Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||ELISA, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Affinity purified immunoglobulin. Liquid in PBS with 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
References | 12 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Effect of thrombin on human amnion mesenchymal cells, mouse fetal membranes, and preterm birth. |
Mogami, H; Keller, PW; Shi, H; Word, RA
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 13295-307 2014
Here, we investigated the effects of thrombin on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and prostaglandin (PG) synthesis in fetal membranes. Thrombin activity was increased in human amnion from preterm deliveries. Treatment of mesenchymal, but not epithelial, cells with thrombin resulted in increased MMP-1 and MMP-9 mRNA and enzymatic activity. Thrombin also increased COX2 mRNA and PGE2 in these cells. Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) was localized to amnion mesenchymal and decidual cells. PAR-1-specific inhibitors and activating peptides indicated that thrombin-induced up-regulation of MMP-9 was mediated via PAR-1. In contrast, thrombin-induced up-regulation of MMP-1 and COX-2 was mediated through Toll-like receptor-4, possibly through thrombin-induced release of soluble fetal fibronectin. In vivo, thrombin-injected pregnant mice delivered preterm. Mmp8, Mmp9, and Mmp13, and PGE2 content was increased significantly in fetal membranes from thrombin-injected animals. These results indicate that thrombin acts through multiple mechanisms to activate MMPs and PGE2 synthesis in amnion.
|Neutrophil cathepsin G, but not elastase, induces aggregation of MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cells by a protease activity-dependent cell-oriented mechanism. |
Yui, S; Osawa, Y; Ichisugi, T; Morimoto-Kamata, R
Mediators of inflammation 2014 971409 2014
We previously found that a neutrophil serine protease, cathepsin G, weakens adherence to culture substrates and induces E-cadherin-dependent aggregation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells through its protease activity. In this study, we examined whether aggregation is caused by degradation of adhesion molecules on the culture substrates or through an unidentified mechanism. We compared the effect of treatment with cathepsin G and other proteases, including neutrophil elastase against fibronectin- (FN-) coated substrates. Cathepsin G and elastase potently degraded FN on the substrates and induced aggregation of MCF-7 cells that had been subsequently seeded onto the substrate. However, substrate-bound cathepsin G and elastase may have caused cell aggregation. After inhibiting the proteases on the culture substrates using the irreversible inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), we examined whether aggregation of MCF-7 cells was suppressed. PMSF attenuated cell aggregation on cathepsin G-treated substrates, but the effect was weak in cells pretreated with high concentrations of cathepsin G. In contrast, PMSF did not suppress cell aggregation on elastase-treated FN. Moreover, cathepsin G, but not elastase, induced aggregation on poly-L-lysine substrates which are not decomposed by these enzymes, and the action of cathepsin G was nearly completely attenuated by PMSF. These results suggest that cathepsin G induces MCF-7 aggregation through a cell-oriented mechanism.
|Effects of thailanstatins on glucocorticoid response in trabecular meshwork and steroid-induced glaucoma. |
Jain, A; Liu, X; Wordinger, RJ; Yorio, T; Cheng, YQ; Clark, AF
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 54 3137-42 2013
Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor in glaucoma. Various changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM) are responsible for elevated IOP. Glucocorticoids (GCs) increase IOP and mediate biochemical changes in the TM, similar to those associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). There are differences in steroid responsiveness among the population. Approximately 40% of individuals significantly elevate IOP (i.e., responders) upon GC administration, while others do not (i.e., nonresponders). The responders are at higher risk of developing POAG compared to the nonresponders. In addition, almost all POAG patients are steroid responders. GC responsiveness is regulated by the relative levels of the active GC receptor alpha (GRα) and the alternatively spliced dominant negative regulator isoform GRβ. Glaucomatous TM cell strains have a lower GRβ-GRα ratio compared to normal TM cells, making them more sensitive to GCs. Our purpose was to investigate the role of a special class of natural products called thailanstatins (TSTs) in GR alternative splicing and GC response in cultured human TM cells.Quantitative RT-PCR and Western immunoblotting were used to study the effect of TSTs on GRβ-GRα ratios in human TM cell strains. Effects of TSTs on dexamethasone (DEX) responsiveness were assessed by GRE-luciferase reporter activity assay and fibronectin (FN) induction in TM cells.TSTs increased the GRβ-GRα ratio in TM cells. Increased GRβ-GRα ratios were associated with decreased DEX-mediated FN induction and GRE-luciferase activity.TSTs modulate the GR splicing process to enhance GRβ levels and thereby decrease the GC response in cultured human TM cells. These TSTs, or similar compounds, may potentially be new glaucoma therapeutic agents.
