Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||ELISA, ICC, IF, WB||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Mouse monoclonal ascites IgG1κ in buffer containing liquid with no preservatives.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|A high throughput electrochemiluminescence assay for the quantification of frataxin protein levels.|
Hannes Steinkellner,Barbara Scheiber-Mojdehkar,Hans Goldenberg,Brigitte Sturm
Analytica chimica acta 659 2010
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease affecting 1 in 50,000 people and is caused by a GAA-trinucleotide expansion in the frataxin gene located on chromosome locus 9q13 which results in a markedly reduced expression of frataxin, a small mitochondrial protein. The exact function of frataxin is still unknown and currently there is no approved treatment available. In the near future there will be a high demand for measuring frataxin protein levels due to the development of therapeutic strategies for FRDA based on manipulating frataxin expression levels in vivo. In this paper we describe the development of an electrochemiluminescence assay (ECLIA) to measure frataxin protein levels in a 96-well plate format. The ECLIA for frataxin is able to measure human and mouse samples and is highly quantitative, accurate and reproducible, with low intra- and inter-assay error throughout a wide working range. The assay has an excellent precision and provides a new tool for the set up of high-throughput screening for basic research and for clinical studies with FRDA patients.
|Infectious delivery and expression of a 135 kb human FRDA genomic DNA locus complements Friedreich's ataxia deficiency in human cells.|
Gomez-Sebastian, Silvia, et al.
Mol. Ther., 15: 248-54 (2007) 2007
Friedreich's ataxia (FA) is the most common recessive ataxia, affecting 1-2 in 50,000 Caucasians, and there is currently no effective cure or treatment. FA results from a deficiency of the mitochondrial protein frataxin brought about by a repeat expansion in intron 1 of the FRDA gene. The main areas affected are the central nervous system (particularly the spinocerebellar system) and cardiac tissue. Therapies aimed at alleviating the neurological degeneration have proved unsuccessful to date. Here, we describe the construction and delivery of high capacity herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) amplicon vectors expressing the entire 80 kb FRDA genomic locus, driven by the endogenous FRDA promoter and including all introns and flanking regulatory sequences within a 135 kb genomic DNA insert. FA patient primary fibroblasts deficient in frataxin protein and exhibiting sensitivity to oxidative stress were transduced at high efficiency by FRDA genomic locus vectors. Following vector transduction, expression of FRDA protein by immunofluorescence was shown. Finally, functional complementation studies demonstrated restoration of the wild-type cellular phenotype in response to oxidative stress in transduced FA patient cells. These results suggest the potential of the infectious bacterial artificial chromosome-FRDA vectors for gene therapy of FA.
|Extra-mitochondrial localisation of frataxin and its association with IscU1 during enterocyte-like differentiation of the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2|
Acquaviva, Fabio, et al
J Cell Sci, 118:3917-24 (2005) 2005
|Friedreich's ataxia, no changes in mitochondrial labile iron in human lymphoblasts and fibroblasts: a decrease in antioxidative capacity?|
Sturm, Brigitte, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 280: 6701-8 (2005) 2005
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is caused by low expression of frataxin, a small mitochondrial protein. Studies with both yeast and mammals have suggested that decreased frataxin levels lead to elevated intramitochondrial concentrations of labile (chelatable) iron, and consequently to oxidative mitochondrial damage. Here, we used the mitochondrion-selective fluorescent iron indicator/chelator rhodamine B-[(1,10-phenanthrolin-5-yl)aminocarbonyl]benzylester (RPA) to determine the mitochondrial chelatable iron of FRDA patient lymphoblast and fibroblast cell lines, in comparison with age- and sex-matched control cells. No alteration in the concentration of mitochondrial chelatable iron could be observed in patient cells, despite strongly decreased frataxin levels. Uptake studies with (55)Fe-transferrin and iron loading with ferric ammonium citrate revealed no significant differences in transferrin receptor density and iron responsive protein/iron regulatory element binding activity between patients and controls. However, sensitivity to H(2)O(2) was significantly increased in patient cells, and H(2)O(2) toxicity could be completely inhibited by the ubiquitously distributing iron chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl, but not by the mitochondrion-selective chelator RPA. Our data strongly suggest that frataxin deficiency does not affect the mitochondrial labile iron pool or other parameters of cellular iron metabolism and suggest a decreased antioxidative defense against extramitochondrial iron-derived radicals in patient cells. These results challenge current concepts favoring the use of mitochondrion-specific iron chelators and antioxidants to treat FRDA.
|Erythroid differentiation and protoporphyrin IX down-regulate frataxin expression in Friend cells: characterization of frataxin expression compared to molecules involved in iron metabolism and hemoglobinization|
Becker, Erika M, et al
Blood, 99:3813-22 (2002) 2002
|Manganese superoxide dismutase induction by iron is impaired in Friedreich ataxia cells.|
Jiralerspong, S, et al.
FEBS Lett., 509: 101-5 (2001) 2001
Iron-mediated oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathology of the neurodegenerative disease Friedreich ataxia (FRDA). Here, we show that normal upregulation of the stress defense protein manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) fails to occur in FRDA fibroblasts exposed to iron. This impaired induction was observed at iron levels in which increased activation of the redox-sensitive factor NF-kappaB was absent. Furthermore, MnSOD induction could only be partially suppressed by antioxidants. We conclude that an NF-kappaB-independent pathway that may not require free radical signaling is responsible for the reduction of MnSOD induction. This impairment could constitute both a novel defense mechanism against iron-mediated oxidative stress in cells with mitochondrial iron overload and conversely, an alternative source of free radicals that could contribute to the disease pathology.
|Frataxin deficiency enhances apoptosis in cells differentiating into neuroectoderm|
Santos, MM et al
Hum Mole Genetics, 10(8):1935-1944 (2001) 2001
|Maturation of wild-type and mutated frataxin by the mitochondrial processing peptidase.|
Koutnikova, H, et al.
Hum. Mol. Genet., 7: 1485-9 (1998) 1998
Frataxin is a mitochondrial protein deficient in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) and which is associated with abnormal intramitochondrial iron handling. We identified the mitochondrial processing peptidase beta (MPPbeta) as a frataxin protein partner using the yeast two-hybrid assay. In in vitro assays, MPPbeta binds frataxin which is cleaved by the reconstituted MPP heterodimer. MPP cleavage of frataxin results in an intermediate form (amino acids 41-210) that is processed further to the mature form. In vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that two C-terminal missense mutations found in FRDA patients modulate interaction with MPPbeta, resulting in a slower maturation process at the normal cleavage site. The slower processing rate of frataxin carrying such missense mutations may therefore contribute to frataxin deficiency, in addition to an impairment of its function.
|Anti-Frataxin, exon 4, clone 1G2 - Data Sheet|