Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|R, A||IH(P), ELISA||Gp||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Guinea Pig polyclonal BSA-depleted antiserum with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 µL|
|Anti-GABA - 2398912||2398912|
|Anti-GABA - 2166729||2166729|
|Anti-GABA - 2181272||2181272|
|Anti-GABA - 2262684||2262684|
|Anti-GABA - 2332548||2332548|
|Anti-GABA - 2557653||2557653|
|Anti-GABA - 3064830||3064830|
|Anti-GABA - 3153969||3153969|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Mapping synapses by conjugate light-electron array tomography.|
Collman, F; Buchanan, J; Phend, KD; Micheva, KD; Weinberg, RJ; Smith, SJ
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 5792-807 2015
Synapses of the mammalian CNS are diverse in size, structure, molecular composition, and function. Synapses in their myriad variations are fundamental to neural circuit development, homeostasis, plasticity, and memory storage. Unfortunately, quantitative analysis and mapping of the brain's heterogeneous synapse populations has been limited by the lack of adequate single-synapse measurement methods. Electron microscopy (EM) is the definitive means to recognize and measure individual synaptic contacts, but EM has only limited abilities to measure the molecular composition of synapses. This report describes conjugate array tomography (AT), a volumetric imaging method that integrates immunofluorescence and EM imaging modalities in voxel-conjugate fashion. We illustrate the use of conjugate AT to advance the proteometric measurement of EM-validated single-synapse analysis in a study of mouse cortex.
|Inner retinal change in a novel rd1-FTL mouse model of retinal degeneration.|
Greferath, U; Anderson, EE; Jobling, AI; Vessey, KA; Martinez, G; de Iongh, RU; Kalloniatis, M; Fletcher, EL
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 9 293 2015
While photoreceptor loss is the most devastating result of inherited retinal degenerations such as retinitis pigmentosa, inner retinal neurons also undergo significant alteration. Detailing these changes has become important as many vision restorative therapies target the remaining neurons. In this study, the rd1-Fos-Tau-LacZ (rd1-FTL) mouse model was used to explore inner retinal change at a late stage of retinal degeneration, after the loss of photoreceptor nuclei. The rd1-FTL model carries a mutation in the phosphodiesterase gene, Pde6b, and an axonally targeted transgenic beta galactosidase reporter system under the control of the c-fos promoter. Retinae of transgenic rd1-FTL mice and control FTL animals aged 2-12 months were processed for indirect fluorescence immunocytochemistry. At 2 months of age, a time when the majority of photoreceptor nuclei are lost, there was negligible c-fos reporter (FTL) expression, however, from 4 months, reporter expression was observed to increase within subpopulations of amacrine and ganglion cells within the central retina. These areas of inner retinal FTL expression coincided with regions that contained aberrant Müller cells. Specifically, these cells exhibited reduced glutamine synthetase and Kir4.1 immunolabelling, whilst showing evidence of proliferative gliosis (increased cyclinD1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression). These changes were limited to distinct regions where cone photoreceptor terminals were absent. Overall, these results highlight that distinct areas of the rd1-FTL central retina undergo significant glial alterations after cone photoreceptor loss. These areas coincide with up-regulation of the c-fos reporter in the inner retina, which may represent a change in neuronal function/plasticity. The rd1-FTL mouse is a useful model system to probe changes that occur in the inner retina at later stages of retinal degeneration.
|Tonic inhibition in dentate gyrus impairs long-term potentiation and memory in an Alzheimer's [corrected] disease model.|
Wu, Z; Guo, Z; Gearing, M; Chen, G
Nature communications 5 4159 2014
Amyloid plaques and tau tangles are common pathological hallmarks for Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, reducing Aβ production failed to relieve the symptoms of AD patients. Here we report a high GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) content in reactive astrocytes in the dentate gyrus (DG) of a mouse model for AD (5xFAD) that results in increased tonic inhibition and memory deficit. We also confirm in human AD patient brains that dentate astrocytes have a high GABA content, suggesting that high astrocytic GABA level may be a novel biomarker and a potential diagnostic tool for AD. The excessive GABA in 5xFAD astrocytes is released through an astrocyte-specific GABA transporter GAT3/4, and significantly enhances tonic GABA inhibition in dentate granule cells. Importantly, reducing tonic inhibition in 5xFAD mice rescues the impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory deficit. Thus, reducing tonic GABA inhibition in the DG may lead to a novel therapy for AD.
|PDE9A is expressed in the inner retina and contributes to the normal shape of the photopic ERG waveform.|
Dhingra, A; Tummala, SR; Lyubarsky, A; Vardi, N
Frontiers in molecular neuroscience 7 60 2014
The ubiquitous second messenger cGMP is synthesized by guanylyl cyclase and hydrolyzed by phosphodiesterase (PDE). cGMP mediates numerous signaling pathways in multiple tissues. In the retina, cGMP regulates signaling in nearly every cell class including photoreceptors, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and ganglion cells. In order to understand the specific role of cGMP and its regulating enzymes in different cell types, it is first necessary to localize these components and dissect their influence on the circuits. Here we tested the contribution of PDE9A to retinal processing by recording the electroretinograms (ERG) of PDE9A (™/™) (KO) mice and by localizing the enzyme. We found that while the scotopic ERG of KO was the same as that of wild type (WT) in both amplitude and kinetics, the photopic ERG was greatly affected. The greatest effect was on the recovery of the b-wave; the falling phase and the b-wave duration were significantly longer in the KO mice for all photopic stimuli (UV, green, or saturating white flashes). The rising phase was slower in KO than in WT for UV and green stimuli. For certain stimuli, amplitudes of both the a- and b-waves were smaller than in WT. Using Lac-Z expression in KO retinas as a reporter for PDE9A expression pattern, we found that PDE9A is localized to GABA-positive and GABA-negative amacrine cells, and likely also to certain types of ganglion cells. Our results indicate that PDE9A, by controlling the level of cGMP, modulates inhibitory processes within the cone pathway. We speculate that these circuits involve NO/cGMP signaling pathways.
|Ring finger protein 34 (RNF34) interacts with and promotes γ-aminobutyric acid type-A receptor degradation via ubiquitination of the γ2 subunit.|
Jin, H; Chiou, TT; Serwanski, DR; Miralles, CP; Pinal, N; De Blas, AL
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 29420-36 2014
We have found that the large intracellular loop of the γ2 GABAA receptor (R) subunit (γ2IL) interacts with RNF34 (an E3 ubiquitin ligase), as shown by yeast two-hybrid and in vitro pulldown assays. In brain extracts, RNF34 co-immunoprecipitates with assembled GABAARs. In co-transfected HEK293 cells, RNF34 reduces the expression of the γ2 GABAAR subunit by increasing the ratio of ubiquitinated/nonubiquitinated γ2. Mutating several lysines of the γ2IL into arginines makes the γ2 subunit resistant to RNF34-induced degradation. RNF34 also reduces the expression of the γ2 subunit when α1 and β3 subunits are co-assembled with γ2. This effect is partially reversed by leupeptin or MG132, indicating that both the lysosomal and proteasomal degradation pathways are involved. Immunofluorescence of cultured hippocampal neurons shows that RNF34 forms clusters and that a subset of these clusters is associated with GABAergic synapses. This association is also observed in the intact rat brain by electron microscopy immunocytochemistry. RNF34 is not expressed until the 2nd postnatal week of rat brain development, being highly expressed in some interneurons. Overexpression of RNF34 in hippocampal neurons decreases the density of γ2 GABAAR clusters and the number of GABAergic contacts that these neurons receive. Knocking down endogenous RNF34 with shRNA leads to increased γ2 GABAAR cluster density and GABAergic innervation. The results indicate that RNF34 regulates postsynaptic γ2-GABAAR clustering and GABAergic synaptic innervation by interacting with and ubiquitinating the γ2-GABAAR subunit promoting GABAAR degradation.
|Neural circuit interactions between the dorsal raphe nucleus and the lateral hypothalamus: an experimental and computational study.|
Jalewa, J; Joshi, A; McGinnity, TM; Prasad, G; Wong-Lin, K; Hölscher, C
PloS one 9 e88003 2014
Orexinergic/hypocretinergic (Ox) neurotransmission plays an important role in regulating sleep, as well as in anxiety and depression, for which the serotonergic (5-HT) system is also involved in. However, little is known regarding the direct and indirect interactions between 5-HT in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and Ox neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LHA). In this study, we report the additional presence of 5-HT1BR, 5-HT2AR, 5-HT2CR and fast ligand-gated 5-HT3AR subtypes on the Ox neurons of transgenic Ox-enhanced green fluorescent protein (Ox-EGFP) and wild type C57Bl/6 mice using single and double immunofluorescence (IF) staining, respectively, and quantify the colocalization for each 5-HT receptor subtype. We further reveal the presence of 5-HT3AR and 5-HT1AR on GABAergic neurons in LHA. We also identify NMDAR1, OX1R and OX2R on Ox neurons, but none on adjacent GABAergic neurons. This suggests a one-way relationship between LHA's GABAergic and Ox neurons, wherein GABAergic neurons exerts an inhibitory effect on Ox neurons under partial DRN's 5-HT control. We also show that Ox axonal projections receive glutamatergic (PSD-95 immunopositive) and GABAergic (Gephyrin immunopositive) inputs in the DRN. We consider these and other available findings into our computational model to explore possible effects of neural circuit connection types and timescales on the DRN-LHA system's dynamics. We find that if the connections from 5-HT to LHA's GABAergic neurons are weakly excitatory or inhibitory, the network exhibits slow oscillations; not observed when the connection is strongly excitatory. Furthermore, if Ox directly excites 5-HT neurons at a fast timescale, phasic Ox activation can lead to an increase in 5-HT activity; no significant effect with slower timescale. Overall, our experimental and computational approaches provide insights towards a more complete understanding of the complex relationship between 5-HT in the DRN and Ox in the LHA.
|Age- and light-dependent development of localised retinal atrophy in CCL2(-/-)CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice.|
Chen, M; Hombrebueno, JR; Luo, C; Penalva, R; Zhao, J; Colhoun, L; Pandi, SP; Forrester, JV; Xu, H
PloS one 8 e61381 2013
Previous studies have shown that CCL2/CX3CR1 deficient mice on C57BL/6N background (with rd8 mutation) have an early onset (6 weeks) of spontaneous retinal degeneration. In this study, we generated CCL2(-/-)CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice on the C57BL/6J background. Retinal degeneration was not detected in CCL2(-/-)CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice younger than 6 months. Patches of whitish/yellowish fundus lesions were observed in 17∼60% of 12-month, and 30∼100% of 18-month CCL2(-/-)CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice. Fluorescein angiography revealed no choroidal neovascularisation in these mice. Patches of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor damage were detected in 30% and 50% of 12- and 18-month CCL2(-/-)CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice respectively, but not in wild-type mice. All CCL2(-/-)CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice exposed to extra-light (∼800lux, 6 h/day, 6 months) developed patches of retinal atrophy, and only 20-25% of WT mice which underwent the same light treatment developed atrophic lesions. In addition, synaptophysin expression was detected in the outer nucler layer (ONL) of area related to photoreceptor loss in CCL2(-/-)CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice. Markedly increased rhodopsin but reduced cone arrestin expression was observed in retinal outer layers in aged CCL2(-/-)CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice. GABA expression was reduced in the inner retina of aged CCL2(-/-)CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice. Significantly increased Müller glial and microglial activation was observed in CCL2(-/-)CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice compared to age-matched WT mice. Macrophages from CCL2(-/-)CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice were less phagocytic, but expressed higher levels of iNOS, IL-1β, IL-12 and TNF-α under hypoxia conditions. Our results suggest that the deletions of CCL2 and CX3CR1 predispose mice to age- and light-mediated retinal damage. The CCL2/CX3CR1 deficient mouse may thus serve as a model for age-related atrophic degeneration of the RPE, including the dry type of macular degeneration, geographic atrophy.
|Survey on amacrine cells coupling to retrograde-identified ganglion cells in the mouse retina.|
Pang, JJ; Paul, DL; Wu, SM
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 54 5151-62 2013
Retinal amacrine cells (ACs) may make inhibitory chemical synapses and potentially excitatory gap junctions on ganglion cells (GCs). The total number and subtypes of ACs coupled to the entire GC population were investigated in wild-type and three lines of transgenic mice.GCs and GC-coupled ACs were identified by the previously established LY-NB (Lucifer yellow-Neurobiotin) retrograde double-labeling technique, in conjunction with specific antibodies and confocal microscopy.GC-coupled ACs (NB-positive and LY-negative) comprised nearly 11% of displaced ACs and 4% of conventional ACs in wild-type mice, and were 9% and 4% of displaced ACs in Cx45(-/-) and Cx36/45(-/-) mice, respectively. Their somas were small in Cx36/45(-/-) mice, but variable in other strains. They were mostly γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (IR) and located in the GC layer. They comprised only a small portion in the AC subpopulations, including GABA-IR, glycine-IR, calretinin-IR, 5-HT-accumulating, and ON-type choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) ACs in wild-type and ChAT transgenic mice (ChAT- tdTomato). In the distal 80% of the inner plexiform layer (IPL), dense GC dendrites coexisted with rich glycine-IR and GABA-IR. In the inner 20% of the IPL, sparse GC dendrites presented with a major GABA band and sparse glycine-IR.Various subtypes of ACs may couple to GCs. ACs of the same immunoreactivity may either couple or not couple to GCs. Cx36 and Cx45 dominate GC-AC coupling except for small ACs. The overall potency of GC-AC coupling is moderate, especially in the proximal 20% of the IPL, where inhibitory chemical signals are dominated by GABA ACs.