|Fetal fibronectin signaling induces matrix metalloproteases and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in amnion cells and preterm birth in mice. |
Mogami, H; Kishore, AH; Shi, H; Keller, PW; Akgul, Y; Word, RA
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 1953-66 2013
Fetal fibronectin (fFN) in cervical and vaginal secretions has been used as a predictor of preterm delivery. Here, we clarified the pathological function of fFN on cell type-specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and prostaglandin synthesis in fetal membranes. Treatment of amnion mesenchymal cells with fFN resulted in dramatic increases in MMP-1 and MMP-9 mRNA and enzymatic activity as well as COX-2 mRNA and prostaglandin E(2) synthesis, activating both NFκB and ERK1/2 signaling. Fetal FN-induced increases in MMPs and COX-2 were mediated through its extra domain A and Toll-like receptor 4 expressed in mesenchymal cells. Lipopolysaccharide and TNF-α increased the release of free FN in medium of amnion epithelial cells in culture. Finally, injection of fFN in pregnant mice resulted in preterm birth. Collectively, these results indicate that fFN is not only a marker of preterm delivery but also plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of preterm labor and premature rupture of fetal membranes.
|Cellular fibronectin expression in human trabecular meshwork and induction by transforming growth factor-β2. |
Medina-Ortiz, WE; Belmares, R; Neubauer, S; Wordinger, RJ; Clark, AF
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 54 6779-88 2013
Levels of TGF-β2 are higher in POAG aqueous humor, causing deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, including fibronectin (FN), in the glaucomatous human trabecular meshwork (HTM) that may be responsible for elevated IOP. The purpose of this study was to identify the expression of cellular FN (cFN) isoforms (EDA and EDB) in HTM cells and tissues, and to determine whether TGF-β2 can induce cFN expression and fibril formation in cultured HTM cells.Expression of cFN mRNA isoforms and induction by recombinant TGF-β2 (5 ng/mL) were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. The TGF-β2 induction of EDA isoform protein expression and FN fibril formation were analyzed using Western immunoblots and immunocytochemistry (ICC), respectively. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis was used to examine total FN and EDA isoform expression in normal (NTM) and glaucomatous (GTM) trabecular meshwork (TM) tissues.Both cFN mRNA isoforms were expressed in cultured HTM cells and were induced by TGF-β2 after 2, 4, and 7 days (P less than 0.05). Similarly, EDA isoform protein and fibril formation were increased after 4 and 7 days of TGF-β2 treatment. Finally, GTM tissues had significantly greater EDA isoform protein levels (1.7-fold, P less than 0.05) compared to NTM tissues.This study demonstrated that cFN isoforms are expressed and induced in HTM cells by TGF-β2. Also, increased EDA isoform protein levels were seen in GTM tissues. Our findings suggest that induction of cFN isoform expression in the TM ECM may be a novel pathologic mechanism involved in the TM changes associated with glaucoma.
|Smad3 is necessary for transforming growth factor-beta2 induced ocular hypertension in mice. |
McDowell, CM; Tebow, HE; Wordinger, RJ; Clark, AF
Experimental eye research 116 419-23 2013
TGFβ2 induces extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and alters the cytoskeleton by both the canonical Smad and non-canonical signaling pathways. TGFβ2 regulates the expression of ECM proteins in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells, increases intraocular pressure (IOP) in an ex vivo perfusion organ culture model, and induces ocular hypertension in rodent eyes. A necessary step in the canonical Smad signaling pathway is phosphorylation of receptor protein Smad3 by the TGF-β receptor complex. The purpose of this study was to determine whether TGFβ2 signals in vivo through the canonical Smad signaling pathway in the TM using Smad3 knockout (KO) mice. Ad5.hTGFβ2(226/228) (2.5 × 10(7) pfu) was injected intravitreally into one eye of homozygous (WT), heterozygous (HET), and homozygous (KO) 129-Smad3(tm1Par)/J mice (n = 9-10 mice/group), with the uninjected contralateral eye serving as the control. IOP measurements were taken using a rebound tonometer. To test the effect of TGFβ2 signaling on the ECM, fibronectin expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and qPCR analysis. Transduction of the TM with viral vector Ad5.hTGFβ2(226/228) caused a statistically significant difference in IOP exposure between Smad3 genotypes: WT, 187.7 ± 23.9 mmHg*day (n = 9); HET, 95.6 ± 24.5 mmHg*day (n = 9); KO, 52.8 ± 25.2 mmHg*day (n = 10); (p less than 0.05 WT versus HET, p less than 0.01 WT versus KO). Immunohistochemistry and qPCR analysis showed that Ad5.hTGFβ2(226/228) increased fibronectin expression in the TM of WT mice (2.23 ± 0.24 fold) compared to Smad3 KO mice (0.99 ± 0.19 fold), p less than 0.05. These results demonstrate Smad3 is a necessary signaling protein for TGFβ2-induced ocular hypertension and fibronectin deposition in the TM.
