|The synaptic proteome during development and plasticity of the mouse visual cortex. |
Dahlhaus, M; Li, KW; van der Schors, RC; Saiepour, MH; van Nierop, P; Heimel, JA; Hermans, JM; Loos, M; Smit, AB; Levelt, CN
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP
During brain development, the neocortex shows periods of enhanced plasticity, which enables the acquisition of knowledge and skills that we use and build on in adult life. Key to persistent modifications of neuronal connectivity and plasticity of the neocortex are molecular changes occurring at the synapse. Here we used isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification to measure levels of 467 synaptic proteins in a well-established model of plasticity in the mouse visual cortex and the regulation of its critical period. We found that inducing visual cortex plasticity by monocular deprivation during the critical period increased levels of kinases and proteins regulating the actin-cytoskeleton and endocytosis. Upon closure of the critical period with age, proteins associated with transmitter vesicle release and the tubulin- and septin-cytoskeletons increased, whereas actin-regulators decreased in line with augmented synapse stability and efficacy. Maintaining the visual cortex in a plastic state by dark rearing mice into adulthood only partially prevented these changes and increased levels of G-proteins and protein kinase A subunits. This suggests that in contrast to the general belief, dark rearing does not simply delay cortical development but may activate signaling pathways that specifically maintain or increase the plasticity potential of the visual cortex. Altogether, this study identified many novel candidate plasticity proteins and signaling pathways that mediate synaptic plasticity during critical developmental periods or restrict it in adulthood.Full Text Article
|Subunit composition and quantitative importance of hetero-oligomeric receptors: GABAA receptors containing alpha6 subunits. |
Jechlinger, M, et al.
J. Neurosci., 18: 2449-57 (1998)
In cerebellum, GABAA receptors containing alpha6 subunits are expressed exclusively in granule cells. The number of alpha6 receptor subtypes formed in these cells and their subunit composition presently are not known. Immunoaffinity chromatography on alpha6 subunit-specific antibodies indicated that 45% of GABAA receptors in cerebellar extracts contained alpha6 subunits. Western blot analysis demonstrated that alpha1, beta1, beta2, beta3, gamma2, and delta subunits co-purified with alpha6 subunits, suggesting the existence of multiple alpha6 receptor subtypes. These subtypes were identified using a new method based on the one-by-one immunochromatographic elimination of receptors containing the co-purifying subunits in parallel or subsequent experiments. By quantification and Western blot analysis of alpha6 receptors remaining in the extract, the proportion of alpha6 receptors containing the eliminated subunit could be calculated and the subunit composition of the remaining receptors could be determined. Results obtained indicated that alpha6 receptors in cerebellum are composed predominantly of alpha6betaxgamma2 (32%), alpha1alpha6betaxgamma2 (37%), alpha6betaxdelta (14%), or alpha1alpha6betaxdelta (15%) subunits. Other experiments indicated that 10%, 51%, or 21% of alpha6 receptors contained homogeneous beta1, beta2, or beta3 subunits, respectively, whereas two different beta subunits were present in 18% of all alpha6 receptors. The method presented can be used to resolve the total number, subunit composition, and abundancy of GABAA receptor subtypes in the brain and can also be applied to the investigation of other hetero-oligomeric receptors.