|Anatomical characterization of a rabbit cerebellar eyeblink premotor pathway using pseudorabies and identification of a local modulatory network in anterior interpositus.|
Gonzalez-Joekes, J; Schreurs, BG
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 12472-87 2012
Rabbit eyeblink conditioning is a well characterized model of associative learning. To identify specific neurons that are part of the eyeblink premotor pathway, a retrograde transsynaptic tracer (pseudorabies virus) was injected into the orbicularis oculi muscle. Four time points (3, 4, 4.5, and 5 d) were selected to identify sequential segments of the pathway and a map of labeled structures was generated. At 3 d, labeled first-order motor neurons were found in dorsolateral facial nucleus ipsilaterally. At 4 d, second-order premotor neurons were found in reticular nuclei, and sensory trigeminal, auditory, vestibular, and motor structures, including contralateral red nucleus. At 4.5 d, labeled third-order premotor neurons were found in the pons, midbrain, and cerebellum, including dorsolateral anterior interpositus nucleus and rostral fastigial nucleus. At 5 d, labeling revealed higher-order premotor structures. Labeled fourth-order Purkinje cells were found in ipsilateral cerebellar cortex in cerebellar lobule HVI and in lobule I. The former has been implicated in eyeblink conditioning and the latter in vestibular control. Labeled neurons in anterior interpositus were studied, using neurotransmitter immunoreactivity to classify individual cell types and delineate their interconnectivity. Labeled third-order premotor neurons were immunoreactive for glutamate and corresponded to large excitatory projection neurons. Labeled fourth-order premotor interneurons were immunoreactive for GABA (30%), glycine (18%), or both GABA and glycine (52%) and form a functional network within anterior interpositus involved in modulation of motor commands. These results identify a complete eyeblink premotor pathway, deep cerebellar interconnectivity, and specific neurons responsible for the generation of eyeblink responses.
|Rod and cone pathway signalling is altered in the P2X7 receptor knock out mouse.|
Vessey, KA; Fletcher, EL
PloS one 7 e29990 2012
The P2X7 receptor (P2X7-R) is expressed in the retina and brain and has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. However, whether it is expressed by neurons and plays a role as a neurotransmitter receptor has been the subject of controversy. In this study, we first show that the novel vesicular transporter for ATP, VNUT, is expressed in the retina, verifying the presence of the molecular machinery for ATP to act as neurotransmitter at P2X7-Rs. Secondly we show the presence of P2X7-R mRNA and protein in the retina and cortex and absence of the full length variant 1 of the receptor in the P2X7-R knock out (P2X7-KO) mouse. The role of the P2X7-R in neuronal function of the retina was assessed by comparing the electroretinogram response of P2X7-KO with WT mice. The rod photoreceptor response was found to be similar, while both rod and cone pathway post-photoreceptor responses were significantly larger in P2X7-KO mice. This suggests that activation of P2X7-Rs modulates output of second order retinal neurons. In line with this finding, P2X7-Rs were found in the outer plexiform layer and on inner retinal cell classes, including horizontal, amacrine and ganglion cells. The receptor co-localized with conventional synapses in the IPL and was expressed on amacrine cells post-synaptic to rod bipolar ribbon synapses. In view of the changes in visual function in the P2X7-KO mouse and the immunocytochemical location of the receptor in the normal retina, it is likely the P2X7-R provides excitatory input to photoreceptor terminals or to inhibitory cells that shape both the rod and cone pathway response.
|GUINEA PIG ANTI-GABA POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY|