liquid in stabilizing buffer (Phosphate buffer with sterile goat serum) containing 0.05% thimerosal.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain stock at 2-8°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 6 months. This stock is extremely stable under normal use and routine storage at 2-8°C. Do not freeze this stock.|
|Material Size||500 µL|
|RABBIT ANTI-GABA POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY - 2091706||2091706|
|RABBIT ANTI-GABA POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY - 2135098||2135098|
|RABBIT ANTI-GABA POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY - 2420355||2420355|
|RABBIT ANTI-GABA -2726130||2726130|
|RABBIT ANTI-GABA -2746484||2746484|
|RABBIT ANTI-GABA POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY||2857685|
|RABBIT ANTI-GABA POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY||2928566|
|RABBIT ANTI-GABA POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY||3067259|
|RABBIT ANTI-GABA POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY||3152202|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Retinal amino acid neurochemistry of the southern hemisphere lamprey, Geotria australis.|
Nivison-Smith, L; Collin, SP; Zhu, Y; Ready, S; Acosta, ML; Hunt, DM; Potter, IC; Kalloniatis, M
PloS one 8 e58406 2013
Lampreys are one of the two surviving groups of the agnathan (jawless) stages in vertebrate evolution and are thus ideal candidates for elucidating the evolution of visual systems. This study investigated the retinal amino acid neurochemistry of the southern hemisphere lamprey Geotria australis during the downstream migration of the young, recently-metamorphosed juveniles to the sea and during the upstream migration of the fully-grown and sexually-maturing adults to their spawning areas. Glutamate and taurine were distributed throughout the retina, whilst GABA and glycine were confined to neurons of the inner retina matching patterns seen in most other vertebrates. Glutamine and aspartate immunoreactivity was closely matched to Müller cell morphology. Between the migratory phases, few differences were observed in the distribution of major neurotransmitters i.e. glutamate, GABA and glycine, but changes in amino acids associated with retinal metabolism i.e. glutamine and aspartate, were evident. Taurine immunoreactivity was mostly conserved between migrant stages, consistent with its role in primary cell functions such as osmoregulation. Further investigation of glutamate signalling using the probe agmatine (AGB) to map cation channel permeability revealed entry of AGB into photoreceptors and horizontal cells followed by accumulation in inner retinal neurons. Similarities in AGB profiles between upstream and downstream migrant of G. australis confirmed the conservation of glutamate neurotransmission. Finally, calcium binding proteins, calbindin and calretinin were localized to the inner retina whilst recoverin was localized to photoreceptors. Overall, conservation of major amino acid neurotransmitters and calcium-associated proteins in the lamprey retina confirms these elements as essential features of the vertebrate visual system. On the other hand, metabolic elements of the retina such as neurotransmitter precursor amino acids and Müller cells are more sensitive to environmental changes associated with migration.
|Neurotransmitter synthesis in poststroke cortical neurogenesis in adult rats.|
Gu, W; Gu, C; Jiang, W; Wester, P
Stem cell research 4 148-54 2010
Neurogenesis occurs in the cerebral cortex of adult rats after focal cerebral ischemia. Whether or not the newborn neurons could synthesize neurotransmitters is unknown. To elucidate such a possibility, a photothrombotic ring stroke model with spontaneous reperfusion was induced in adult male Wistar rats. The DNA duplication marker BrdU was repeatedly injected, and the rats were sacrificed at various times after stroke. To detect BrdU nuclear incorporation and various neurotransmitters, brain sections were processed for single/double immunocytochemistry and single/double/triple immunofluorescence. Stereological cell counting was performed to assess the final cell populations. At 48 h, 5 days, 7 days, 30 days, 60 days and 90 days after stroke, numerous cells were BrdU-immunolabeled in the penumbral cortex. Some of these were doubly immunopositive to the cholinergic neuron-specific marker ChAT or GABAergic neuron-specific marker GAD. As analyzed by 3-D confocal microscopy, the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and GABA were colocalized with BrdU in the same cortical cells. In addition, GABA was colocalized with the neuron-specific marker Neu N in the BrdU triple-immunolabeled cortical cells. This study suggests that the newborn neurons are capable of synthesizing the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and GABA in the penumbral cortex, which is one of the fundamental requisites for these neurons to function in the poststroke recovery.
|Altered expression of retinal molecular markers in the canine RPE65 model of Leber congenital amaurosis.|
Hernández, M; Pearce-Kelling, SE; Rodriguez, FD; Aguirre, GD; Vecino, E
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 51 6793-802 2010
Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a group of childhood-onset retinal diseases characterized by severe visual impairment or blindness. One form is caused by mutations in the RPE65 gene, which encodes the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) isomerase. In this study, the retinal structure and expression of molecular markers for different retinal cell types were characterized, and differences between control and RPE65 mutant dogs during the temporal evolution of the disease were analyzed.Retinas from normal and mutant dogs of different ages were examined by immunofluorescence with a panel of 16 different antibodies.Cones and rods were preserved in the mutant retinas, and the number of cones was normal. However, there was altered expression of cone arrestin and delocalization of rod opsin. The ON bipolar cells showed sprouting of the dendritic arbors toward the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and retraction of their axons in the inner nuclear layer (INL). A decreased expression of GABA, and an increased expression of intermediate filament glial markers was also found in the mutant retinas. These changes were more evident in the adult than the young mutant retinas.The structure of the retina is well preserved in the mutant retina, but several molecular changes take place in photoreceptors and in bipolar and amacrine cells. Some of these changes are structural, whereas others reflect a change in localization of the examined proteins. This study provides new information that can be applied to the interpretation of outcomes of retinal gene therapy in animal models and humans.
|Steroids initiate a signaling cascade that triggers rapid sporulation in Dictyostelium.|
Anjard, C; Su, Y; Loomis, WF
Development (Cambridge, England) 136 803-12 2009
Encapsulation of prespore cells of Dictyostelium discoideum is controlled by several intercellular signals to ensure appropriate timing during fruiting body formation. Acyl-CoA-binding protein, AcbA, is secreted by prespore cells and processed by the prestalk protease TagC to form the 34 amino acid peptide SDF-2 that triggers rapid encapsulation. AcbA is secreted when gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is released from prespore cells and binds to GrlE, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Analysis of SDF-2 production in mutant strains lacking Galpha subunits and GPCRs, either as pure populations or when mixed with other mutant strains, uncovered the non-cell-autonomous roles of GrlA, Galpha4 and Galpha7. We found that Galpha7 is essential for the response to GABA and is likely to be coupled to GrlE. GrlA-null and Galpha4-null cells respond normally to GABA but fail to secrete it. We found that they are necessary for the response to a small hydrophobic molecule, SDF-3, which is released late in culmination. Pharmacological inhibition of steroidogenesis during development blocked the production of SDF-3. Moreover, the response to SDF-3 could be blocked by the steroid antagonist mifepristone, whereas hydrocortisone and other steroids mimicked the effects of SDF-3 when added in the nanomolar range. It appears that SDF-3 is a steroid that elicits rapid release of GABA by acting through the GPCR GrlA, coupled to G protein containing the Galpha4 subunit. SDF-3 is at the head of the cascade that amplifies the signal for encapsulation to ensure the rapid, synchronous formation of spores.
|Age-dependent disease expression determines remodeling of the retinal mosaic in carriers of RPGR exon ORF15 mutations.|
Beltran, WA; Acland, GM; Aguirre, GD
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 50 3985-95 2009
To characterize the retinal histopathology in carriers of X-linked progressive retinal atrophy (XLPRA1 and XLPRA2), two canine models of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa caused, respectively, by a stop and a frameshift mutation in RPGRORF15.Retinas of XLPRA2 and XLPRA1 carriers of different ages were processed for morphologic evaluation, TUNEL assay, and immunohistochemistry. Cell-specific markers were used to examine retinal remodeling events.A mosaic pattern composed of patches of diseased and normal retina was first detected in XLPRA2 carriers at 4.9 weeks of age. A peak of photoreceptor cell death led to focal rod loss; however, in these patches an increased density of cones was found to persist over time. Patches of disease gradually disappeared so that by 39 weeks of age the overall retinal morphology, albeit thinner, had improved lamination. In older XLPRA2 carriers (greater than or=8.8 years), extended regions of severe degeneration occurred in the peripheral/mid-peripheral retina. In XLPRA1 carriers, opsin mislocalization and rare events of rod death were detected by TUNEL assay at 20 weeks of age; however, only patchy degeneration was seen by 1.4 years and was still apparent at 7.8 years.The time of onset and the progression of the disease differed between the two models. In the early-onset form (XLPRA2) the morphologic appearance of the retinal mosaic changed as a function of age, suggesting that structural plasticity persists in the early postnatal canine retina as mutant photoreceptors die. In the late-onset form (XLPRA1), patches of disease persisted until later ages.Full Text Article
|A frameshift mutation in RPGR exon ORF15 causes photoreceptor degeneration and inner retina remodeling in a model of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa.|
Beltran, WA; Hammond, P; Acland, GM; Aguirre, GD
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 47 1669-81 2006
To characterize the course of retinal disease in X-linked progressive retinal atrophy 2 (XLPRA2), a canine model of early onset X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) caused by a two-nucleotide microdeletion in RPGR ORF15.The retinas of 25 XLPRA2-affected dogs (age range, 2-40.6 weeks) and age-matched control subjects were collected, fixed, and embedded in epoxy resin for morphologic evaluation or in optimal cutting temperature (OCT) medium for TUNEL assay and immunohistochemistry. Cell-specific antibodies were used to examine changes in rods and cones and to evaluate the effects of the primary photoreceptor degeneration on inner retinal cells.Abnormal development of photoreceptors was recognizable as early as 3.9 weeks of age. Outer segment (OS) misalignment was followed by their disorganization and fragmentation. Reduction in length and broadening of rod and cone inner segments (IS) was next observed, followed by the focal loss of rod and cone IS at later time points. The proportion of dying photoreceptors peaked at approximately 6 to 7 weeks of age and was significantly reduced after 12 weeks. In addition to rod and cone opsin mislocalization, there was early rod neurite sprouting, retraction of rod bipolar cell dendrites, and increased Müller cell reactivity. Later in the course of the disease, changes were also noted in horizontal cells and amacrine cells.XLPRA2 is an early-onset model of XLRP that is morphologically characterized by abnormal photoreceptor maturation followed by progressive rod-cone degeneration and early inner retina remodeling. The results suggest that therapeutic strategies for this retinal degeneration should target not solely photoreceptor cells but also inner retinal neurons.
|Regulated exocytosis of GABA-containing synaptic-like microvesicles in pancreatic beta-cells.|
Braun, M; Wendt, A; Birnir, B; Broman, J; Eliasson, L; Galvanovskis, J; Gromada, J; Mulder, H; Rorsman, P
The Journal of general physiology 123 191-204 2004
We have explored whether gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is released by regulated exocytosis of GABA-containing synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs) in insulin-releasing rat pancreatic beta-cells. To this end, beta-cells were engineered to express GABA(A)-receptor Cl(-)-channels at high density using adenoviral infection. Electron microscopy indicated that the average diameter of the SLMVs is 90 nm, that every beta-cell contains approximately 3,500 such vesicles, and that insulin-containing large dense core vesicles exclude GABA. Quantal release of GABA, seen as rapidly activating and deactivating Cl(-)-currents, was observed during membrane depolarizations from -70 mV to voltages beyond -40 mV or when Ca(2+) was dialysed into the cell interior. Depolarization-evoked GABA release was suppressed when Ca(2+) entry was inhibited using Cd(2+). Analysis of the kinetics of GABA release revealed that GABA-containing vesicles can be divided into a readily releasable pool and a reserve pool. Simultaneous measurements of GABA release and cell capacitance indicated that exocytosis of SLMVs contributes approximately 1% of the capacitance signal. Mathematical analysis of the release events suggests that every SLMV contains 0.36 amol of GABA. We conclude that there are two parallel pathways of exocytosis in pancreatic beta-cells and that release of GABA may accordingly be temporally and spatially separated from insulin secretion. This provides a basis for paracrine GABAergic signaling within the islet.
|RABBIT ANTI-GABA POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY|