Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, Gp, H, M, R||WB||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-G Protein Giα-1 Antibody, clone R4|
|Presentation||Liquid ascites, containing sodium azide as a preservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|MOUSE ANTI-Gi1 -2754402||2754402|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Minocycline provides protection against beta-amyloid(25-35)-induced alterations of the somatostatin signaling pathway in the rat temporal cortex. |
E Burgos-Ramos,L Puebla-Jiménez,E Arilla-Ferreiro
Neuroscience 154 2008
Minocycline is a semi-synthetic second-generation tetracycline known to improve cognition in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice. Whether it can protect the somatostatin (SRIF) receptor-effector system, also involved in learning and memory, from alterations induced by chronic i.c.v. infusion of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta)(25-35) is presently unknown. Hence, in the present study, we tested the effects of minocycline on the SRIF signaling pathway in the rat temporal cortex. To this end, male Wistar rats were injected with minocycline (45 mg/kg body weight) i.p. twice on the first day of treatment. On the following day and during 14 days, Abeta(25-35) was administered i.c.v. via an osmotic minipump connected to a cannula implanted in the left lateral ventricle (300 pmol/day). Minocycline (22.5 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected once again the last 2 days of the Abeta(25-35) infusion. The animals were killed by decapitation 24 h after the last drug injection. Our results show that minocycline prevents the decrease in SRIF receptor density and somatostatin receptor (sst) 2 expression and the attenuated capacity of SRIF to inhibit adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity, alterations present in the temporal cortex of Abeta(25-35)-treated rats. Furthermore, minocycline blocks the Abeta(25-35)-induced decrease in phosphorylated cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element binding protein (p-CREB) content and G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK) protein expression in this brain area. Altogether, the present data demonstrate that minocycline in vivo provides protection against Abeta-induced impairment of the SRIF signal transduction pathway in the rat temporal cortex and suggest that it may have a potential as a therapeutic agent in human Alzheimer's disease, although further studies are warranted.
|Gly-Pro-Glu protects beta-amyloid-induced somatostatin depletion in the rat cortex. |
David Aguado-Llera, Mercedes Martín-Martínez, María Teresa García-López, Eduardo Arilla-Ferreiro, Vicente Barrios
Neuroreport 15 1979-82 2004
The effect of Gly-Pro-Glu (GPE) on the somatostatinergic system of the temporal cortex in amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) treated rats was investigated. Intracerebroventricular Abeta25-35 administration for 14 days (300 pmol/day) to ovariectomized rats produced a marked reduction in somatostatin (SRIF) content, SRIF receptor density and reduced the inhibitory effect of SRIF on adenylyl cyclase activity. I.p. injection of three doses (300 microg) of GPE on days 0, 6 and 12 resulted in a partial recovery of the parameters affected by Abeta25-35 administration. These results indicate that GPE may have an in vivo effect protecting the temporal cortical somatostatinergic system from Abeta insult.
|Activity of the hippocampal somatostatinergic system following daily administration of melatonin. |
Rosa María Izquierdo-Claros, María Del Carmen Boyano-Adánez, Eduardo Arilla-Ferreiro
Brain research. Molecular brain research 126 107-13 2004
If melatonin or its analogs are to be used therapeutically in humans, their chronic effects on responsiveness of melatonin target cells need to be assessed. We have previously demonstrated that acute melatonin treatment regulates the somatostatinergic system in the rat hippocampus. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of subchronic and chronic daily treatment with melatonin on the somatostatinergic system in the rat hippocampus. Male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were injected with melatonin (25 microg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) daily for 4, 7 or 14 days and sacrificed 24 h after the last injection. Melatonin administration for 4 days induced a decrease in the hippocampal somatostatin (SRIF)-like immunoreactivity content as well as a decrease in the number of SRIF receptors and an increase in their apparent affinity. The decreased number of SRIF receptors in the melatonin (4 days)-treated rats was associated with a decreased capacity of SRIF to inhibit both basal and forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity. These melatonin-induced effects reversed to control values after 7 or 14 days of treatment. Hippocampal membranes from control and melatonin-treated rats showed similar Gi and Gs activities. Melatonin treatment altered neither the functional Gi activity nor the Gialpha 1 or Gialpha 2 levels at any of the time periods studied. The present results suggest that chronic exposure to melatonin results in a tolerance of the hippocampus to this hormone.
|Acutely administered melatonin decreases somatostatin-binding sites and the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on adenylyl cyclase activity in the rat hippocampus. |
Rosa María Izquierdo-Claros, María del Carmen Boyano-Adánez Md, Eduardo Arilla-Ferreiro
Journal of pineal research 36 87-94 2004
Melatonin is known to increase neuronal activity in the hippocampus, an effect contrary to that of somatostatin (somatotropin release-inhibiting factor, SRIF). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the somatostatinergic system is implicated in the mechanism of action of melatonin in the rat hippocampus. One group of rats was injected a single dose of melatonin [25 microg/kg subcutaneously (s.c.)] or saline containing ethanol (0.5%, s.c.) and killed 5 hr later. Melatonin significantly decreased the SRIF-like immunoreactivity levels and induced a significant decrease in the density of SRIF receptors as well as in the dissociation constant (Kd). SRIF-mediated inhibition of basal and forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity was markedly decreased in hippocampal membranes from melatonin-treated rats. The functional activity of Gi proteins was similar in hippocampal membranes from melatonin-treated and control rats. Western blot analyses revealed that melatonin administration did not alter Gialpha1 or Gialpha2 levels. To determine if the changes observed were related to melatonin-induced activation of central melatonin receptors, a melatonin receptor antagonist, luzindole, was administered prior to melatonin injection. Pretreatment with luzindole (10 mg/kg, s.c.) did not alter the melatonin-induced effects on the above-mentioned parameters and luzindole, alone, had no observable effect. The present results demonstrate that melatonin decreases the activity of the SRIF receptor-effector system in the rat hippocampus, an effect which is apparently not mediated by melatonin receptors. As SRIF exerts an opposite effect to that of melatonin on hippocampal neuronal activity, it is possible that the SRIFergic system could be implicated in the mechanism of action of melatonin in the rat.
|Effects of subchronic and chronic melatonin treatment on somatostatin binding and its effects on adenylyl cyclase activity in the rat frontoparietal cortex. |
Rosa María Izquierdo-Claros, María del Carmen Boyano-Adánez, Eduardo Arilla-Ferreiro
Journal of pineal research 33 189-97 2002
Melatonin and somatostatin are known to exert similar effects on locomotor activity. We have previously demonstrated that acute melatonin treatment regulates somatostatin receptor function in the rat frontoparietal cortex. However, the effects of subchronic and chronic melatonin treatment on the somatostatin receptor-G protein-adenylyl cyclase system in the rat frontoparietal cortex are unknown. Melatonin was administered subcutaneously at a daily dose of 25 microg/kg for 4 days, 1 wk or 2 wk. Twenty-four hours after the last injection, the animals were sacrificed. Melatonin did not alter the somatostatin-like immunoreactivity content in the frontoparietal cortex from control and melatonin-treated rats during any of the previously indicated periods. Four days of melatonin administration induced both an increase in the number of [(125)I]-Tyr11-somatostatin receptors and a decrease in the affinity of somatostatin for its receptors in frontoparietal cortical membranes. The increased number of somatostatin receptors in the melatonin-treated rats was associated with an increased capacity of somatostatin to inhibit basal and forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity. Melatonin administration for 4 days induced a higher adenylyl cyclase activity both under basal conditions and after direct stimulation of the enzyme with forskolin. No significant differences were observed in the function of Gi proteins in the 4-day melatonin-treated rats. Western blot analyses showed that the 4-day melatonin treatment reduced Gialpha(2) levels, without altering the amount of Gialpha(1). These melatonin-induced changes reverted to control values after 7 or 14 days of treatment. Altogether, the present findings suggest that subchronic melatonin treatment modulates the somatostatin receptor/effector system in the rat frontoparietal cortex.
|Acute modulation of somatostatin receptor function by melatonin in the rat frontoparietal cortex. |
R M Izquierdo-Claros, M C Boyano-Adánez, G Torrecillas, M Rodríguez-Puyol, E Arilla-Ferreiro
Journal of pineal research 31 46-56 2001
Since melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) decreases locomotor activity and rearing and increases grooming behavior in a similar manner as somatostatin (SRIF), we examined if melatonin could induce these changes through somatostatinergic neurotransmission in the rat frontoparietal cortex. Male Wistar rats (200-250 g) received a single injection of melatonin (25 microg/kg per day) subcutaneously (s.c.) and were sacrificed 5 hr later. Melatonin treatment increased the number of 125I-Tyr11-SRIF receptors in frontoparietal cortical membranes without any changes in the dissociation constant (Kd). The capacity of SRIF to inhibit basal and forskolin (FK)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity was increased in melatonin-treated rats as compared to the control animals. Melatonin administration also induced a lower AC activity, both under basal conditions and after stimulation of the enzyme via stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (Gs), or directly with FK. Functional inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding protein (Gi) activity was increased in frontoparietal cortical membranes from melatonin-treated rats when compared to controls. Western blot analyzes showed that melatonin administration did not alter the amount of the Gialpha1, or Gialpha3 subunits, but reduced Gialpha2 levels in frontoparietal cortical membranes. No significant changes in SRIF-like immunoreactivity content and SRIF mRNA levels were detected in this brain area after melatonin treatment. Administration of the melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole (10 mg/kg, s.c.) 30 min before melatonin injection did not change the melatonin-induced effects on the SRIF receptor effector system. In conclusion, the present results show that acute melatonin administration increases the activity of the SRIF receptor effector system and decreases Gialpha2 levels in the rat frontoparietal cortex. In addition, the coupling of Gs to AC is disturbed by melatonin.
|Isolation of two proteins with high affinity for guanine nucleotides from membranes of bovine brain. |
Sternweis, P C and Robishaw, J D
J. Biol. Chem., 259: 13806-13 (1984) 1984
Membranes from bovine brain bind relatively large quantities of guanosine 5'-(3-O-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S) with high affinity. The two proteins responsible for most of this activity were purified; they account for 1.5% of the membrane protein. The two proteins contain alpha subunits of either 39,000 or 41,000 Da, beta subunits of 36,000 or 35,000 Da, and a potential gamma subunit (11,000 Da). These structures are the same as a family of proteins that includes transducin and the regulatory proteins, GS and GI, of adenylate cyclase. The 41,000- and 39,000-Da polypeptides can be ADP-ribosylated with islet-activating protein from Bordetella pertussis, bind guanine nucleotides specifically, and migrate through polyacrylamide gels with rates similar to the alpha subunits of GI and transducin, respectively. The 36,000- and 35,000-Da polypeptides are similar to the beta subunits of GI and GS. The gamma subunit is found whenever beta subunits are present. The 41,000- and 39,000-Da polypeptides (with beta and gamma) are designated, respectively, GI and GO from brain. The alpha subunit of GO was isolated without the use of ligands known to dissociate other G proteins. GO alpha binds GTP gamma S reversibly in the absence of Mg2+ and is relatively stable in cholate. This isolated alpha subunit should be of great utility in elucidating the mechanism of action of this family of GTP-binding proteins.
|Anti-G Protein Gialpha-1, clone R4 - Data Sheet|