Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||IP, WB||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||PBS, pH 7.2|
|Application||Detect Gβ using this Anti-Gβ Antibody validated for use in IP & WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||50 µL|
|Anti-Gbeta - DAM1394785||DAM1394785|
|Anti-Gbeta; - 16509||16509|
|Anti-Gbeta; - 23547||23547|
|Anti-Gbeta; - 32197||32197|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) during hypoxia in cerebral cortical nuclei of guinea pig fetus at term: role of nitric oxide. |
Dev Maulik, Qazi M Ashraf, Om P Mishra, Maria Delivoria-Papadopoulos
Neuroscience letters 439 94-9 2008
Previously we have shown that cerebral tissue hypoxia results in generation of nitric oxide (NO) free radicals as well as increased expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase like extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The present study tested the hypothesis that administration of l-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a NOS inhibitor, prior to hypoxia prevents the hypoxia-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and in the cerebral cortex of the term guinea pig fetus. To test this hypothesis normoxic (Nx, n=6), hypoxic (Hx, n=7) and hypoxic pretreated with l-NAME (Hx+L-NAME, n=6) guinea pig fetuses at 60 days gestation were studied to determine the phosphorylated p38, ERK and JNK. Hypoxia was induced by exposing pregnant guinea pigs to FiO2 of 0.07 for 1h. l-NAME (30mg/kg i.p.) was administered to pregnant mothers 60min prior to hypoxia. Cerebral tissue hypoxia was documented biochemically by determining the tissue levels of ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr). Neuronal nuclei were isolated, purified and proteins separated using 12% SDS-PAGE, and then probed with specific phosphorylated ERK, JNK and p38 antibodies. Protein bands were detected by enhanced chemiluminescence, analyzed by imaging densitometry and expressed as absorbance (ODxmm2). The relative level of p-p38 was 51.41+/-9.80 (Nx), 173.67+/-3.63 (Hx), 58.56+/-3.40 (Hx+L-NAME), p0.05 vs. Hx. The relative level p-ERK was 44.91+/-4.20 (Nx), 135.12+/-17.02 (Hx), 58.37+/-9.5 (Hx+L-NAME), p0.05 vs. Hx. The relative level of p-JNK was 34.86+/-6.77 (Nx), 97.36+/-19.24 (Hx), 46.65+/-12.81 (Hx+L-NAME), p0.05 vs. Hx. The data show that administration of l-NAME prior to hypoxia decreased the relative level of phosphorylated p38, ERK and JNK at term gestation. Since a NOS inhibitor prevented the hypoxia-induced phosphorylation of p38, ERK and JNK, we conclude that the hypoxia-induced activation of p38, ERK and JNK in the cerebral cortical nuclei of guinea pig fetus at term is NO-mediated. We speculate that NO-mediated modification of cysteine residue leading to inhibition of MAP kinase phosphatases results in increased activation of p38, ERK and JNK in the guinea pig fetus at term.
|Parallel regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3) and MKK6 in Gq-signaling cascade. |
Yamauchi, J; Tsujimoto, G; Kaziro, Y; Itoh, H
The Journal of biological chemistry 276 23362-72 2001
Heterotrimeric G protein G(q) stimulates the activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in mammalian cells. To investigate the signaling mechanism whereby alpha and betagamma subunits of G(q) activate p38 MAPK, we introduced kinase-deficient mutants of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3), MKK4, and MKK6 into human embryonal kidney 293 cells. The activation of p38 MAPK by Galpha(q) and Gbetagamma was blocked by kinase-deficient MKK3 and MKK6 but not by kinase-deficient MKK4. In addition, Galpha(q) and Gbetagamma stimulated MKK3 and MKK6 activities. The MKK3 and MKK6 activations by Galpha(q), but not by Gbetagamma, were dependent on phospholipase C and c-Src. Galpha(q) stimulated MKK3 in a Rac- and Cdc42-dependent manner and MKK6 in a Rho-dependent manner. On the other hand, Gbetagamma activated MKK3 in a Rac- and Cdc42-dependent manner and MKK6 in a Rho-, Rac-, and Cdc42-dependent manner. Gbetagamma-induced MKK3 and MKK6 activations were dependent on a tyrosine kinase other than c-Src. These results suggest that Galpha(q) and Gbetagamma stimulate the activity of p38 MAPK by regulating MKK3 and MKK6 through parallel signaling pathways.
|Differential regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) and 7 (MKK7) by signaling from G protein beta gamma subunit in human embryonal kidney 293 cells. |
J Yamauchi, Y Kaziro, H Itoh
The Journal of biological chemistry 274 1957-65 1999
Heterotrimeric G protein beta gamma subunit (Gbeta gamma) mediates signals to two types of stress-activated protein kinases, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, in mammalian cells. To investigate the signaling mechanism whereby Gbeta gamma regulates the activity of JNK, we transfected kinase-deficient mutants of two JNK kinases, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) and 7 (MKK7), into human embryonal kidney 293 cells. Gbeta gamma-induced JNK activation was blocked by kinase-deficient MKK4 and to a lesser extent by kinase-deficient MKK7. Moreover, Gbeta gamma increased MKK4 activity by 6-fold and MKK7 activity by 2-fold. MKK4 activation by Gbeta gamma was blocked by dominant-negative Rho and Cdc42, whereas MKK7 activation was blocked by dominant-negative Rac. In addition, Gbeta gamma-mediated MKK4 activation, but not MKK7 activation, was inhibited completely by specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors PP2 and PP1. These results indicate that Gbeta gamma induces JNK activation mainly through MKK4 activation dependent on Rho, Cdc42, and tyrosine kinase, and to a lesser extent through MKK7 activation dependent on Rac.
|Importance of the G protein gamma subunit in activating G protein-coupled inward rectifier K(+) channels. |
T Kawano, L Chen, S Y Watanabe, J Yamauchi, Y Kaziro, Y Nakajima, S Nakajima, H Itoh
FEBS letters 463 355-9 1999
The G protein-coupled inward rectifier K(+) channel (GIRK) is activated by direct interaction with the heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein betagamma subunits (Gbetagamma). However, the precise role of Gbeta and Ggamma in GIRK activation remains to be elucidated. Using transient expression of GIRK1, GIRK2, Gbeta1, and Ggamma2 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, we show that C-terminal mutants of Gbeta1, which do not bind to Ggamma2, are still able to associate with GIRK, but these mutants are unable to induce activation of GIRK channels. In contrast, other C-terminal mutants of Gbeta1 that bind to Ggamma2, are capable of activating the GIRK channel. These results suggest that Ggamma plays a more important role than that of an anchoring device for the Gbetagamma-induced GIRK activation.
|Regulated exocytosis in chromaffin cells. A potential role for a secretory granule-associated ARF6 protein |
Galas, M. C., et al
J Biol Chem, 272:2788-93 (1997) 1997
|Insulin-induced activation of NADPH-dependent H2O2 generation in human adipocyte plasma membranes is mediated by Galphai2 |
Krieger-Brauer, H. I., et al
J Biol Chem, 272:10135-43 (1997) 1997
|Possible involvement of heterotrimeric G proteins in the organization of the Golgi apparatus |
Yamaguchi, T., et al
J Biol Chem, 272:25260-6 (1997) 1997
|C-terminal mutation of G protein beta subunit affects differentially extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathways in human embryonal kidney 293 cells. |
J Yamauchi, Y Kaziro, H Itoh, J Yamauchi, Y Kaziro, H Itoh
The Journal of biological chemistry 272 7602-7 1997
G protein beta and gamma subunits (Gbeta and Ggamma) form a complex that is involved in various signaling pathways. We reported that the C-terminal 10 amino acids of Gbeta are required for association with Ggamma (Yamauchi, J., Kaziro, Y., and Itoh, H. (1995) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 214, 694-700). To evaluate further the significance of the C-terminal region of Gbeta in the formation of a Gbetagamma complex and its signal transduction, we constructed several C-terminal mutants and expressed them in human embryonal kidney 293 cells. The mutant lacking the C-terminal 2 amino acids (DeltaC2) failed to associate with Ggamma, whereas deletion of the C-terminal amino acid (DeltaC1), replacement of Trp at -2 position by Ala (W339A), and addition of six histidines ((His)6) at the C terminus did not affect the association with Ggamma. We also studied the effect of these mutations on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK). Co-expression of the DeltaC2 or (His)6 mutant with Ggamma did not activate MAPK/ERK at all, whereas the DeltaC1 or W339A mutant showed the MAPK/ERK activation. The JNK/SAPK activity was stimulated by the W339A, DeltaC2, or (His)6 mutant, but not by the DeltaC1 mutant. These results suggest that the C-terminal region of Gbeta participates differentially in the signaling for MAPK/ERK and JNK/SAPK activations in mammalian cells.
|Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase by signaling through G protein-coupled receptors. Involvement of Gbetagamma and Galphaq/11 subunits. |
J Yamauchi, M Nagao, Y Kaziro, H Itoh
The Journal of biological chemistry 272 27771-7 1997
Various extracellular stimuli activate three classes of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs): extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 MAPK. In mammalian cells, p38 MAPK is activated by endotoxins, inflammatory cytokines, and environmental stresses. We show here that p38 MAPK is also activated upon stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors (Gq/G11-coupled m1 and Gi-coupled m2 muscarinic acetylcholine and Gs-coupled beta-adrenergic receptors) in human embryonal kidney 293 cells. The activation of p38 MAPK through the m2 and beta-adrenergic receptors was completely inhibited by coexpression of Galphao, whereas the activation by the m1 receptor was only partially inhibited. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of Gbetagamma or a constitutively activated mutant of Galpha11, but not Galphas and Galphai, can stimulate p38 MAPK. These results suggest that the signal from the m2 and beta-adrenergic receptors to p38 MAPK is mediated by Gbetagamma, whereas the signal from the m1 receptor is mediated by both Gbetagamma and Galphaq/11.