Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Description||Anti-Fluorescent Gold Antibody|
|Presentation||Rabbit Serum. Liquid. Contains no preservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
References | 79 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Norepinephrine activates dopamine D4 receptors in the rat lateral habenula. |
Root, DH; Hoffman, AF; Good, CH; Zhang, S; Gigante, E; Lupica, CR; Morales, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 3460-9 2015
The lateral habenula (LHb) is involved in reward and aversion and is reciprocally connected with dopamine (DA)-containing brain regions, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We used a multidisciplinary approach to examine the properties of DA afferents to the LHb in the rat. We find that greater than 90% of VTA tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neurons projecting to the LHb lack vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) mRNA, and there is little coexpression of TH and VMAT2 protein in this mesohabenular pathway. Consistent with this, electrical stimulation of LHb did not evoke DA-like signals, assessed with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. However, electrophysiological currents that were inhibited by L741,742, a DA-D4-receptor antagonist, were observed in LHb neurons when DA uptake or degradation was blocked. To prevent DA activation of D4 receptors, we repeated this experiment in LHb slices from DA-depleted rats. However, this did not disrupt D4 receptor activation initiated by the dopamine transporter inhibitor, GBR12935. As the LHb is also targeted by noradrenergic afferents, we examined whether GBR12935 activation of DA-D4 receptors occurred in slices depleted of norepinephrine (NE). Unlike DA, NE depletion prevented the activation of DA-D4 receptors. Moreover, direct application of NE elicited currents in LHb neurons that were blocked by L741,742, and GBR12935 was found to be a more effective blocker of NE uptake than the NE-selective transport inhibitor nisoxetine. These findings demonstrate that NE is released in the rat LHb under basal conditions and that it activates DA-D4 receptors. Therefore, NE may be an important regulator of LHb function.
|A glutamatergic reward input from the dorsal raphe to ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. |
Qi, J; Zhang, S; Wang, HL; Wang, H; de Jesus Aceves Buendia, J; Hoffman, AF; Lupica, CR; Seal, RP; Morales, M
Nature communications 5 5390 2014
Electrical stimulation of the dorsal raphe (DR) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) activates the fibres of the same reward pathway but the phenotype of this pathway and the direction of the reward-relevant fibres have not been determined. Here we report rewarding effects following activation of a DR-originating pathway consisting of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGluT3) containing neurons that form asymmetric synapses onto VTA dopamine neurons that project to nucleus accumbens. Optogenetic VTA activation of this projection elicits AMPA-mediated synaptic excitatory currents in VTA mesoaccumbens dopaminergic neurons and causes dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Activation also reinforces instrumental behaviour and establishes conditioned place preferences. These findings indicate that the DR-VGluT3 pathway to VTA utilizes glutamate as a neurotransmitter and is a substrate linking the DR-one of the most sensitive reward sites in the brain--to VTA dopaminergic neurons.
|Calbindin content and differential vulnerability of midbrain efferent dopaminergic neurons in macaques. |
Dopeso-Reyes, IG; Rico, AJ; Roda, E; Sierra, S; Pignataro, D; Lanz, M; Sucunza, D; Chang-Azancot, L; Lanciego, JL
Frontiers in neuroanatomy 8 146 2014
Calbindin (CB) is a calcium binding protein reported to protect dopaminergic neurons from degeneration. Although a direct link between CB content and differential vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons has long been accepted, factors other than CB have also been suggested, particularly those related to the dopamine transporter. Indeed, several studies have reported that CB levels are not causally related to the differential vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons against neurotoxins. Here we have used dual stains for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and CB in 3 control and 3 MPTP-treated monkeys to visualize dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and in the dorsal and ventral tiers of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNcd and SNcv) co-expressing TH and CB. In control animals, the highest percentages of co-localization were found in VTA (58.2%), followed by neurons located in the SNcd (34.7%). As expected, SNcv neurons lacked CB expression. In MPTP-treated animals, the percentage of CB-ir/TH-ir neurons in the VTA was similar to control monkeys (62.1%), whereas most of the few surviving neurons in the SNcd were CB-ir/TH-ir (88.6%). Next, we have elucidated the presence of CB within identified nigrostriatal and nigroextrastriatal midbrain dopaminergic projection neurons. For this purpose, two control monkeys received one injection of Fluoro-Gold into the caudate nucleus and one injection of cholera toxin (CTB) into the postcommissural putamen, whereas two more monkeys were injected with CTB into the internal division of the globus pallidus (GPi). As expected, all the nigrocaudate- and nigroputamen-projecting neurons were TH-ir, although surprisingly, all of these nigrostriatal-projecting neurons were negative for CB. Furthermore, all the nigropallidal-projecting neurons co-expressed both TH and CB. In summary, although CB-ir dopaminergic neurons seem to be less prone to MPTP-induced degeneration, our data clearly demonstrated that these neurons are not giving rise to nigrostriatal projections and indeed CB-ir/TH-ir neurons only originate nigroextrastriatal projections.
|Postsynaptic potentiation of corticospinal projecting neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex after nerve injury. |
Chen, T; Koga, K; Descalzi, G; Qiu, S; Wang, J; Zhang, LS; Zhang, ZJ; He, XB; Qin, X; Xu, FQ; Hu, J; Wei, F; Huganir, RL; Li, YQ; Zhuo, M
Molecular pain 10 33 2014
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is the key cellular mechanism for physiological learning and pathological chronic pain. In the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), postsynaptic recruitment or modification of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluA1 contribute to the expression of LTP. Here we report that pyramidal cells in the deep layers of the ACC send direct descending projecting terminals to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (lamina I-III). After peripheral nerve injury, these projection cells are activated, and postsynaptic excitatory responses of these descending projecting neurons were significantly enhanced. Newly recruited AMPARs contribute to the potentiated synaptic transmission of cingulate neurons. PKA-dependent phosphorylation of GluA1 is important, since enhanced synaptic transmission was abolished in GluA1 phosphorylation site serine-845 mutant mice. Our findings provide strong evidence that peripheral nerve injury induce long-term enhancement of cortical-spinal projecting cells in the ACC. Direct top-down projection system provides rapid and profound modulation of spinal sensory transmission, including painful information. Inhibiting cortical top-down descending facilitation may serve as a novel target for treating neuropathic pain.
|Projection neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway. |
Holstein, GR; Friedrich, VL; Martinelli, GP
The Journal of comparative neurology 522 2053-74 2014
Changes in head position and posture are detected by the vestibular system and are normally followed by rapid modifications in blood pressure. These compensatory adjustments, which allow humans to stand up without fainting, are mediated by integration of vestibular system pathways with blood pressure control centers in the ventrolateral medulla. Orthostatic hypotension can reflect altered activity of this neural circuitry. Vestibular sensory input to the vestibulo-sympathetic pathway terminates on cells in the vestibular nuclear complex, which in turn project to brainstem sites involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity, including the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medullary regions (RVLM and CVLM, respectively). In the present study, sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation was used to activate this pathway, and activated neurons were identified through detection of c-Fos protein. The retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold was injected into the RVLM or CVLM of these animals, and immunofluorescence studies of vestibular neurons were conducted to visualize c-Fos protein and Fluoro-Gold concomitantly. We observed activated projection neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway in the caudal half of the spinal, medial, and parvocellular medial vestibular nuclei. Approximately two-thirds of the cells were ipsilateral to Fluoro-Gold injection sites in both the RVLM and CVLM, and the remainder were contralateral. As a group, cells projecting to the RVLM were located slightly rostral to those with terminals in the CVLM. Individual activated projection neurons were multipolar, globular, or fusiform in shape. This study provides the first direct demonstration of the central vestibular neurons that mediate the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex.
|Hypocretin1/orexinA-immunoreactive axons form few synaptic contacts on rat ventral tegmental area neurons that project to the medial prefrontal cortex. |
Del Cid-Pellitero, E; Garzón, M
BMC neuroscience 15 105 2014
Hypocretins/orexins (Hcrt/Ox) are hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in sleep-wakefulness regulation. Deficiency in Hcrt/Ox neurotransmission results in the sleep disorder narcolepsy, which is characterized by an inability to maintain wakefulness. The Hcrt/Ox neurons are maximally active during wakefulness and project widely to the ventral tegmental area (VTA). A dopamine-containing nucleus projecting extensively to the cerebral cortex, the VTA enhances wakefulness. In the present study, we used retrograde tracing from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to examine whether Hcrt1/OxA neurons target VTA neurons that could sustain behavioral wakefulness through their projections to mPFC.The retrograde tracer Fluorogold (FG) was injected into mPFC and, after an optimal survival period, sections through the VTA were processed for dual immunolabeling of anti-FG and either anti-Hcrt1/OxA or anti-TH antisera. Most VTA neurons projecting to the mPFC were located in the parabrachial nucleus of the ipsilateral VTA and were non-dopaminergic. Only axonal profiles showed Hcrt1/OxA-immunoreactivity in VTA. Hcrt1/OxA reactivity was observed in axonal boutons and many unmyelinated axons. The Hcrt1/OxA immunoreactivity was found filling axons but it was also observed in parts of the cytoplasm and dense-core vesicles. Hcrt1/OxA-labeled boutons frequently apposed FG-immunolabeled dendrites. However, Hcrt1/OxA-labeled boutons rarely established synapses, which, when they were established, were mainly asymmetric (excitatory-type), with either FG-labeled or unlabeled dendrites.Our results provide ultrastructural evidence that Hcrt1/OxA neurons may exert a direct synaptic influence on mesocortical neurons that would facilitate arousal and wakefulness. The paucity of synapses, however, suggest that the activity of VTA neurons with cortical projections might also be modulated by Hcrt1/OxA non-synaptic actions. In addition, Hcrt1/OxA could modulate the postsynaptic excitatory responses of VTA neurons with cortical projections to a co-released excitatory transmitter from Hcrt1/OxA axons. Our observation of Hcrt1/OxA targeting of mesocortical neurons supports Hcrt1/OxA wakefulness enhancement in the VTA and could help explain the characteristic hypersomnia present in narcoleptic patients.
|Cross-inhibition of NMBR and GRPR signaling maintains normal histaminergic itch transmission. |
Zhao, ZQ; Wan, L; Liu, XY; Huo, FQ; Li, H; Barry, DM; Krieger, S; Kim, S; Liu, ZC; Xu, J; Rogers, BE; Li, YQ; Chen, ZF
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 12402-14 2014
We previously showed that gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in the spinal cord is important for mediating nonhistaminergic itch. Neuromedin B receptor (NMBR), the second member of the mammalian bombesin receptor family, is expressed in a largely nonoverlapping pattern with GRPR in the superficial spinal cord, and its role in itch transmission remains unclear. Here, we report that Nmbr knock-out (KO) mice exhibited normal scratching behavior in response to intradermal injection of pruritogens. However, mice lacking both Nmbr and Grpr (DKO mice) showed significant deficits in histaminergic itch. In contrast, the chloroquine (CQ)-evoked scratching behavior of DKO mice is not further reduced compared with Grpr KO mice. These results suggest that NMBR and GRPR could compensate for the loss of each other to maintain normal histamine-evoked itch, whereas GRPR is exclusively required for CQ-evoked scratching behavior. Interestingly, GRPR activity is enhanced in Nmbr KO mice despite the lack of upregulation of Grpr expression; so is NMBR in Grpr KO mice. We found that NMB acts exclusively through NMBR for itch transmission, whereas GRP can signal through both receptors, albeit to NMBR to a much lesser extent. Although NMBR and NMBR(+) neurons are dispensable for histaminergic itch, GRPR(+) neurons are likely to act downstream of NMBR(+) neurons to integrate NMB-NMBR-encoded histaminergic itch information in normal physiological conditions. Together, we define the respective function of NMBR and GRPR in itch transmission, and reveal an unexpected relationship not only between the two receptors but also between the two populations of interneurons in itch signaling.
|Characterization of A11 neurons projecting to the spinal cord of mice. |
Koblinger, K; Füzesi, T; Ejdrygiewicz, J; Krajacic, A; Bains, JS; Whelan, PJ
PloS one 9 e109636 2014
The hypothalamic A11 region has been identified in several species including rats, mice, cats, monkeys, zebrafish, and humans as the primary source of descending dopamine (DA) to the spinal cord. It has been implicated in the control of pain, modulation of the spinal locomotor network, restless leg syndrome, and cataplexy, yet the A11 cell group remains an understudied dopaminergic (DAergic) nucleus within the brain. It is unclear whether A11 neurons in the mouse contain the full complement of enzymes consistent with traditional DA neuronal phenotypes. Given the abundance of mouse genetic models and tools available to interrogate specific neural circuits and behavior, it is critical first to fully understand the phenotype of A11 cells. We provide evidence that, in addition to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) that synthesizes L-DOPA, neurons within the A11 region of the mouse contain aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), the enzyme that converts L-DOPA to dopamine. Furthermore, we show that the A11 neurons contain vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), which is necessary for packaging DA into vesicles. On the contrary, A11 neurons in the mouse lack the dopamine transporter (DAT). In conclusion, our data suggest that A11 neurons are DAergic. The lack of DAT, and therefore the lack of a DA reuptake mechanism, points to a longer time of action compared to typical DA neurons.
|On lateral septum-like characteristics of outputs from the accumbal hedonic "hotspot" of Peciña and Berridge with commentary on the transitional nature of basal forebrain "boundaries". |
Zahm, DS; Parsley, KP; Schwartz, ZM; Cheng, AY
The Journal of comparative neurology 521 50-68 2013
Peciña and Berridge (2005; J Neurosci 25:11777-11786) observed that an injection of the μ-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO (D-ala(2) -N-Me-Phe(4) -Glycol(5) -enkephalin) into the rostrodorsal part of the accumbens shell (rdAcbSh) enhances expression of hedonic "liking" responses to the taste of an appetitive sucrose solution. Insofar as the connections of this hedonic "hotspot" were not singled out for special attention in the earlier neuroanatomical literature, we undertook to examine them. We observed that the patterns of inputs and outputs of the rdAcbSh are not qualitatively different from those of the rest of the Acb, except that outputs from the rdAcbSh to the lateral preoptic area and anterior and lateral hypothalamic areas are anomalously robust and overlap extensively with those of the lateral septum. We also detected reciprocal interconnections between the rdAcbSh and lateral septum. Whether and how these connections subserve hedonic impact remains to be learned, but these observations lead us to hypothesize that the rdAcbSh represents a basal forebrain transition area, in the sense that it is invaded by neurons of the lateral septum, or possibly transitional neuronal forms sharing properties of both structures. We note that the proposed transition zone between lateral septum and rdAcbSh would be but one of many in the basal forebrain and conclude by reiterating the longstanding argument that the transitional nature of such boundary areas has functional importance, of which the precise nature will remain elusive until the neurophysiological and neuropharmacological implications of such zones of transition are more generally acknowledged and better addressed.
|Bilateral descending hypothalamic projections to the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats. |
Abdallah, K; Artola, A; Monconduit, L; Dallel, R; Luccarini, P
PloS one 8 e73022 2013
Several lines of evidence suggest that the hypothalamus is involved in trigeminal pain processing. However, the organization of descending hypothalamic projections to the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Sp5C) remains poorly understood. Microinjections of the retrograde tracer, fluorogold (FG), into the Sp5C, in rats, reveal that five hypothalamic nuclei project to the Sp5C: the paraventricular nucleus, the lateral hypothalamic area, the perifornical hypothalamic area, the A11 nucleus and the retrochiasmatic area. Descending hypothalamic projections to the Sp5C are bilateral, except those from the paraventricular nucleus which exhibit a clear ipsilateral predominance. Moreover, the density of retrogradely FG-labeled neurons in the hypothalamus varies according to the dorso-ventral localization of the Sp5C injection site. There are much more labeled neurons after injections into the ventrolateral part of the Sp5C (where ophthalmic afferents project) than after injections into its dorsomedial or intermediate parts (where mandibular and maxillary afferents, respectively, project). These results demonstrate that the organization of descending hypothalamic projections to the spinal dorsal horn and Sp5C are different. Whereas the former are ipsilateral, the latter are bilateral. Moreover, hypothalamic projections to the Sp5C display somatotopy, suggesting that these projections are preferentially involved in the processing of meningeal and cutaneous inputs from the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve in rats. Therefore, our results suggest that the control of trigeminal and spinal dorsal horn processing of nociceptive information by hypothalamic neurons is different and raise the question of the role of bilateral, rather than unilateral, hypothalamic control.
|Neuroanatomy of melanocortin-4 receptor pathway in the lateral hypothalamic area. |
Cui, H; Sohn, JW; Gautron, L; Funahashi, H; Williams, KW; Elmquist, JK; Lutter, M
The Journal of comparative neurology 520 4168-83 2012
The central melanocortin system regulates body energy homeostasis including the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) receives dense melanocortinergic inputs from the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and regulates multiple processes including food intake, reward behaviors, and autonomic function. By using a mouse line in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) is expressed under control of the MC4R gene promoter, we systemically investigated MC4R signaling in the LHA by combining double immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, and retrograde tracing techniques. We found that LHA MC4R-GFP neurons coexpress neurotensin as well as the leptin receptor but do not coexpress other peptide neurotransmitters found in the LHA including orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, and nesfatin-1. Furthermore, electrophysiological recording demonstrated that leptin, but not the MC4R agonist melanotan II, hyperpolarizes the majority of LHA MC4R-GFP neurons in an ATP- sensitive potassium channel-dependent manner. Retrograde tracing revealed that LHA MC4R-GFP neurons do not project to the ventral tegmental area, dorsal raphe nucleus, nucleus accumbens, and spinal cord, and only limited number of neurons project to the nucleus of the solitary tract and parabrachial nucleus. Our findings provide new insights into MC4R signaling in the LHA and its potential implications in homeostatic regulation of body energy balance.
|Neurochemical properties of the synapses in the pathways of orofacial nociceptive reflexes. |
Dong, YL; Wang, W; Li, H; Li, ZH; Zhang, FX; Zhang, T; Lu, YC; Li, JL; Wu, SX; Li, YQ
PloS one 7 e34435 2012
The brainstem premotor neurons of the facial nucleus (VII) and hypoglossal (XII) nucleus can integrate orofacial nociceptive input from the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vc) and coordinate orofacial nociceptive reflex (ONR) responses. However, the synaptoarchitectures of the ONR pathways are still unknown. In the current study, we examined the distribution of GABAergic premotor neurons in the brainstem local ONR pathways, their connections with the Vc projections joining the brainstem ONR pathways and the neurochemical properties of these connections. Retrograde tracer fluoro-gold (FG) was injected into the VII or XII, and anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the Vc. Immunofluorescence histochemical labeling for inhibitory/excitatory neurotransmitters combined with BDA/FG tracing showed that GABAergic premotor neurons were mainly distributed bilaterally in the ponto-medullary reticular formation with an ipsilateral dominance. Some GABAergic premotor neurons made close appositions to the BDA-labeled fibers coming from the Vc, and these appostions were mainly distributed in the parvicellular reticular formation (PCRt), dorsal medullary reticular formation (MdD), and supratrigeminal nucleus (Vsup). We further examined the synaptic relationships between the Vc projecting fibers and premotor neurons in the VII or XII under the confocal laser-scanning microscope and electron microscope, and found that the BDA-labeled axonal terminals that made asymmetric synapses on premotor neurons showed vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2) like immunoreactivity. These results indicate that the GABAergic premotor neurons receive excitatory neurotransmission from the Vc and may contribute to modulating the generation of the tonic ONR.
|Mesopontine rostromedial tegmental nucleus neurons projecting to the dorsal raphe and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus: psychostimulant-elicited Fos expression and collateralization. |
Lavezzi, HN; Parsley, KP; Zahm, DS
Brain structure & function 217 719-34 2012
The mesopontine rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) is a GABAergic structure in the ventral midbrain and rostral pons that, when activated, inhibits dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra compacta. Additional strong outputs from the RMTg to the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus pars dissipata, dorsal raphe nucleus, and the pontomedullary gigantocellular reticular formation were identified by anterograde tracing. RMTg neurons projecting to the ventral tegmental area express the immediate early gene Fos upon psychostimulant administration. The present study was undertaken to determine if neurons in the RMTg that project to the additional structures listed above also express Fos upon psychostimulant administration and, if so, whether single neurons in the RMTg project to more than one of these structures. We found that about 50% of RMTg neurons exhibiting retrograde labeling after injections of retrograde tracer in the dorsal raphe or pars dissipata of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus express Fos after acute methamphetamine exposure. Also, we observed that a significant number of RMTg neurons project both to the ventral tegmental area and one of these structures. In contrast, methamphetamine-elicited Fos expression was not observed in RMTg neurons labeled with retrograde tracer following injections into the pontomedullary reticular formation. The findings suggest that the RMTg is an integrative modulator of multiple rostrally projecting structures.
|Psychostimulants act within the prefrontal cortex to improve cognitive function. |
Spencer, RC; Klein, RM; Berridge, CW
Biological psychiatry 72 221-7 2012
At low and clinically relevant doses, psychostimulants enhance cognitive and behavioral function dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and extended frontostriatal circuitry. These actions are observed in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, as well as in normal human and animal subjects. Despite the widespread use of these drugs, the sites of action involved in their cognition-enhancing and therapeutic effects are poorly understood. Indirect and/or correlative evidence suggests the cognition-enhancing/therapeutic effects of psychostimulants may involve actions directly within the PFC or extended frontostriatal circuitry. The current studies examined the degree to which methylphenidate (MPH) (Ritalin) acts within distinct frontostriatal subfields to improve PFC-dependent cognition as measured in a delayed-response test of spatial working memory.Working memory performance was assessed following microinfusion of vehicle or varying doses of MPH (.03-8.0 μg/500 nL) directly into the dorsomedial PFC (dorsal prelimbic and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex), the ventromedial PFC (infralimbic), and the dorsomedial striatum of rats (n = 69).Methylphenidate infusion into the dorsomedial PFC, but not ventromedial PFC, elicited an inverted U-shaped facilitation of PFC-dependent cognition as measured in this task. The magnitude of this improvement was comparable with that seen with systemic administration. Additional studies demonstrated that although the dorsomedial striatum is necessary for accurate performance in this task, MPH infusion into this region did not affect working memory performance.These observations provide the first definitive evidence that the PFC is a site of action in the cognition-enhancing and presumably therapeutic actions of low-dose psychostimulants.
|Intermittent social defeat stress enhances mesocorticolimbic ΔFosB/BDNF co-expression and persistently activates corticotegmental neurons: implication for vulnerability to psychostimulants. |
E M Nikulina,M J Lacagnina,S Fanous,J Wang,R P Hammer
Neuroscience 212 2012
Intermittent social defeat stress exposure augments behavioral response to psychostimulants in a process termed cross-sensitization. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediates synaptic plasticity and cellular responses to stress and drugs of abuse. We previously showed that repeated social defeat stress persistently alters BDNF and activates ΔFosB expression in mesocorticolimbic regions. Here, we hypothesized that social defeat stress would increase ΔFosB expression in BDNF-containing mesocorticolimbic neurons at a time when cross-sensitization is evident. Because the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is critical for cross-sensitization, we similarly hypothesized that repeated social defeat stress would induce ΔFosB in neurons of mesocorticolimbic terminal regions that innervate the VTA. We induced social defeat stress in rats by short confrontations with an aggressive resident rat every third day for 10 days. Control rats were handled according to the same schedule. Defeated rats exhibited sensitized locomotor response to amphetamine (1.0mg/kg, i.p.) 10 days after termination of stress exposure. Separate rats, which underwent stress procedures without amphetamine challenge, were used for histological assessments. Rats received intra-VTA infusion of the retrograde tracer, Fluorogold (FG), and brain tissue was collected 10 days after stress or handling for immunohistochemistry. Stress exposure increased BDNF immunoreactivity in anterior cingulate, prelimbic and infralimbic regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), medial amygdala (AMY), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and VTA; ΔFosB labeling in anterior cingulate cortex (ACG) and nucleus accumbens; and ΔFosB/BDNF co-expression in prelimbic cortex (PL), nucleus accumbens and medial amygdala. Infralimbic ΔFosB-labeling was enhanced by stress in neurons innervating the VTA. Increased ΔFosB/BDNF co-expression and persistent functional activation of corticolimbic neurons after stress may contribute to mechanisms underlying cross-sensitization to psychostimulants.
|Somatotopic direct projections from orofacial areas of secondary somatosensory cortex to trigeminal sensory nuclear complex in rats. |
T Haque,F Akhter,T Kato,F Sato,R Takeda,K Higashiyama,M Moritani,Y-C Bae,B J Sessle,A Yoshida
Neuroscience 219 2012
Little is known about the projections from the orofacial areas of the secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) to the pons and medulla including the second-order somatosensory neuron pools. To address this in rats, we first examined the distribution of S2 neurons projecting to the trigeminal principal nucleus (Vp) or oral subnucleus (Vo) of the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex (TSNC) after injections of a retrograde tracer, Fluorogold (FG), into five regions in the Vp/Vo which were responsive to stimulation of trigeminal nerves innervating the orofacial tissues. A large number of FG-labeled neurons were found with a somatotopic arrangement in the dorsal areas of S2 (orofacial S2 area). This somatotopic arrangement in the orofacial S2 area was shown to closely match that of the orofacial afferent inputs by recording cortical surface potentials evoked by stimulation of the trigeminal nerves. We then examined the morphology of descending projections from these electrophysiologically defined areas of the orofacial S2 to the pons and medulla after injections of an anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextranamine (BDA), into the areas. A large number of BDA-labeled axon fibers and terminals were seen only in some of the second-order somatosensory neuron pools, most notably in the contralateral TSNC, although the labeled terminals were not seen in certain rostrocaudal levels of the contralateral TSNC including the rostrocaudal middle level of the trigeminal interpolar subnucleus. The projections to the TSNC showed somatotopic arrangements in dorsoventral, superficial-deep and rostrocaudal directions. The somatotopic arrangements in the Vp/Vo closely matched those of the electrophysiologically defined central projection sites of the orofacial trigeminal afferents in the TSNC. The present results suggest that the orofacial S2 projects selectively to certain rostrocaudal levels of the contralateral TSNC, and the projections may allow the orofacial S2 to accurately modulate orofacial somatosensory transmission to higher brain centers including the orofacial S2 itself.
|Role of projections from ventral medial prefrontal cortex to nucleus accumbens shell in context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. |
Bossert, JM; Stern, AL; Theberge, FR; Marchant, NJ; Wang, HL; Morales, M; Shaham, Y
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 4982-91 2012
In humans, exposure to contexts previously associated with heroin use can provoke relapse. In rats, exposure to heroin-paired contexts after extinction of drug-reinforced responding in different contexts reinstates heroin seeking. This effect is attenuated by inhibition of glutamate or dopamine transmission in nucleus accumbens shell, or inactivation of ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here, we used an anatomical asymmetrical disconnection procedure to demonstrate that an interaction between glutamatergic projections from ventral mPFC to accumbens shell and local dopamine D(1) postsynaptic receptors contributes to context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. We also combined the marker of neuronal activity, Fos, with the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold to assess activation in this pathway during context-induced reinstatement. Rats were trained to self-administer heroin for 12 d; drug infusions were paired with a discrete tone-light cue. Lever pressing was subsequently extinguished in a nondrug-associated context in the presence of the discrete cue. Rats were then tested in the heroin- or extinction-associated contexts under extinction conditions. Injections of muscimol + baclofen into ventral mPFC in one hemisphere and D(1)-family receptor antagonist SCH 23390 into the contralateral or ipsilateral accumbens shell decreased context-induced reinstatement. Unilateral injections of muscimol + baclofen into ventral mPFC or SCH 23390 into the accumbens shell had no effect. Context-induced reinstatement was associated with increased Fos expression in ventral mPFC neurons, including those projecting to accumbens shell, with higher double-labeling in the ipsilateral projection than in the contralateral projection. Our results demonstrate that activation of glutamatergic projections from ventral mPFC to accumbens shell, previously implicated in inhibition of cocaine relapse, promotes heroin relapse.
|Terminal field specificity of forebrain efferent axons to the pontine parabrachial nucleus and medullary reticular formation. |
Zhang, C; Kang, Y; Lundy, RF
Brain research 1368 108-18 2011
The pontine parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and medullary reticular formation (RF) are hindbrain regions that, respectively, process sensory input and coordinate motor output related to ingestive behavior. Neural processing in each hindbrain site is subject to modulation originating from several forebrain structures including the insular gustatory cortex (IC), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and lateral hypothalamus (LH). The present study combined electrophysiology and retrograde tracing techniques to determine the extent of overlap between neurons within the IC, BNST, CeA and LH that target both the PBN and RF. One fluorescent retrograde tracer, red (RFB) or green (GFB) latex microbeads, was injected into the gustatory PBN under electrophysiological guidance and a different retrograde tracer, GFB or fluorogold (FG), into the ipsilateral RF using the location of gustatory NST as a point of reference. Brain tissue containing each forebrain region was sectioned, scanned using a confocal microscope, and scored for the number of single and double labeled neurons. Neurons innervating the RF only, the PBN only, or both the medullary RF and PBN were observed, largely intermingled, in each forebrain region. The CeA contained the largest number of cells retrogradely labeled after tracer injection into either hindbrain region. For each forebrain area except the IC, the origin of descending input to the RF and PBN was almost entirely ipsilateral. Axons from a small percentage of hindbrain projecting forebrain neurons targeted both the PBN and RF. Target specific and non-specific inputs from a variety of forebrain nuclei to the hindbrain likely reflect functional specialization in the control of ingestive behaviors.
|Nociceptive afferents to the premotor neurons that send axons simultaneously to the facial and hypoglossal motoneurons by means of axon collaterals. |
Dong, Y; Li, J; Zhang, F; Li, Y
PloS one 6 e25615 2011
It is well known that the brainstem premotor neurons of the facial nucleus and hypoglossal nucleus coordinate orofacial nociceptive reflex (ONR) responses. However, whether the brainstem PNs receive the nociceptive projection directly from the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus is still kept unclear. Our present study focuses on the distribution of premotor neurons in the ONR pathways of rats and the collateral projection of the premotor neurons which are involved in the brainstem local pathways of the orofacial nociceptive reflexes of rat. Retrograde tracer Fluoro-gold (FG) or FG/tetramethylrhodamine-dextran amine (TMR-DA) were injected into the VII or/and XII, and anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vc). The tracing studies indicated that FG-labeled neurons receiving BDA-labeled fibers from the Vc were mainly distributed bilaterally in the parvicellular reticular formation (PCRt), dorsal and ventral medullary reticular formation (MdD, MdV), supratrigeminal nucleus (Vsup) and parabrachial nucleus (PBN) with an ipsilateral dominance. Some FG/TMR-DA double-labeled premotor neurons, which were observed bilaterally in the PCRt, MdD, dorsal part of the MdV, peri-motor nucleus regions, contacted with BDA-labeled axonal terminals and expressed c-fos protein-like immunoreactivity which induced by subcutaneous injection of formalin into the lip. After retrograde tracer wheat germ agglutinated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) was injected into VII or XII and BDA into Vc, electron microscopic study revealed that some BDA-labeled axonal terminals made mainly asymmetric synapses on the dendritic and somatic profiles of WGA-HRP-labeled premotor neurons. These data indicate that some premotor neurons could integrate the orofacial nociceptive input from the Vc and transfer these signals simultaneously to different brainstem motonuclei by axonal collaterals.Full Text Article
|Inputs to the midbrain dopaminergic complex in the rat, with emphasis on extended amygdala-recipient sectors. |
Daniel S Zahm,Anita Y Cheng,Tristan J Lee,Comeron W Ghobadi,Zachary M Schwartz,Stefanie Geisler,Kenneth P Parsely,Clemens Gruber,Ruediger W Veh
The Journal of comparative neurology 519 2011
The midbrain dopaminergic neuronal groups A8, A9, A10, and A10dc occupy, respectively, the retrorubral field (RRF), substantia nigra compacta (SNc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (PAGvl). Collectively, these structures give rise to a mixed dopaminergic and nondopaminergic projection system that essentially permits adaptive behavior. However, knowledge is incomplete regarding how the afferents of these structures are organized. Although the VTA is known to receive numerous afferents from cortex, basal forebrain, and brainstem and the SNc is widely perceived as receiving inputs mainly from the striatum, the afferents of the RRF and PAGvl have yet to be assessed comprehensively. This study was performed to provide an account of those connections and to seek a better understanding of how afferents might contribute to the functional interrelatedness of the VTA, SNc, RRF, and PAGvl. Ventral midbrain structures received injections of retrograde tracer, and the resulting retrogradely labeled structures were targeted with injections of anterogradely transported Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin. Whereas all injections of retrograde tracer into the VTA, SNc, RRF, or PAGvl produced labeling in many structures extending from the cortex to caudal brainstem, pronounced labeling of structures making up the central division of the extended amygdala occurred following injections that involved the RRF and PAGvl. The anterograde tracing supported this finding, and the combination of retrograde and anterograde labeling data also confirmed reports from other groups indicating that the SNc receives robust input from many of the same structures that innervate the VTA, RRF, and PAGvl.
|Hypocretin1/OrexinA axon targeting of laterodorsal tegmental nucleus neurons projecting to the rat medial prefrontal cortex. |
Cid-Pellitero, Ed; Garzón, M
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 21 2762-73 2011
Cortical activation and goal-directed behaviors characterize wakefulness. One cortical region especially involved in these phenomena is the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which receives many inputs from cholinergic-containing neurons in brain stem structures implicated in arousal and wakefulness, such as the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT). Hypocretins/orexins (Hcrt/Ox), whose dysfunction is linked to narcolepsy, maintains arousal and stabilizes sleep-wakefulness states. We aim to determine if Hcrt1/OxA axons (1) innervate LDT neurons projecting to the mPFC, a target that would allow them to sustain arousal and wakefulness, and (2) target preferentially cholinergic versus noncholinergic LDT neurons. The retrograde tracer Fluorogold (FG) was injected in the rat mPFC, and dual immunolabeling of anti-FG and either anti-choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or anti-Hcrt1/OxA antisera was determined in LDT. Also, actual Hcrt1/OxA targeting of cholinergic LDT neurons was ascertained by dual anti-Hcrt1/OxA and anti-ChAT detection in additional noninjected animals. Many LDT FG-labeled neurons were cholinergic (52.05 ± 3.72%). Hcrt1/OxA immunoprecipitate was observed in cytoplasm and granular vesicles within axons. Some Hcrt1/OxA-containing axons established asymmetric excitatory-type synapses with either unlabeled (46/438) or FG-labeled (7/438) dendrites. One-third of the target neurons were ChAT labeled. Hcrt1/OxA excitatory input to LDT neurons projecting to mPFC probably contributes to the wakefulness-enhancing actions of Hcrt/Ox impaired in narcoleptics.
|Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues modulates the mouse hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via paraventricular glutamatergic neurons. |
Dimitrov, E; Usdin, TB
The Journal of comparative neurology 518 4375-94 2010
Neurons in the subparafascicular area at the caudal border of the thalamus that contain the neuropeptide tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) densely innervate several hypothalamic areas, including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These areas contain a matching distribution of TIP39's receptor, the parathyroid hormone receptor 2 (PTH2R). Frequent PTH2R coexpression with a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGlut2) suggests that TIP39 could presynaptically regulate glutamate release. By using immunohistochemistry we found CRH-ir neurons surrounded by PTH2R-ir fibers and TIP39-ir axonal projections in the PVN area of the mouse brain. Labeling hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurons by peripheral injection of fluorogold in PTH2R-lacZ knock-in mice showed that most PTH2Rs are on PVN and peri-PVN interneurons and not on neuroendocrine cells. Double fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed a high level of coexpression between PTH2R and VGlut2 mRNA by cells located in the PVN and nearby brain areas. Local TIP39 infusion (100 pmol) robustly increased pCREB-ir in the PVN and adjacent perinuclear zone. It also increased plasma corticosterone and decreased plasma prolactin. These effects of TIP39 on pCREB-ir, corticosterone, and prolactin were abolished by coinfusion of the ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and DL-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5; 30 pmol each) and were absent in PTH2R knockout mice. Basal plasma corticosterone was slightly decreased in TIP39 knockout mice just before onset of their active phase. The present data indicate that the TIP39 ligand/PTH2 receptor system provides facilitatory regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via hypothalamic glutamatergic neurons and that it may regulate other neuroendocrine systems by a similar mechanism.
|Origins of Glutamatergic Terminals in the Inferior Colliculus Identified by Retrograde Transport and Expression of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 Genes. |
Ito, T; Oliver, DL
Frontiers in neuroanatomy 4 135 2010
Terminals containing vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 2 make dense axosomatic synapses on tectothalamic GABAergic neurons. These are one of the three types of glutamatergic synapses in the inferior colliculus (IC) identified by one of three combinations of transporter protein: VGLUT1 only, VGLUT2 only, or both VGLUT1 and 2. To identify the source(s) of these three classes of glutamatergic terminals, we employed the injection of Fluorogold (FG) into the IC and retrograde transport in combination with in situ hybridization for VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 mRNA. The distribution of FG-positive soma was consistent with previous reports. In the auditory cortex, all FG-positive cells expressed only VGLUT1. In the IC, the majority of FG-positive cells expressed only VGLUT2. In the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, most FG-positive cells expressed VGLUT2, and a few FG-positive cells expressed both VGLUT1 and 2. In the superior olivary complex (SOC), the majority of FG-positive cells expressing VGLUT2 were in the lateral superior olive, medial superior olive, and some periolivary nuclei. Fewer FG-positive cells expressed VGLUT1&2. In the ventral cochlear nucleus, almost all FG-positive cells expressed VGLUT1&2. On the other hand in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the vast majority of FG-positive cells expressed only VGLUT2. Our data suggest that (1) the most likely sources of VGLUT2 terminals in the IC are the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the medial and lateral superior olive, and the IC itself, (2) VGLUT1 terminals in the IC originate only in the ipsilateral auditory cortex, and (3) VGLUT1&2 terminals in IC originate mainly from the VCN with minor contributions from the SOC and the lateral lemniscal nuclei.
|Postnatal Sim1 deficiency causes hyperphagic obesity and reduced Mc4r and oxytocin expression. |
Tolson, KP; Gemelli, T; Gautron, L; Elmquist, JK; Zinn, AR; Kublaoui, BM
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 3803-12 2010
Single-minded 1 (SIM1) mutations are one of the few known causes of nonsyndromic monogenic obesity in both humans and mice. Although the role of Sim1 in the formation of the hypothalamus has been described, its postdevelopmental, physiological functions have not been well established. Here we demonstrate that postnatal CNS deficiency of Sim1 is sufficient to cause hyperphagic obesity. We conditionally deleted Sim1 after birth using CaMKII-Cre (alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-Cre) lines to recombine a floxed Sim1 allele. Conditional Sim1 heterozygotes phenocopied germ line Sim1 heterozygotes, displaying hyperphagic obesity and increased length. We also generated viable conditional Sim1 homozygotes, demonstrating that adult Sim1 expression is not essential for mouse or neuron survival and revealing a dosage-dependent effect of Sim1 on obesity. Using stereological cell counting, we showed that the phenotype of both germ line heterozygotes and conditional Sim1 homozygotes was not attributable to global hypocellularity of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. We also used retrograde tract tracing to demonstrate that the PVN of germ line heterozygous mice projects normally to the dorsal vagal complex and the median eminence. Finally, we showed that conditional Sim1 homozygotes and germ line Sim1 heterozygotes exhibit a remarkable decrease in hypothalamic oxytocin (Oxt) and PVN melanocortin 4 receptor (Mc4r) mRNA. These results demonstrate that the role of Sim1 in feeding regulation is not limited to formation of the PVN or its projections and that the hyperphagic obesity in Sim1-deficient mice may be attributable to changes in the leptin-melanocortin-oxytocin pathway.
|Oxytocin-dopamine interactions mediate variations in maternal behavior in the rat. |
Shahrokh, DK; Zhang, TY; Diorio, J; Gratton, A; Meaney, MJ
Endocrinology 151 2276-86 2010
Variations in maternal behavior among lactating rats associate with differences in estrogen-oxytocin interactions in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and in dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (nAcc). Thus, stable, individual differences in pup licking/grooming (LG) are abolished by oxytocin receptor blockade or treatments that eliminate differences in the nAcc dopamine signal. We provide novel evidence for a direct effect of oxytocin at the level of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the regulation of nAcc dopamine levels. Mothers that exhibit consistently increased pup LG (i.e. high LG mothers) by comparison with low LG mothers show increased oxytocin expression in the mPOA and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and increased projections of oxytocin-positive cells from both mPOA and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus to the VTA. Direct infusion of oxytocin into the VTA increased the dopamine signal in the nAcc. Finally, high compared with low LG mothers show greater increases in dopamine signal in the nAcc during bouts of pup LG, and this difference is abolished with infusions of an oxytocin receptor antagonist directly into the VTA. These studies reveal a direct effect of oxytocin on dopamine release within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system and are consistent with previous reports of oxytocin-dopamine interactions in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds.
|Estradiol-17beta-responsive A1 and A2 noradrenergic cells of the brain stem project to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the ewe brain: a possible route for regulation of gonadotropin releasing hormone cells. |
A Pereira,J Rawson,A Jakubowska,I J Clarke
Neuroscience 165 2010
We have studied brain stem cells in the ewe brain that project to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and determined if these cells are activated by estradiol-17beta. This would predicate an indirect role in the estradiol-17beta regulation of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) cells, since these receive input from the BNST. Ovariectomized ewes received 50 mug estradiol-17beta benzoate (i.m.) 1 h prior to brain collection, so that activated cells could be identified by Fos immunohistochemistry. Retrograde tracer (FluoroGold; FG), was injected into the three divisions of the BNST and labeled cells were mapped to the A1 and A2 regions and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) of the brain stem. With FG injection into the dorsal and lateral BNST, all FG-containing cells in the caudal A1 and 45% of those in A2 stained for dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH), indicating noradrenergic type. No FG-labelled cells in the PBN were DBH-positive. In A1 and A2 respectively, 42% and 46% of FG-labelled cells were Fos-positive, with no double-labeling in cells of the PBN. In ewes receiving FG injections into the ventral BNST, estrogen receptor (ER)alpha-immunoreactive nuclei were found in 82% of A1-FG labeled and 38% of A2-FG labeled cells. No FG-labelled cells of the PBN were ERalpha-positive. Anterograde tracing from A1 with microruby injection identified projections to the PBN, BNST and preoptic area (POA). Thus, A1 and A2 noradrenergic neurons project to the BNST in the ewe brain, express ERalpha and are activated by estradiol-17beta. These noradrenergic, estrogen-responsive cells may provide indirect input to GnRH cells, via the BNST.
|Molecular identity of periglomerular and short axon cells. |
Emi Kiyokage,Yu-Zhen Pan,Zuoyi Shao,Kazuto Kobayashi,Gabor Szabo,Yuchio Yanagawa,Kunihiko Obata,Hideyuki Okano,Kazunori Toida,Adam C Puche,Michael T Shipley
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 2010
Within glomeruli, the initial sites of synaptic integration in the olfactory pathway, olfactory sensory axons terminate on dendrites of projection and juxtaglomerular (JG) neurons. JG cells form at least two major circuits: the classic intraglomerular circuit consisting of external tufted (ET) and periglomerular (PG) cells and an interglomerular circuit comprised of the long-range connections of short axon (SA) cells. We examined the projections and the synaptic inputs of identified JG cell chemotypes using mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the promoter for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 kDa, 67 kDa, or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Virtually all (97%) TH+ cells are also GAD67+ and are thus DAergic-GABAergic neurons. Using a combination of retrograde tracing, whole-cell patch-clamp recording, and single-cell three-dimensional reconstruction, we show that different JG cell chemotypes contribute to distinct microcircuits within or between glomeruli. GAD65+ GABAergic PG cells ramify principally within one glomerulus and participate in uniglomerular circuits. DAergic-GABAergic cells have extensive interglomerular projections. DAergic-GABAergic SA cells comprise two subgroups. One subpopulation contacts 5-12 glomeruli and is referred to as oligoglomerular. Approximately one-third of these oligoglomerular DAergic SA cells receive direct olfactory nerve (ON) synaptic input, and the remaining two-thirds receive input via a disynaptic ON-->ET-->SA circuit. The second population of DAergic-GABAergic SA cells also disynaptic ON input and connect tens to hundreds of glomeruli in an extensive polyglomerular network. Although DAergic JG cells have traditionally been considered PG cells, their interglomerular connections argue that they are more appropriately classified as SA cells.
|Implication of lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 activity on oxLDL uptake by macrophages. |
Markakis KP, Koropouli MK, Grammenou-Savvoglou S, van Winden EC, Dimitriou AA, Demopoulos CA, Tselepis AD, Kotsifaki EE
J Lipid Res 2010
Recognition and uptake of oxLDL by scavenger receptors of macrophages and foam cell formation are mediated by the oxidatively modified ApoB and lipid moiety of oxLDL. A great amount of oxidized phosphatidylcholine (oxPC) of oxLDL is hydrolyzed at the sn-2 position by lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) to lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) and small oxidation products. This study examines the involvement of Lp-PLA2 in the uptake of oxLDL by mouse peritoneal macrophages. LDL with intact Lp-PLA2 activity [LDL (+)] and LDL with completely inhibited Lp-PLA2 activity [LDL (-)] were subjected to oxidation with 5muM CuSO4 for 6h (moderately oxidized LDL, MoxLDL), or 24h (heavily oxidized LDL, HoxLDL) and peritoneal macrophages were incubated with these preparations. The uptake of MoxLDL(-) was about 30% increased, compared to that of MoxLDL(+) while HoxLDL(-) uptake was about 20% increased, compared to that of HoxLDL(+). Inhibition of Lp-PLA2 activity had no effect on the uptake of ApoB-liposomes conjugates with ApoB isolated from MoxLDL(-), MoxLDL(+), HoxLDL(-) and HoxLDL(+). Liposomes prepared from the lipid extract of MoxLDL(-), MoxLDL(+), HoxLDL(-) and HoxLDL(+) exhibited a similar pattern to that observed in the uptake of the corresponding intact lipoproteins. This study suggests that the progressive inactivation of Lp-PLA2 during LDL oxidation leads to an increased uptake of oxLDL by macrophages, which could be primarily attributed to the increased uptake of the oxidized phospholipids enriched lipid moiety of oxLDL.
|Urocortin 2 increases c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons projecting to the ventricular/periventricular system. |
Hale MW, Stamper CE, Staub DR, Lowry CA
Exp Neurol 2010
Serotonin plays an important role in the regulation of anxiety states and physiological responses to aversive stimuli. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of the stress- and anxiety-related neuropeptide urocortin 2 (Ucn 2) increases c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons in the dorsal (DRD) and caudal (DRC) parts of the dorsal raphe nucleus. These regions contain a subset of serotonergic neurons that projects via the dorsal raphe periventricular tract to periventricular structures, including the subfornical organ and ependymal layer, and to the ventricular system. To determine if Ucn 2 activates ventricle/periventricular-projecting serotonergic neurons in the midbrain raphe complex, we made i.c.v. injections of the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold into the lateral ventricle, followed 7days later by i.c.v. injection of Ucn 2. The DRD at -8.18mm and the DRC at -8.54mm and -9.16mm bregma were analyzed using a combined bright field and immunofluorescence technique. Approximately 40% of the ventricle/periventricular-projecting neurons in the subdivisions sampled were serotonergic. Urocortin 2 increased c-Fos expression in ventricle/periventricular-projecting serotonergic neurons in the DRC and in non-ventricle/periventricular-projecting serotonergic neurons in the DRD and DRC. Of the total population of ventricle/periventricular-projecting serotonergic neurons in the DRC at -8.54 and -9.16mm bregma, 35% expressed c-Fos following Ucn 2 injections. These data are consistent with previous studies showing that i.c.v. injection of Ucn 2 activates subpopulations of serotonergic neurons restricted to the mid-rostrocaudal DRD and DRC and further demonstrate that these include both subsets of serotonergic neurons that do and do not project to the ventricle/periventricular system. Published by Elsevier Inc.
|gamma-Aminobutyric acid cells with cocaine-induced DeltaFosB in the ventral tegmental area innervate mesolimbic neurons. |
Kaufling, Jennifer, et al.
Biol. Psychiatry, 67: 88-92 (2010) 2010
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor DeltaFosB is implicated in the plasticity induced by drugs of abuse. We showed that psychostimulants induce DeltaFosB in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) cells of a caudal subregion of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) that was named tail of the VTA (tVTA). Although tVTA mostly shares VTA inputs, its outputs remain to be characterized. METHODS: The tVTA efferents were studied by iontophoretic injections of the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). To further study VTA inputs arising from tVTA, injections of the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold were combined with multiple labeling by immunohistochemistry in rats treated with cocaine. Indirect projections from the tVTA to the nucleus accumbens were assessed with a double-tracing approach, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) being delivered in the nucleus accumbens and BDA in the tVTA. RESULTS: Tract-tracing studies showed that tVTA heavily projects to the midbrain dopaminergic system and revealed terminal appositions with dopamine cells in the VTA. Double-labeling studies demonstrated that this tVTA output is mostly GABAergic, includes cells in which cocaine exposure induces DeltaFosB, and displays appositions to dopamine cells projecting to the nucleus accumbens. CONCLUSIONS: The GABA neurons expressing DeltaFosB in the tVTA after cocaine exposure project to the dopamine mesolimbic neurons.
|Distribution of hypophysiotropic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-synthesizing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of the mouse. |
Andrea Kádár,Edith Sánchez,Gábor Wittmann,Praful S Singru,Tamás Füzesi,Alessandro Marsili,P Reed Larsen,Zsolt Liposits,Ronald M Lechan,Csaba Fekete
The Journal of comparative neurology 518 2010
Hypophysiotropic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neurons, the central regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, are located in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in a partly overlapping distribution with non-hypophysiotropic TRH neurons. The distribution of hypophysiotropic TRH neurons in the rat PVN is well understood, but the localization of these neurons is unknown in mice. To determine the distribution and phenotype of hypophysiotropic TRH neurons in mice, double- and triple-labeling experiments were performed on sections of intact mice, and mice treated intravenously and intraperitoneally with the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold. TRH neurons were located in all parts of the PVN except the periventricular zone. Hypophysiotropic TRH neurons were observed only at the mid-level of the PVN, primarily in the compact part. In this part of the PVN, TRH neurons were intermingled with oxytocin and vasopressin neurons, but based on their size, the TRH neurons were parvocellular and did not contain magnocellular neuropeptides. Co-localization of TRH and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) were observed only in areas where hypophysiotropic TRH neurons were located. In accordance with the morphological observations, hypothyroidism increased TRH mRNA content of neurons only at the mid-level of the PVN. These data demonstrate that the distribution of hypophysiotropic TRH neurons in mice is vastly different from the pattern in rats, with a dominant occurrence of these neurosecretory cells in the compact part and adjacent regions at the mid-level of the PVN. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the organization of the PVN is markedly different in mice and rats.Full Text Article
|The central amygdala projection to the substantia nigra reflects prediction error information in appetitive conditioning. |
Lee, HJ; Gallagher, M; Holland, PC
Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.) 17 531-8 2010
The central amygdala nucleus (CeA) plays a critical role in cognitive processes beyond fear conditioning. For example, intact CeA function is essential for enhancing attention to conditioned stimuli (CSs). Furthermore, this enhanced attention depends on the CeA's connections to the nigrostriatal system. In the current study, we examined the role of the CeA's connections to two midbrain dopamine regions, the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), in processing CS information when predictions of reward or nonreward were confirmed or disconfirmed. Initially, two different retrograde tracers were injected into the SNc and the VTA of rats, to label CeA cells. Different groups of rats then received a visual CS either paired or unpaired with food. Finally, Fos induction was assessed after a test session in which rats were exposed to the visual CS alone or paired with food. Colabeling of Fos and the retrograde tracer(s) showed that CeA neurons projecting to the SNc, but not to the VTA, were engaged in processing CS information when the training and testing conditions differed. These results suggest that the CeA-nigral pathway represents prediction error information during appetitive conditioning.Full Text Article
|Regulation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone-expressing neurons in paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus by signals of adiposity. |
Ghamari-Langroudi, M; Vella, KR; Srisai, D; Sugrue, ML; Hollenberg, AN; Cone, RD
Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 24 2366-81 2010
Fasting-induced suppression of thyroid hormone levels is an adaptive response to reduce energy expenditure in both humans and mice. This suppression is mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis through a reduction in TRH levels expressed in neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). TRH gene expression is positively regulated by leptin. Whereas decreased leptin levels during fasting lead to a reduction in TRH gene expression, the mechanisms underlying this process are still unclear. Indeed, evidence exists that TRH neurons in the PVN are targeted by leptin indirectly via the arcuate nucleus, whereas correlative evidence for a direct action exists as well. Here we provide both in vivo and in vitro evidence that the activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is regulated by both direct and indirect leptin regulation. We show that both leptin and α-MSH induce significant neuronal activity mediated through a postsynaptic mechanism in TRH-expressing neurons of PVN. Furthermore, we provide in vivo evidence indicating the contribution of each pathway in maintaining serum levels of thyroid hormone.
|Dax1 Up-Regulates Oct4 Expression in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells via LRH-1 and SRA. |
Kelly VR, Xu B, Kuick R, Koenig RJ, Hammer GD
Mol Endocrinol 2010
Dax1 (Nr0b1) is an atypical orphan nuclear receptor that has recently been shown to play a role in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell pluripotency. Here we describe a mechanism by which Dax1 maintains pluripotency. In steroidogenic cells, Dax1 protein interacts with the NR5A nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (Nr5a1) to inhibit transcription of target genes. In mES cells, liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1, Nr5a2), the other NR5A family member, is expressed, and LRH-1 has been shown to interact with Dax1. We demonstrate by coimmunoprecipitation that Dax1 is, indeed, able to form a complex with LRH-1 in mES cells. Because Dax1 was historically characterized as an inhibitor of steroidogenic factor 1-mediated transcriptional activation, we hypothesized that Dax1 would inhibit LRH-1 action in mES cells. Therefore, we examined the effect of Dax1 on the LRH-1-mediated activation of the critical ES cell factor Oct4 (Pou5f1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation localized Dax1 to the Oct4 promoter at the LRH-1 binding site, and luciferase assays together with Dax1 overexpression and knockdown experiments revealed that, rather than repress, Dax1 accentuated LRH-1-mediated activation of the Oct4 gene. Similar to our previously published studies that defined the RNA coactivator steroid receptor RNA activator as the critical mediator of Dax1 coactivation function, Dax1 augmentation of LRH-1-mediated Oct4 activation is dependent upon steroid receptor RNA activator. Finally, utilizing published chromatin immunoprecipitation data of whole-genome binding sites of LRH-1 and Dax1, we show that LRH-1 and Dax1 commonly colocalize at 288 genes (43% of LRH-1 target genes), many of which are involved in mES cell pluripotency. Thus, our results indicate that Dax1 plays an important role in the maintenance of pluripotency in mES cells through interaction with LRH-1 and transcriptional activation of Oct4 and other genes.
|Abcg2 transports and transfers heme to albumin through its large extracellular loop. |
Desuzinges-Mandon E, Arnaud O, Martinez L, Huche F, Di Pietro A, Falson P
J Biol Chem 2010
ABCG2 is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter preferentially expressed by immature human hemato-poietic progenitors. Due to its role in drug resistance, its expression has been correlated to a protection role against protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) accumulation in stem cells under hypoxic conditions. We show here that zinc mesoporphyrin (ZnMP), a validated fluorescent heme analog, is transported by ABCG2. We also show that the ABCG2 large extracellular loop ECL3 constitutes a porphyrin-binding domain, which strongly interacts with heme, hemin, PPIX, ZnPPIX, CoPPIX and much less efficiently with pheophorbide a, but not with vitamin B12. Kd values are in the range 0.5-3.5 muM, with heme displaying the highest affinity. Non-porphyrin substrates of ABCG2, such as mitoxantrone, doxo/daunorubicin and riboflavin, do not bind to ECL3. Single-point mutations H583A and C603A inside ECL3 prevent the binding of hemin but hardly affect that of iron-free PPIX. The extracellular location of ECL3 downstream from the transport sites suggests that, after membrane trans-location, hemin is transferred to ECL3, which is strategically positioned to release the bound porphyrin to extracellular partners. We show here that human serum albumin could be one of these possible partners as it removes hemin bound to ECL3 and interacts with ABCG2, with a Kd of about 3 muM.
|Two classes of GABAergic neurons in the inferior colliculus. |
Ito T, Bishop DC, Oliver DL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 29 13860-9 2009
The inferior colliculus (IC) is unique, having both glutamatergic and GABAergic projections ascending to the thalamus. Although subpopulations of GABAergic neurons in the IC have been proposed, criteria to distinguish them have been elusive and specific types have not been associated with specific neural circuits. Recently, the largest IC neurons were found to be recipients of somatic terminals containing vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2). Here, we show with electron microscopy that VGLUT2-positive (VGLUT2(+)) axonal terminals make axosomatic synapses on IC neurons. These terminals contain only VGLUT2 even though others in the IC have VGLUT1 or both VGLUT1 and 2. We demonstrate that there are two types of GABAergic neurons: larger neurons with VGLUT2(+) axosomatic endings and smaller neurons without such endings. Both types are present in all subdivisions of the IC, but larger GABAergic neurons with VGLUT2(+) axosomatic terminals are most prevalent in the central nucleus. The GABAergic tectothalamic neurons consist almost entirely of the larger cells surrounded by VGLUT2(+) axosomatic endings. Thus, two types of GABAergic neurons in the IC are defined by different synaptic organization and neuronal connections. Larger tectothalamic GABAergic neurons are covered with glutamatergic axosomatic synapses that could allow them to fire rapidly and overcome a slow membrane time constant; their axons-05-be the largest in the brachium of the IC. Thus, large GABAergic neurons could deliver IPSPs to the medial geniculate body before EPSPs from glutamatergic IC neurons firing simultaneously.Full Text Article
|Terminal field specificity of forebrain efferent axons to brainstem gustatory nuclei. |
Kang, Y; Lundy, RF
Brain research 1248 76-85 2009
Rostral forebrain structures like the gustatory cortex (GC), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and lateral hypothalamus (LH) send projections to the nucleus of solitary tract (NST) and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) that modulate taste-elicited responses. However, the proportion of forebrain-induced excitatory and inhibitory effects often differs when taste cell recording changes from the NST to the PBN. The present study investigated whether this descending influence originates from a shared or distinct population of forebrain neurons. Under electrophysiological guidance, the retrograde tracers fast blue (FB) and fluorogold (FG) or green (GFB) and red (RFB) fluorescent latex microbeads were injected iontophoretically or by pressure pulses (10 ms at 20 psi) into the taste-responsive regions of the NST and the ipsilateral PBN in six rats. Seven days later, the animals were euthanized and tissue sections containing the LH, CeA, BNST, and GC were processed for co-localization of FB and FG or GFB and RFB. The results showed that the CeA is the major source of input to the NST (82.3+/-7.6 cells/section) and the PBN (76.7+/-11.5), compared to the BNST (31.8+/-4.5; 37.0+/-4.8), the LH (35.0+/-5.4; 33.6+/-5.7), and the GC (27.5+/-4.0; 29.0+/-4.6). Of the total number of retrogradely labeled cells, the incidence of tracer co-localization was 17+/-3% in the GC, 17+/-2% in the CeA, 15+/-3% in the BNST and 16+/-1% in the LH. Thus, irrespective of forebrain source the majority of descending input to the gustatory NST and PBN originates from distinct neuronal populations. This arrangement provides an anatomical substrate for differential modulation of taste processing in the first and second central relays of the ascending gustatory system.
|Commissural neurons in the rat ventral cochlear nucleus. |
Doucet, JR; Lenihan, NM; May, BJ
Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology : JARO 10 269-80 2009
Commissural neurons connect the cochlear nucleus complexes of both ears. Previous studies have suggested that the neurons may be separated into two anatomical subtypes on the basis of percent apposition (PA); that is, the percentage of the soma apposed by synaptic terminals. The present study combined tract tracing with synaptic immunolabeling to compare the soma area, relative number, and location of Type I (low PA) and Type II (high PA) commissural neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of rats. Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that 261 of 377 (69%) commissural neurons have medium-sized somata with Type I axosomatic innervation. The commissural neurons also showed distinct topographical distributions. The majority of Type I neurons were located in the small cell cap of the VCN, which serves as a nexus for regulatory pathways within the auditory brainstem. Most Type II neurons were found in the magnocellular core. This anatomical dichotomy should broaden current views on the function of the commissural pathway that stress the fast inhibitory interactions generated by Type II neurons. The more prevalent Type I neurons may underlie slow regulatory influences that enhance binaural processing or the recovery of function after injury.
|Sex differences in the activation of the spinoparabrachial circuit by visceral pain. |
Murphy, AZ; Suckow, SK; Johns, M; Traub, RJ
Physiology & behavior 97 205-12 2009
Women are more sensitive to most noxious visceral stimuli, both in terms of intensity and frequency. The spinoparabrachial (spino-PBn) pathway is an essential neural circuit for the central relay of viscerosensitive information, but studies characterizing the anatomical and physiological characteristics of this pathway have only been conducted in males. Sex differences in the anatomical and/or physiological organization of the spino-PBn may contribute to the sexually dimorphic incidence rate for visceral pain syndromes. Retrograde labeling and colorectal distention (CRD) induced Fos expression was used to delineate the spino-PBn circuit in male and cycling female Sprague-Dawley rats. The ability of morphine to suppress CRD evoked responses was also examined. Neurons retrogradely labeled from the PBn were localized primarily within the superficial dorsal horn and sacral parasympathetic nucleus of the L5-S1 spinal cord. While no sex differences were noted in either the distribution of spino-PBn neurons or in CRD-induced Fos expression, significantly greater Fos expression was noted specifically in spino-PBn neurons in males compared to females. Morphine selectively attenuated Fos expression in spino-PBn neurons in males, but not females. Subsequent anatomical studies showed significantly reduced mu opioid receptor protein levels and radioligand binding within the PBn of females in comparison to males. Together, these data indicate that there are profound sex differences in how a noxious visceral stimulus and opiates engage the spino-PBn pathway, which may account for the observed clinical differences in visceral pain sensitivity and morphine antinociception.
|Embryonic substantia nigra grafts in the mesencephalon send neurites to the host striatum in non-human primate after overexpression of GDNF. |
Redmond, DE; Elsworth, JD; Roth, RH; Leranth, C; Collier, TJ; Blanchard, B; Bjugstad, KB; Samulski, RJ; Aebischer, P; Sladek, JR
The Journal of comparative neurology 515 31-40 2009
In spite of partial success in treating Parkinson's disease by using ectopically placed grafts of dopamine-producing cells, restoration of the original neuroanatomical circuits, if possible, might work better. Previous evidence of normal anatomic projections from ventral mesencephalic (VM) grafts placed in the substantia nigra (SN) has been limited to neonatal rodents and double grafting or bridging procedures. This study attempted to determine whether injection of a potent growth-promoting factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), into the target regions or placement of fetal striatal co-grafts in the nigrostriatal pathway might elicit neuritic outgrowth to the caudate nucleus. Four adult St. Kitts green monkeys received embryonic VM grafts into the rostral mesencephalon near the host SN, and injections of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2)/GDNF or equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)/GDNF into the caudate. Three adult monkeys were co-grafted with fetal VM tissue near the SN and fetal striatal grafts (STR) 2.5 mm rostral in the nigrostriatal pathway. Before sacrifice, the striatal target regions were injected with the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG). FG label was found in tyrosine hydroxylase-labeled neurons in VM grafts in the SN of only those monkeys that received AAV2/GDNF vector injections into the ipsilateral striatum. All monkeys showed FG labeling in the host SN when FG labeling was injected on the same side. These data show that grafted dopaminergic neurons can extend neurites to a distant target releasing an elevated concentration of GDNF, and suggest that grafted neurons can be placed into appropriate loci for potential tract reconstruction.
|Colocalization of connexin 36 and corticotropin-releasing hormone in the mouse brain. |
Westberg, L; Sawa, E; Wang, AY; Gunaydin, LA; Ribeiro, AC; Pfaff, DW
BMC neuroscience 10 41 2009
Gap junction proteins, connexins, are expressed in most endocrine and exocrine glands in the body and are at least in some glands crucial for the hormonal secretion. To what extent connexins are expressed in neurons releasing hormones or neuropeptides from or within the central nervous system is, however, unknown. Previous studies provide indirect evidence for gap junction coupling between subsets of neuropeptide-containing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Here we employ double labeling and retrograde tracing methods to investigate to what extent neuroendocrine and neuropeptide-containing neurons of the hypothalamus and brainstem express the neuronal gap junction protein connexin 36.Western blot analysis showed that connexin 36 is expressed in the PVN. In bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice, which specifically express the reporter gene Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) under the control of the connexin 36 gene promoter, EGFP expression was detected in magnocellular (neuroendocrine) and in parvocellular neurons of the PVN. Although no EGFP/connexin36 expression was seen in neurons containing oxytocin or vasopressin, EGFP/connexin36 was found in subsets of PVN neurons containing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and in somatostatin neurons located along the third ventricle. Moreover, CRH neurons in brainstem areas, including the lateral parabrachial nucleus, also expressed EGFP/connexin 36.Our data indicate that connexin 36 is expressed in subsets of neuroendocrine and CRH neurons in specific nuclei of the hypothalamus and brainstem.
|Characterization of the oxytocin system regulating affiliative behavior in female prairie voles. |
Ross, HE; Cole, CD; Smith, Y; Neumann, ID; Landgraf, R; Murphy, AZ; Young, LJ
Neuroscience 162 892-903 2009
Oxytocin regulates partner preference formation and alloparental behavior in the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) by activating oxytocin receptors in the nucleus accumbens of females. Mating facilitates partner preference formation, and oxytocin-immunoreactive fibers in the nucleus accumbens have been described in prairie voles. However, there has been no direct evidence of oxytocin release in the nucleus accumbens during sociosexual interactions, and the origin of the oxytocin fibers is unknown. Here we show for the first time that extracellular concentrations of oxytocin are increased in the nucleus accumbens of female prairie vole during unrestricted interactions with a male. We further show that the distribution of oxytocin-immunoreactive fibers in the nucleus accumbens is conserved in voles, mice and rats, despite remarkable species differences in oxytocin receptor binding in the region. Using a combination of site-specific and peripheral infusions of the retrograde tracer Fluorogold, we demonstrate that the nucleus accumbens oxytocin-immunoreactive fibers likely originate from paraventricular and supraoptic hypothalamic neurons. This distribution of retrogradely labeled neurons is consistent with the hypothesis that striatal oxytocin fibers arise from collaterals of magnocellular neurons of the neurohypophysial system. If correct, this may serve to coordinate peripheral and central release of oxytocin with appropriate behavioral responses associated with reproduction, including pair bonding after mating, and maternal responsiveness following parturition and during lactation.
|Mouse HORMAD1 and HORMAD2, two conserved meiotic chromosomal proteins, are depleted from synapsed chromosome axes with the help of TRIP13 AAA-ATPase. |
Wojtasz, L; Daniel, K; Roig, I; Bolcun-Filas, E; Xu, H; Boonsanay, V; Eckmann, CR; Cooke, HJ; Jasin, M; Keeney, S; McKay, MJ; Toth, A
PLoS genetics 5 e1000702 2009
Meiotic crossovers are produced when programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired by recombination from homologous chromosomes (homologues). In a wide variety of organisms, meiotic HORMA-domain proteins are required to direct DSB repair towards homologues. This inter-homologue bias is required for efficient homology search, homologue alignment, and crossover formation. HORMA-domain proteins are also implicated in other processes related to crossover formation, including DSB formation, inhibition of promiscuous formation of the synaptonemal complex (SC), and the meiotic prophase checkpoint that monitors both DSB processing and SCs. We examined the behavior of two previously uncharacterized meiosis-specific mouse HORMA-domain proteins--HORMAD1 and HORMAD2--in wild-type mice and in mutants defective in DSB processing or SC formation. HORMADs are preferentially associated with unsynapsed chromosome axes throughout meiotic prophase. We observe a strong negative correlation between SC formation and presence of HORMADs on axes, and a positive correlation between the presumptive sites of high checkpoint-kinase ATR activity and hyper-accumulation of HORMADs on axes. HORMADs are not depleted from chromosomes in mutants that lack SCs. In contrast, DSB formation and DSB repair are not absolutely required for depletion of HORMADs from synapsed axes. A simple interpretation of these findings is that SC formation directly or indirectly promotes depletion of HORMADs from chromosome axes. We also find that TRIP13 protein is required for reciprocal distribution of HORMADs and the SYCP1/SC-component along chromosome axes. Similarities in mouse and budding yeast meiosis suggest that TRIP13/Pch2 proteins have a conserved role in establishing mutually exclusive HORMAD-rich and synapsed chromatin domains in both mouse and yeast. Taken together, our observations raise the possibility that involvement of meiotic HORMA-domain proteins in the regulation of homologue interactions is conserved in mammals.
|Expression of leptin receptor by glial cells of the nucleus tractus solitarius: possible involvement in energy homeostasis. |
M Dallaporta, E Pecchi, J Pio, A Jean, K C Horner, J D Troadec, M Dallaporta, E Pecchi, J Pio, A Jean, K C Horner, J D Troadec, M Dallaporta, E Pecchi, J Pio, A Jean, K C Horner, J D Troadec
Journal of neuroendocrinology 21 57-67 2009
Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, regulates food intake and body weight by acting principally on the hypothalamus, which displays the highest expression of leptin receptor (Ob-R). Nevertheless, other regions of the brain express Ob-R and constitute leptin's target sites. The dorsal vagal complex (DVC), an integrative centre of autonomic functions located in the caudal brainstem, is one of these structures. Leptin, by acting through the DVC, affects autonomic and neuroendocrine functions, such as control of food intake and gastric motility. In the present study, we observed Ob-R labelling within the DVC in cells that correspond to neuronal cell bodies. We showed for the first time Ob-R expression in a subpopulation of glial fibrillary acid protein positive cells located at the border between the area postrema and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). These glial cells exhibit an atypical morphology consisting of unbranched processes that radiate rostro-caudally from the fourth ventricle wall. In vitro, the glial cells exhibited both long and short Ob-R expression with a preferential expression of the Ob-Ra and-f isoforms. Interestingly, using i.v and i.c.v. injection of the fluorescent tracer hydroxystilbamidine, we provided evidence that these cells may constitute a diffusion barrier which might regulate entry of molecules into the NTS. Finally, modulation of energy status, by acute or chronic reduction of food intake, modulated especially the short Ob-R isoforms in the DVC. In the light of these results, we hypothesise that Ob-R positive glial cells of the DVC participate in the transport of leptin into the brainstem and thus contribute to regulation of energy homeostasis.
|Afferents to the GABAergic tail of the ventral tegmental area in the rat. |
Kaufling, Jennifer, et al.
J. Comp. Neurol., 513: 597-621 (2009) 2009
We previously showed that chronic psychostimulant exposure induces the transcription factor DeltaFosB in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons of the caudal tier of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). This subregion was defined as the tail of the VTA (tVTA). In the present study, we showed that tVTA can also be visualized by analyzing FosB/DeltaFosB response following acute cocaine injection. This induction occurs in GABAergic neurons, as identified by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) expression. To characterize tVTA further, we mapped its inputs by using the retrograde tracers Fluoro-Gold or cholera toxin B subunit. Retrogradely labeled neurons were observed in the medial prefrontal cortex, the lateral septum, the ventral pallidum, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the substantia innominata, the medial and lateral preoptic areas, the lateral and dorsal hypothalamic areas, the lateral habenula, the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus, the dorsal raphe, the periaqueductal gray, and the mesencephalic and pontine reticular formation. Projections from the prefrontal cortex, the hypothalamus, and the lateral habenula to the tVTA were also shown by using the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). We showed that the central nucleus of the amygdala innervates the anterior extent of the VTA but not the tVTA. Moreover, the tVTA mainly receives non-aminergic inputs from the dorsal raphe and the locus coeruleus. Although the tVTA has a low density of dopaminergic neurons, its afferents are mostly similar to those targeting the rest of the VTA. This suggests that the tVTA can be considered as a VTA subregion despite its caudal location.
|Heterogeneous output pathways link the anterior pretectal nucleus with the zona incerta and the thalamus in rat. |
Giber, K; Slézia, A; Bokor, H; Bodor, AL; Ludányi, A; Katona, I; Acsády, L
The Journal of comparative neurology 506 122-40 2008
The anterior pretectal nucleus (APT) and the zona incerta (ZI) are diencephalic nuclei that exert a strong inhibitory influence selectively in higher order thalamic relays. The APT is also known to project to the ZI as well as the thalamus, but anatomical details of the APT-ZI projection have not been described. In the present study, the efferent pathways of the APT were examined in the APT-ZI-thalamus network by using anterograde and retrograde tracing in combination with pre- and postembedding immunocytochemical stainings and in situ hybridization. The vast majority of APT fibers selectively innervated the parvalbumin-positive, ventral part of the ZI, which contains ZI neurons with axons projecting to higher order thalamic nuclei. The APT-ZI pathway consisted of both gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-negative and GABA-positive components; 38.2% of the terminals in the ZI contained GABA, and 8.6% of the projecting somata in the APT were glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) mRNA positive. The combination of parvalbumin immunostaining with retrograde tracing showed that strongly and weakly parvalbumin-positive as well as parvalbumin-negative neurons were all among the population of APT cells projecting to the ZI. Similar heterogeneity was found among the APT cells projecting to the thalamus. Double retrograde tracing from higher order thalamic nuclei and their topographically matched ZI regions revealed hardly any APT neuron with dual projections. Our data suggest that both ZI and the higher order thalamic relays are innervated by distinct, physiologically heterogeneous APT neurons. These various efferent pathways probably interact via the rich recurrent collaterals of the projecting APT cells. Therefore, the powerful, GABAergic APT and ZI outputs to the thalamus are apparently co-modulated in a synergistic manner via dual excitatory and inhibitory APT-ZI connections.
|Nucleus paragigantocellularis afferents in male and female rats: organization, gonadal steroid receptor expression, and activation during sexual behavior. |
Normandin, JJ; Murphy, AZ
The Journal of comparative neurology 508 771-94 2008
The supraspinal regulation of genital reflexes is poorly understood. The brainstem nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) of rats is a well-established source of tonic inhibition of genital reflexes. However, the organization, gonadal steroid receptor expression, and activity of nPGi afferents during sex have not been fully characterized in male and female rats. To delineate the anatomical and physiological organization of nPGi afferents, the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG) was injected into the nPGi of sexually experienced male and female rats. Animals engaged in sexual behavior 1 hour before sacrifice. Cells containing FG, estrogen receptor-alpha (ER(alpha)), androgen receptor (AR), and the immediate-early gene product Fos were identified immunocytochemically. Retrograde labeling from the nPGi was prominent in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus (PVN), posterior hypothalamus, precommissural nucleus, deep mesencephalic nucleus, and periaqueductal gray (PAG) of both sexes. Sex differences were observed in the caudal medial preoptic area (MPO), with significantly more FG+ cells observed in males, and in the PAG and inferior colliculus, where significantly more FG+ cells were observed in females. The majority of regions that contained FG+ cells also contained ER(alpha) or AR, indicating sensitivity to gonadal steroids. The proportions of FG+ cells that co-localized with sex-induced Fos was high in the PVN of both sexes and high in the MPO of males but low in the PAG of both sexes despite the large number of PAG-nPGi output neurons and Fos+ cells in both sexes. The characterization of these afferents will lead to a further understanding of the neural regulation of genital reflexes.
|Distribution of glucagon-like peptide-1 immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. |
Tauchi, M; Zhang, R; D'Alessio, DA; Stern, JE; Herman, JP
Journal of chemical neuroanatomy 36 144-9 2008
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) plays a role in modulating neuroendocrine and autonomic function. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contains aggregations of GLP-1 fibers and expresses GLP-1 receptors, making it a likely site of action for GLP-1 signaling. The current study was designed to establish domains of GLP-1 action, focusing on axosomatic appositions on different neuroendocrine and autonomic cell populations in the PVN. The data indicate abundant GLP-1-immunoreactive terminal appositions on corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the medial parvocellular PVN. GLP-1 positive boutons can also be observed in apposition to oxytocinergic neurons and on retrogradely labeled pre-autonomic neurons projecting to the region of the nucleus of the solitary tract. In contrast, there were very few vasopressinergic neurons with GLP-1 appositions. Overall, the data indicate that the central GLP-1 system preferentially targets neurons in hypophysiotrophic zones of the PVN, consistent with excitatory actions of GLP-1 on adrenocorticotropin release. GLP-1 is also in position to influence oxytocin secretion and control outflow to brainstem cardiovascular relays.
|Repeated amphetamine administration induces Fos in prefrontal cortical neurons that project to the lateral hypothalamus but not the nucleus accumbens or basolateral amygdala. |
Maud M Morshedi,Gloria E Meredith
Psychopharmacology 197 2008
The development of sensitization to amphetamine (AMPH) is dependent on increases in excitatory outflow from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to subcortical centers. These projections are clearly important for the progressive enhancement of the behavioral response during drug administration that persists through withdrawal.Full Text Article
|Electrophysiological study on the effects of leptin in rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus |
Li, Tzu-Ling, et al
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 292:R2136-43 (2007) 2007
|Glutamatergic innervation of the hypothalamic median eminence and posterior pituitary of the rat. |
E Hrabovszky, L Deli, G F Turi, I Kalló, Z Liposits
Neuroscience 144 1383-92 2007
Recent studies have localized the glutamatergic cell marker type-2 vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT2) to distinct peptidergic neurosecretory systems that regulate hypophysial functions in rats. The present studies were aimed to map the neuronal sources of VGLUT2 in the median eminence and the posterior pituitary, the main terminal fields of hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons. Neurons innervating these regions were identified by the uptake of the retrograde tract-tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG) from the systemic circulation, whereas glutamatergic perikarya of the hypothalamus were visualized via the radioisotopic in situ hybridization detection of VGLUT2 mRNA. The results of dual-labeling studies established that the majority of neurons accumulating FG and also expressing VGLUT2 mRNA were located within the paraventricular, periventricular and supraoptic nuclei and around the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the preoptic area. In contrast, only few FG-accumulating cells exhibited VGLUT2 mRNA signal in the arcuate nucleus. Dual-label immunofluorescent studies of the median eminence and posterior pituitary to determine the subcellular location of VGLUT2, revealed the association of VGLUT2 immunoreactivity with SV2 protein, a marker for small clear vesicles in neurosecretory endings. Electron microscopic studies using pre-embedding colloidal gold labeling confirmed the localization of VGLUT2 in small clear synaptic vesicles. These data suggest that neurosecretory neurons located mainly within the paraventricular, anterior periventricular and supraoptic nuclei and around the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the preoptic area secrete glutamate into the fenestrated vessels of the median eminence and posterior pituitary. The functional aspects of the putative neuropeptide/glutamate co-release from neuroendocrine terminals remain to be elucidated.
|Gamma-aminobutyric acid-containing sympathetic preganglionic neurons in rat thoracic spinal cord send their axons to the superior cervical ganglion. |
Tetsufumi Ito,Hiroyuki Hioki,Kouichi Nakamura,Yasuyo Tanaka,Hiroyuki Nakade,Takeshi Kaneko,Satoshi Iino,Yoshiaki Nojyo
The Journal of comparative neurology 502 2007
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing fibers have been observed in the rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) and, to a lesser extent, in the stellate ganglion (STG). The aim of present study is to clarify the source of these fibers. No cell body showed mRNAs for glutamic acid decarboxylases (GADs) or immunoreactivity for GAD of 67 kDa (GAD67) in the cervical sympathetic chain. Thus, GABA-containing fibers in the ganglia are suggested to be of extraganglionic origin. GAD67-immunoreactive fibers were found not in the dorsal roots or ganglia, but in the ventral roots, so GABA-containing fibers in the sympathetic ganglia were considered to originate from the spinal cord. Furthermore, almost all GAD67-immunoreactive fibers in the sympathetic ganglia showed immunoreactivity for vesicular acetylcholine transporter, suggesting that GABA was utilized by some cholinergic preganglionic neurons. This was confirmed by the following results. 1) After injection of Sindbis/palGFP virus into the intermediolateral nucleus, some anterogradely labeled fibers in the SCG were immunopositive for GAD67. 2) After injection of fluorogold into the SCG, some retrogradely labeled neurons in the thoracic spinal cord were positive for GAD67 mRNA. 3) When the ventral roots of the eighth cervical to the fourth thoracic segments were cut, almost all GAD67- and GABA-immunoreactive fibers disappeared from the ipsilateral SCG and STG, suggesting that the vast majority of GABA-containing fibers in those ganglia were of spinal origin. Thus, the present findings strongly indicate that some sympathetic preganglionic neurons are not only cholinergic but also GABAegic.
|Glutamate synaptic inputs to ventral tegmental area neurons in the rat derive primarily from subcortical sources. |
N Omelchenko, S R Sesack
Neuroscience 146 1259-74 2007
Dopamine and GABA neurons in the ventral tegmental area project to the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex and modulate locomotor and reward behaviors as well as cognitive and affective processes. Both midbrain cell types receive synapses from glutamate afferents that provide an essential control of behaviorally-linked activity patterns, although the sources of glutamate inputs have not yet been completely characterized. We used antibodies against the vesicular glutamate transporter subtypes 1 and 2 (VGlut1 and VGlut2) to investigate the morphology and synaptic organization of axons containing these proteins as putative markers of glutamate afferents from cortical versus subcortical sites, respectively, in rats. We also characterized the ventral tegmental area cell populations receiving VGlut1+ or VGlut2+ synapses according to their transmitter phenotype (dopamine or GABA) and major projection target (nucleus accumbens or prefrontal cortex). By light and electron microscopic examination, VGlut2+ as opposed to VGlut1+ axon terminals were more numerous, had a larger average size, synapsed more proximally, and were more likely to form convergent synapses onto the same target. Both axon types formed predominantly asymmetric synapses, although VGlut2+ terminals more often formed synapses with symmetric morphology. No absolute selectivity was observed for VGlut1+ or VGlut2+ axons to target any particular cell population. However, the synapses onto mesoaccumbens neurons more often involved VGlut2+ terminals, whereas mesoprefrontal neurons received relatively equal synaptic inputs from VGlut1+ and VGlut2+ profiles. The distinct morphological features of VGlut1 and VGlut2 positive axons suggest that glutamate inputs from presumed cortical and subcortical sources, respectively, differ in the nature and intensity of their physiological actions on midbrain neurons. More specifically, our findings imply that subcortical glutamate inputs to the ventral tegmental area expressing VGlut2 predominate over cortical sources of excitation expressing VGlut1 and are more likely to drive the behaviorally-linked bursts in dopamine cells that signal future expectancy or attentional shifting.Full Text Article
|Sex differences in the anatomical and functional organization of the periaqueductal gray-rostral ventromedial medullary pathway in the rat: a potential circuit mediating the sexually dimorphic actions of morphine. |
Loyd, DR; Murphy, AZ
The Journal of comparative neurology 496 723-38 2006
Previous studies have demonstrated that morphine, administered systemically or directly into the periaqueductal gray (PAG), produces a significantly greater degree of antinociception in males in comparison with females. Because the midbrain PAG and its descending projections to the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) constitute an essential neural circuit for opioid-based analgesia, the present studies were conducted to determine whether sex differences in the anatomical organization of the PAG-RVM pathway, and its activation during persistent inflammatory pain, could account for sex-based differences in opioid analgesia. In the rat, retrograde tracing was combined with Fos immunocytochemistry to investigate sexual dimorphism in the organization of the PAG-RVM circuit and its activation by persistent inflammatory pain induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The ability of morphine to suppress the activation of the PAG-RVM circuit was also examined. Sexually dimorphic retrograde labeling was observed within the dorsomedial and lateral/ventrolateral PAG at all rostrocaudal levels, with females having significantly more PAG-RVM output neurons in comparison with males. While no sex differences were noted in the activation of the PAG by persistent inflammatory pain, significantly more PAG-RVM cells were activated in males in comparison with females. Systemic administration of morphine significantly suppressed CFA-induced Fos in the PAG in males only. The results of these studies demonstrate that both the anatomical organization and the functional activation of the PAG-RVM circuit are sexually dimorphic and may provide the anatomical substrate for sex-based differences in morphine analgesia.
|Analysis of optic nerve stroke by retinal Bex expression |
Bernstein, S. L. et al.
Mol Vis, 12:147-55 (2006) 2006
|Androgen and estrogen receptor-beta distribution within spinal-projecting and neurosecretory neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the male rat |
Bingham, Brenda, et al
J Comp Neurol, 499:911-23 (2006) 2006
|Medullary dorsal horn neurons providing axons to both the parabrachial nucleus and thalamus. |
Jinlian Li, Kanghui Xiong, Youwang Pang, Yulin Dong, Takeshi Kaneko, Noboru Mizuno
The Journal of comparative neurology 498 539-51 2006
It has often been suggested that the trigemino- and spino-thalamic pathways are highly implicated in sensory-discriminative aspects of pain, whereas the trigemino- and spino-parabrachial pathways are strongly implicated in affective/emotional aspects of pain. On the other hand, the superficial laminae of the spinal dorsal horn, where many nociceptive neurons are distributed, have been reported to contain projection neurons innervating both the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and thalamus by way of axon collaterals (Hylden et al., 1989). For the medullary dorsal horn (caudal subnucleus of spinal trigeminal nucleus: Vc), however, the existence of such neurons has not been reported. Thus, in the present study, we examined whether the Vc might contain projection neurons sending their axons to both the thalamus and PBN. Dual retrograde labeling with fluorescence dyes was attempted. In each rat, tetramethylrhodamine-dextran amine and Fluoro-gold were stereotaxically injected into the PBN and thalamic regions, respectively. The proportion of the dually labeled Vc cells in the total population of all labeled Vc cells was about 20%. More than 90% of the dually labeled neurons were distributed in lamina I (marginal zone), less than 10% of them were located in lamina II (substantia gelatinosa), and only a few (about 1%) were found in lamina III (magnocellular zone). The results indicate that some Vc neurons in the superficial laminae mediate nociceptive information directly to the PBN and thalamus by way of axon collaterals and that the vast majority of them project to the ipsilateral PBN and contralateral thalamus.
|Role of amygdalo-nigral circuitry in conditioning of a visual stimulus paired with food. |
Lee, HJ; Groshek, F; Petrovich, GD; Cantalini, JP; Gallagher, M; Holland, PC
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 25 3881-8 2005
The amygdala central nucleus (CeA) plays an important part in associative learning. Although most research has focused on functions of its descending projections to brainstem areas involved in autonomic and somatomotor responses, the ascending projections of CeA also play critical roles in learning. For example, a CeA-nigrostriatal pathway is important for acquiring orienting responses (ORs) to conditioned stimuli (CSs) that signal food delivery. In this study, the function of this CeA-nigrostriatal pathway in appetitive conditioning of rats was considered in more detail. In experiment 1, we combined anatomical tracing and methods for detecting neuronal activation to examine whether CeA neurons that project to the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) are activated by a visual CS for food. After injection of the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG) into SNc, the rats received pairings of a visual CS with food. After a test with the CS alone, the brains were prepared to assess FG labeling and CS-induced Fos expression in CeA with immunohistochemical procedures. Colocalization of Fos and FG in CeA neurons was visualized with confocal-fluorescence microscopy. The CS induced Fos expression in CeA, and a majority of these Fos-positive neurons were also FG positive, indicating activation of the CeA-SNc pathway by the CS. In experiment 2, lesions that disconnected CeA and SNc prevented the acquisition of conditioned ORs but did not affect the acquisition of conditioned food-related responses or the display of unconditioned ORs. These experiments demonstrate a role for amygdalo-nigral circuitry in learned modulation of attention to signals for biologically significant events.
|Morphologic evidence that neurokinin B modulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion via neurokinin 3 receptors in the rat median eminence. |
Sally J Krajewski, Miranda J Anderson, Lulu Iles-Shih, Kyung J Chen, Henryk F Urbanski, Naomi E Rance
The Journal of comparative neurology 489 372-86 2005
Recent studies suggest that arcuate neurokinin B (NKB) neurons play a role in the regulation of gonadotropin secretion, but there is little information on the relationship between these neurons and the hypothalamic reproductive axis. In the present study, dual-label fluorescent immunohistochemistry was used to visualize the relationship between gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and either proNKB or NK3 receptor (NK3R) immunoreactivity. Immunocytochemistry was also combined with i.p. injections of the fluorescent retrograde tracer aminostilbamidine to determine whether arcuate neuroendocrine neurons expressed either proNKB or NK3R. A dense interweaving and close apposition of GnRH and proNKB-immunoreactive (ir) fibers was observed within the rat median eminence, where GnRH axons expressed NK3R immunoreactivity. These data provide morphological evidence that NKB neurons could influence GnRH secretion via interaction with NK3R in the rat median eminence. Colocalization of GnRH and NK3R was also identified in fiber tracts converging within the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. In contrast, only a small number (16%) of GnRH-ir somata exhibited NK3R staining. ProNKB and NK3R-ir somata were identified within the arcuate nucleus, but none of these neurons were labeled by aminostilbamidine. Thus, we found no evidence that arcuate NKB neurons project to the primary capillary plexus of the portal system. Arcuate neuroendocrine neurons, however, were surrounded and closely apposed by proNKB-ir puncta and fibers. These data suggest that NKB neurons could indirectly influence anterior pituitary function by inputs to arcuate neuroendocrine neurons, but through a receptor other than NK3R. Our results provide an anatomic framework for putative interactions between NKB neurons and the hypothalamic reproductive axis.
|Demonstration of PACAP-immunoreactive intrapineal nerve fibers in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) originating from the trigeminal ganglion. |
Florian Martin Moesgaard Baeres, Morten Møller
Journal of pineal research 38 116-22 2005
By using immunohistochemistry, a network of nerve fibers containing pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) was demonstrated in the pineal gland of the golden hamster, a photoperiodic species often used in pineal and circadian rhythm research. The nerve fibers are present in the capsule from where they permeate into the pineal perivascular spaces and parenchyma. Immuno-electron microscopy showed the PACAPergic nerve terminals, with clear transmitter vesicles, to terminate in the interstitial spaces between the pinealocytes or in the perivascular spaces. Some of the PACAPergic nerve terminals made synapse-like contacts with the pinealocytes. The origin of the PACAP-containing nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland of the hamster was investigated by combined retrograde tracing with fluorogold and immunohistochemistry for PACAP. A 2% fluorogold solution was injected iontophoretically into the superficial pineal gland and the animals were allowed to survive for 1 wk. After perfusion fixation of the rats, the location of the tracer was investigated in the brain, the parasympathetic sphenopalatine, and otic ganglia, as well as in the sensory trigeminal ganglia. The tracer was found in perikarya of all the investigated ganglia. However, co-localization with PACAP was found only in the trigeminal ganglion.
|Altered Fos expression in neural pathways underlying cue-elicited drug seeking in the rat. |
Courtney A Miller, John F Marshall
The European journal of neuroscience 21 1385-93 2005
Cocaine treatment paired with environmental cues establishes a conditioned place preference for that environment. Following expression of this preference, rats show elevated levels of immediate early genes (e.g. c-fos) in the prelimbic cortex (PrL), basolateral amygdala complex (BLC) and nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) compared to drug-unpaired controls. The PrL and BLC are reciprocally connected and both project to the NAcc. Together with the immediate early gene findings, these connections suggest the regions interact as a circuit contributing to cue-elicited drug seeking. To study this circuit, we iontophoresed Fluorogold (FG) into one brain region and assessed colocalization of FG with place preference-induced Fos in the others. Following FG iontophoresis in either the PrL or NAcc, more BLC cells double-labelled for Fos and FG were found in drug-paired than unpaired animals. Following FG iontophoresis in either the BLC or NAcc, no differences were found in the absolute number of PrL Fos/FG cells. This pattern of colocalization suggests that exposure to cocaine-associated cues leads to greater activation of the BLC's efferents to both the PrL and NAcc, while PrL output to the NAcc and BLC is unaffected in IEG expression. These results complement recent findings that suggested attenuated PrL output during place preference expression. Our findings support the view that the BLC, rather than the PrL, provides significant excitatory driving to the NAcc during cue-elicited drug seeking.
|Origin of PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibers innervating the subarachnoidal blood vessels of the rat brain. |
Baeres, FM; Møller, M; Martin, F; Baeres, M
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 24 628-35 2004
The subarachnoidal cerebral blood vessels of the rat are innervated by nerve fibers containing different neuropeptides, e.g. pituitary adenylatecyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP). PACAP dilates brain arterioles and immunohistochemical studies of the rat have indicated that PACAP binds to a VPAC1-receptor in the cerebral vasculature of this species. We have investigated the perikaryal origin of the nerve fibers innervating the subarachnoidal blood vessels of the rat by combined retrograde tracing with Fluorogold and immunohistochemistry. The in vivo neuronal retrograde tracings were done by injection of 2% Fluorogold in water into the subarachnoidal space in the area of the middle cerebral artery. The retrograde transported tracer was detected by use of an antibody against Fluorogold. One week after the injections, the animals were vascularly perfused with Stephanini's fixative and labeled perikarya were found bilaterally in the trigeminal, sphenopalatine, and otic ganglia. The retrograde Fluorogold tracings were combined with immunohistochemistry for PACAP using a mouse monoclonal antibody and the biotinylated tyramide amplification system. Double labeled perikarya containing both Fluoro-gold and PACAP were found predominantly in the trigeminal ganglion, and only rarely in the otic and sphenopalatine ganglion. Summarizing, our retrograde tracings combined with immunohistochemistry indicate that the perikarya in the trigeminal ganglion are the main origin of PACAPergic nerve fibers projecting to the cerebral vasculature of the rat.
|Altered prelimbic cortex output during cue-elicited drug seeking. |
Miller, CA; Marshall, JF
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 24 6889-97 2004
Cocaine treatment paired with environmental cues establishes a conditioned place preference (CPP) for that environment. After expression of this preference, rats show elevated levels of immediate early genes (IEGs; e.g. c-fos) in the prelimbic cortex (PrL), basolateral amygdala complex (BLC), and nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) compared with drug-unpaired controls. These findings, together with the known connections between these regions, suggest that they function as a circuit contributing to cue-elicited craving. To investigate the function of this circuit during drug-seeking, we characterized Fos immunoreactivity of particular neuron classes in each region. To distinguish between IEG activation of GABAergic and non-GABAergic (principally, excitatory projection) neurons, we combined Fos immunohistochemistry with immunohistochemistry for glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) proteins. Within the BLC and NAcc of drug-paired and drug-unpaired animals tested for CPP, we observed no significant differences in the percentage of Fos-immunoreactive (IR) cells that were also GAD67-IR. We also observed no group difference in the degree of Fos/CAMKII overlap in the BLC. However, in PrL, the degree of Fos/GAD67 overlap in the drug-paired group was significantly higher than in the drug-unpaired group. Also, the Fos/CAMKII overlap in the entire PrL as well as just its layer V was significantly lower in the drug-paired animals compared with controls. These findings suggest that, during CPP expression in cocaine-paired animals, the PrL GABAergic interneurons are preferentially activated while PrL output is attenuated, perhaps through greater inhibition of layer V pyramidal neurons. These results suggest a shifting prefrontal cortex cell population response during cocaine-seeking.
|Axotomized mouse retinal ganglion cells containing melanopsin show enhanced survival, but not enhanced axon regrowth into a peripheral nerve graft. |
G A Robinson, R D Madison
Vision research 44 2667-74 2004
Melanopsin is found in only approximately 2% of mouse retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), making these RGCs uniquely and directly photosensitive. Given that the majority of RGCs die after axotomy and that grafting of a peripheral nerve to the eye provides a permissive environment for axon regrowth, the present study examined the survival and axonal regrowth of melanopsin-containing RGCs in mice. One month after optic nerve transection and grafting, RGCs with regrown axons were labeled from the grafts and retinae were processed to visualize melanopsin and TUJ1. Melanopsin-positive and negative RGCs were counted and compared to axotomized RGCs from ungrafted eyes and uninjured RGCs. Melanopsin-positive RGCs showed a 3-fold increase in survival rate compared to non-melanopsin RGCs. Despite this enhanced survival, melanopsin-containing RGCs did not show increased axon regrowth into nerve grafts.
|Damage to the amygdalo-hippocampal projection in temporal lobe epilepsy: a tract-tracing study in chronic epileptic rats. |
S Kemppainen, A Pitkänen
Neuroscience 126 485-501 2004
Both the amygdala and hippocampus are damaged in drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), suggesting that amygdalo-hippocampal interconnectivity is compromised in TLE. Therefore, we examined one of the major projections from the amygdala to the hippocampus, the projection from the amygdala to the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus/subiculum border region, and assessed whether it is preserved in rats with spontaneous seizures. Male Wistar rats were injected with kainic acid (9 mg/kg, i.p.) to induce chronic epilepsy. The occurrence of spontaneous seizures was monitored 5 or 15 weeks later by video-recording the rats for up to 5 days. Saline-injected animals served as controls. Thereafter, the retrograde tracer Fluoro-gold was injected into the border region of the temporal CA1/subiculum. Rats were perfused for histology 1-2 weeks later and sections were immunohistochemically processed to detect Fluoro-gold-positive cells. Comparison of the labeling in control and epileptic tissue indicated that a large cluster of retrogradely labeled cells in the parvicellular division of the basal nucleus was well preserved in epilepsy, even when the neuronal damage in the amygdala was substantial. Another large cluster of retrogradely labeled cells in the lateral division of the amygdalo-hippocampal area, the posterior cortical nucleus (part of the vomeronasal amygdala), and the periamygdaloid cortex (part of the olfactory amygdala), however, had disappeared in epileptic brain in parallel to severe neuronal loss in these nuclei. These data demonstrate that a projection from the parvicellular division of the basal nucleus to the temporal CA1/subiculum region is resistant to status epilepticus-induced neuronal damage and provides a candidate pathway by which seizure activity can spread and propagate from the amygdala to the hippocampal formation.
|Translamellar disinhibition in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus after seizure-induced degeneration of vulnerable hilar neurons. |
Zappone, CA; Sloviter, RS
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 24 853-64 2004
Longitudinally restricted axonal projections of hippocampal granule cells suggest that transverse segments of the granule cell layer may operate independently (the "lamellar" hypothesis). Longitudinal projections of excitatory hilar mossy cells could be viewed as antithetical to lamellar function, but only if longitudinal impulse flow effectively excites distant granule cells. We, therefore, determined the effect of focal granule cell discharges on granule cells located greater than 2 mm along the longitudinal axis. During perforant pathway stimulation in urethane-anesthetized rats, passive diffusion of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline methiodide from the tip of a glass recording electrode evoked granule cell discharges and c-Fos expression in granule cells, mossy cells, and inhibitory interneurons, within a approximately 400 microm radius. This focally evoked activity powerfully suppressed distant granule cell-evoked responses recorded simultaneously approximately 2.5-4.5 mm longitudinally. Three days after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus or prolonged perforant pathway stimulation, translamellar inhibition was intact in rats with less than 40% hilar neuron loss but was consistently abolished after extensive (greater than 85%) hilar cell loss. Retrograde transport of Fluoro-Gold (FG) from the rostral dentate gyrus revealed that few inhibitory interneurons were among the many retrogradely labeled hilar neurons 2.5-4.5 mm longitudinally. Although many somatostatin-positive hilar interneurons effectively transported FG from the distant septum, few of these neurons transported detectable FG from much closer hippocampal injection sites. Inhibitory basket and chandelier cells also exhibited minimal longitudinal FG transport. These findings suggest that translamellar disinhibition may result from the loss of vulnerable, longitudinally projecting mossy cells and may represent a network-level mechanism underlying postinjury hippocampal dysfunction and epileptic network hyperexcitability.
|PACAP-containing intrapineal nerve fibers originate predominantly in the trigeminal ganglion: a combined retrograde tracing- and immunohistochemical study of the rat. |
M Møller, F M M Baeres
Brain research 984 160-9 2003
Pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide originally isolated from the hypothalamus and located in many neuronal systems in both the central and peripheral nervous system. PACAP is also found in nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland, where it stimulates the secretion of the pineal hormone, melatonin, by binding to specific PACAP-receptors located on the cell membrane of the pinealocyte. In this study we have investigated the origin of PACAP-containing nerve fibers innervating the rat pineal gland by combined retrograde tracing with Fluorogold and immunohistochemistry for PACAP. A solution of 2% Fluorogold was injected iontophoretically into the superficial pineal gland of Wistar rats, and the animals were allowed to survive for 1 week. After perfusion fixation of the rats, the location of the tracer was investigated in the brain and the sphenopalatine, otic, and trigeminal ganglia. The tracer was found in all the investigated ganglia. However, colocalization with PACAP was predominantly found in the trigeminal ganglion and only occasionally in the sphenopalatine and otic ganglia. Due to the stimulatory function of PACAP on pineal melatonin secretion, the PACAP-containing neurons of this ganglion could be considered a subset of the parasympathetic nervous system. The presence of neurons with a parasympathetic function in a ganglion that has been considered a purely sensory ganglion, is a new concept in neuroanatomy.
|Patterns of fluoro-gold entry into rat molar enamel, dentin, and pulp. |
M R Byers, K J Yoon Lin, M R Byers, K J Yoon Lin
Journal of dental research 82 312-7 2003
Permeabilities of enamel and dentin are not fully understood despite their importance for caries, restorative materials, and pulp-dentin-enamel interactions. We have found that Fluoro-Gold is useful for examining tooth permeability, and we designed studies to test the effects of aging, injury, neural function, and dentinal repair on its influx into vital rat teeth. We used fluorescence microscopy and immunocytochemistry to show that Fluoro-Gold rapidly penetrates enamel, the dentin-enamel junction, and outer dentinal acellular tubules, and then concentrates in odontoblasts, where it remains for weeks. As predicted, influx was greatest in immature teeth, and formation of reparative dentin impeded it. We expected that denervation would disrupt influx, because of neural regulation of dentinal fluid movement, but it did not. Damage to odontoblasts under injured dentin caused increased influx and efflux of Fluoro-Gold. Analysis of our data suggests that permeabilities of enamel and dentin to Fluoro-Gold are age-related, inter-dependent, and regulated by odontoblasts.
|Activation of the amygdalo-entorhinal pathway in fear-conditioning in rat. |
Katarzyna Majak, Asla Pitkänen
The European journal of neuroscience 18 1652-9 2003
Several studies implicate a role for the amygdala in processing of emotional memories that might partially occur in the connections between the amygdala and the hippocampal-parahippocampal areas. The present study was designed to determine if the pathway from the amygdala to the entorhinal cortex becomes activated during acquisition of fear-conditioning. First, the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG) was iontophoresed into the entorhinal cortex in rats. Following habituation, animals were divided into five groups: (i) controls that received another habituation session; (ii) animals given a tone only; (iii) animals given a footshock only; (iv) animals given an unpaired presentation of a shock and a tone; and (v) conditioned animals that received a single tone-footshock pairing. Then double-immunohistochemistry against c-Fos and FG or glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67) was performed. The numbers and densities of labelled neurons were calculated in the lateral and basal nuclei of the amygdala. In conditioned animals the number and density of c-Fos-positive nuclei increased in dorsolateral and medial divisions of the lateral nucleus compared with the control group (P 0.05). Additionally, in the medial division of the lateral nucleus, the percentage of c-Fos/FG double-labelled neurons was higher in the conditioned animals compared with the other groups (P 0.05). Only a very few GAD67-positive interneurons expressed c-Fos. These data indicate that a part of the amygdalo-entorhinal pathway is activated during acquisition of fear-conditioning. These data support the idea that emotionally relevant sensory information in the lateral nucleus can influence information processing in the hippocampal and parahippocampal areas via the amygdalo-entorhinal pathway.
|Commissurally projecting inhibitory interneurons of the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus: a colocalization study of neuronal markers and the retrograde tracer Fluoro-gold. |
C A Zappone, R S Sloviter, C A Zappone, R S Sloviter
The Journal of comparative neurology 441 324-44 2001
Improved methods for detecting neuronal markers and the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG) were used to identify commissurally projecting neurons of the rat hippocampus. In addition to the dentate hilar mossy cells and CA3 pyramidal cells shown previously to transport retrograde tracers after injection into the dorsal hippocampus, FG-positive interneurons of the dentate granule cell layer and hilus were detected in numbers greater than previously reported. FG labeling of interneurons was variable among animals, but was as high as 96% of hilar somatostatin-positive interneurons, 84% of parvalbumin-positive cells of the granule cell layer and hilus combined, and 33% of hilar calretinin-positive cells. By comparison, interneurons of the dentate molecular layer and all hippocampal subregions were conspicuously FG-negative. Whereas hilar mossy cells and CA3 pyramidal cells were FG-labeled throughout the longitudinal axis, FG-positive interneurons exhibited a relatively homotopic distribution. Control injections of FG into the neocortex, septum, and ventral hippocampus demonstrated that the homotopic labeling of dentate interneurons was injection site-specific, and that the CA1-CA3 interneurons unlabeled by contralateral hippocampal FG injection were nonetheless able to transport FG from the septum. These data suggest a hippocampal organizing principle according to which virtually all commissurally projecting hippocampal neurons share the property of being monosynaptic targets of dentate granule cells. Because granule cells innervate their exclusively ipsilateral target cells in a highly lamellar pattern, these results suggest that focal granule cell excitation may result in commissural inhibition of the corresponding twin granule cell lamella, thereby lateralizing and amplifying the influence of the initiating discharge.
|The distribution and origin of the calretinin-containing innervation of the nucleus accumbens of the rat. |
Bubser, M, et al.
Eur. J. Neurosci., 12: 1591-8 (2000) 2000
The nucleus accumbens of the rat consists of several subregions that can be distinguished on the basis of histochemical markers. For example, the calcium-binding protein calbindin D28k is a useful marker of the core compartment of the nucleus accumbens. Calretinin, another calcium-binding protein, is found in a dense fibre plexus in the accumbal shell and septal pole regions. The source of the accumbal calretinin innervation is not known. We examined the distribution of calretinin in the nucleus accumbens and used tract-tracing and lesion methods to determine the source of this calretinin innervation. Intense calretinin immunoreactivity was present in the medial shell, but the density of calretinin axons diminished sharply in the ventrolateral shell. Regions of dense calretinin immunostaining and those areas with calbindin-like immunoreactive cell bodies were generally segregated in the nucleus accumbens, although some overlap in the transition region between the core and shell was seen. Small clusters of calretinin-immunoreactive fibres were seen in the core, where they were restricted to calbindin-negative patches. Injections of the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine into the paraventricular thalamic nucleus labelled fibres in calretinin-rich regions of the accumbens. Conversely, injections of Fluoro-gold into the accumbal shell retrogradely labelled numerous cells in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus that were calretinin-immunoreactive. Electrolytic lesions of the paraventricular thalamic nucleus reduced calretinin levels in the shell by approximately 80%. These data indicate that the calretinin innervation of the nucleus accumbens is derived primarily from the thalamic paraventricular nucleus, and marks accumbal territories that are largely complementary to those defined by calbindin.
|Morphology and topographical organization of the retrospleniocollicular connection: a pathway to relay contextual information from the environment to the superior colliculus |
Del Cano, G. G. et al.
J. Comp. Neurol., 425(3):393-408 (2000) 2000
|Survival of adult rat retinal ganglion cells with regrown axons in peripheral nerve grafts: a comparison of graft attachment with suture of fibrin glue. |
G A Robinson, R D Madison
Journal of neurosurgery 93 275-8 2000
OBJECT: The goal of this study was to examine whether the method of attachment of a peripheral nerve graft would have an effect on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) regeneration. METHODS: The number of adult rat RGCs with regrown axons in a peripheral nerve graft was compared under two grafting conditions: 1) attachment of the graft to the optic nerve stump made using a suture; and 2) attachment made using fibrin glue. Counts of RGCs retrogradely labeled with FluoroGold from the grafts 1 month after attachment revealed approximately seven times the number of RGCs in the fibrin-glue group compared with the suture group. CONCLUSIONS: The use of fibrin glue may be a useful tool for enhancing the regrowth of central nervous system neuron axons into peripheral nervous system grafts.
|Direct vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing projection from the suprachiasmatic nucleus to spinal projecting hypothalamic paraventricular neurons |
Teclemariam-Mesbah, R, et al
Brain Res, 748:71-6 (1997) 1997
|Mediation of dehydration-induced peptidergic gene expression in the rat lateral hypothalamic area by forebrain afferent projections. |
Kelly, A B and Watts, A G
J. Comp. Neurol., 370: 231-46 (1996) 1996
We have previously shown in dehydrated rats that cellular levels of the mRNAs encoding the precursor peptides for corticotropin-releasing hormone and neurotensin/neuromedin N significantly increase in a restricted region of the lateral hypothalamic area (Watts, 1992, Brain Res. 581:208-216). The experiments reported here address the role that forebrain osmosensitive cells groups or regions associated with autonomic regulation play in developing this mRNA response. The first experiment showed that unilateral knife cuts placed between the rostral forebrain and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) will unilaterally attenuate the mRNA response in the LHA to dehydration. In a second experiment, small injections of the retrograde tracer Fluorogold into the region of the LHA containing these mRNAs revealed a direct input from the osmosensitive median preoptic nucleus and subfornical organ and from the fusiform nucleus of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis, which is part of a complex of cell groups associated with autonomic regulation. We found that at least 30% of the neurons in the median preoptic nucleus and subfornical organ and 14% of the neurons in the fusiform nucleus of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis that project to the LHA responded to a rapid increase in plasma osmolality with increased c-fos mRNA levels. In the final experiment, injections of Fluorogold into the LHA were made simultaneously with ipsilateral rostral knife cuts. Here the numbers of neurons accumulating Fluorogold in the median preoptic nucleus, subfornical organ, and the fusiform nucleus were all significantly decreased concomitantly with attenuated mRNA responses in the LHA to dehydration. We conclude that the LHA receives direct and functional projections from the median preoptic nucleus, subfornical organ, and the fusiform nucleus. These projections appear capable of mediating a substantial part of the response of peptidergic mRNAs in the LHA to dehydration.
|Differential serotonergic innervation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the intergeniculate leaflet and its role in circadian rhythm modulation |
Meyer-Bernstein, E. L. and Morin, L. P.
J. Neuroscience, 16(6):2097-2111 (1996) 1996
|cFos immunoreactivity is enhanced with biotin amplification |
Berghorn, K A, et al
J Histochem Cytochem, 42:1635-42 (1994) 1994
|Differential effects of morphine on noxious stimulus-evoked fos-like immunoreactivity in subpopulations of spinoparabrachial neurons |
Jasmin, L. et al.
J. Neuroscience, 14(12):7252-7260 (1994) 1994
|Fluoro-Gold: a new fluorescent retrograde axonal tracer with numerous unique properties |
Schmued, L. C. and Fallon, J. H.
Brain Research, 377(1):147-154 (1986) 1986