|Spliceosome protein (SRp) regulation of glucocorticoid receptor isoforms and glucocorticoid response in human trabecular meshwork cells. |
Jain, A; Wordinger, RJ; Yorio, T; Clark, AF
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 53 857-66 2012
Glaucoma is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness, with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) as a major causative risk factor. Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy causes morphologic and biochemical changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM), an ocular tissue involved in regulating IOP, which can lead to the development of glaucoma in susceptible individuals (steroid responders). Steroid responders comprise 40% of the general population and are at higher risk of developing glaucoma. In addition, a majority of glaucoma patients are steroid responders. Differential distribution of various isoforms of GC receptor (GR) may be responsible for this heterogeneity in the steroid response. The alternatively spliced GRβ isoform acts as dominant negative regulator of classical GRα transcriptional activity. mRNA splicing is mediated by spliceosomes, which include serine-arginine rich proteins (SRps). The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific SRps regulate levels of these isoforms and thereby GC response in TM cells.Quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunocytochemistry were used to determine the differential expression of different SRps (SRp20, 30c, and 40) in human normal and glaucomatous TM cell strains. Bioinformatics was used to find putative binding sites for SRp20 and SRp40 on exon 9 of the GR gene. A peptide modulator of splicing (bombesin) and SRp expression vectors were used to modulate SRp levels and determine their effects on GRα/GRβ ratios as well as dexamethasone (DEX) responsiveness via GRE- luciferase reporter activity, fibronectin, and myocilin induction in TM cells.SRp20, SRp30c, and SRp40 regulate GR splicing and the GC response in TM cells. Modulation of SRp levels altered the GRβ/α ratio that correlated with DEX responsiveness. Bombesin decreased SRp20; increased SRp30c, SRp40 levels, and GRβ/α ratio, and suppressed DEX response in TM cells.Relative levels of SRp20, SRp30c, and SRp40 in TM cells control differential expression of the two alternatively spliced isoforms of the GR and thereby regulate GC responsiveness. Different levels and/or activities of these SRps may account for differential GC sensitivity among the normal and glaucoma populations.
|Transforming growth factor-beta2 utilizes the canonical Smad-signaling pathway to regulate tissue transglutaminase expression in human trabecular meshwork cells. |
Tovar-Vidales, T; Clark, AF; Wordinger, RJ
Experimental eye research 93 442-51 2011
Transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-β2) is elevated in the aqueous humor of patients with glaucoma. This growth factor is known to increase extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in the trabecular meshwork (TM) as well as increase intraocular pressure (IOP) in perfused human cultured anterior eye segments. In addition overexpression of TGF-β2 in the mouse TM leads to elevated IOP. Exogenous TGF-β2 also increases tissue transglutaminase (TGM2) protein levels and enzyme activity in TM cells. TGM2 is a calcium-dependent enzyme that mediates cross-linking of ECM proteins, thus making ECM proteins resistant to enzymatic degradation and physical breakdown. We have investigated the signaling pathway by which TGF-β2 induces TGM2 in human TM cells. Primary cultures of human TM cells (N = 6) were treated for 48 h with TGF-β2 (0-10 ng/ml) in serum-free medium. TGM2 enzyme activity differences between non-treated and TGF-β2 treated TM cells were studied using a biotin cadaverine assay. Endogenous TGF-β2 protein levels were examined in normal trabecular meshwork (NTM) and glaucomatous trabecular meshwork (GTM) cell strains. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression and co-localization of TGF-β2 and TGM2 in NTM and GTM tissues. Activation of Smad3 signaling pathway was evaluated by western immunoblot analysis using phospho-specific antibodies following exogenous TGF-β2 treatment. Pharmacological specific inhibitor of Smad3 (SIS3) and short interfering (si)RNAs were used to suppress Smad3 activity and CTGF gene expression respectively. Endogenous TGF-β2 levels were significantly elevated in cultured GTM cells (p less than 0.05) when compared to NTM cells. Immunohistochemistry studies also demonstrated elevated expression and co-localization of both TGF-β2 and TGM2 in glaucoma human TM tissues. Exogenous TGF-β2 increased both TGM2 protein levels and enzyme activity in TM cells. Phosphorylation of Smad3 was stimulated in TM cell strains by exogenous TGF-β2. TGF-β2 induction of TGM2 was not inhibited with selective siRNA knockdown of CTGF. In contrast, a specific inhibitor of Smad3 (SIS3) and siRNA knockdown of Smad3 (p less than 0.05) suppressed TGF-β2 induction of TGM2. This study demonstrated that TGF-β2 induction of TGM2 can be mediated via the canonical Smad-signaling pathway but does not appear to involve CTGF as a downstream mediator. Regulation of the Smad-signaling pathway in the TM may be useful in the therapy for glaucoma associated with aberrant TGF-β2 signaling.
|Binding of the fibronectin-mimetic peptide, PR_b, to alpha5beta1 on pig islet cells increases fibronectin production and facilitates internalization of PR_b functionalized liposomes. |
Nicole A Atchison,Wei Fan,Klearchos K Papas,Bernhard J Hering,Michael Tsapatsis,Efrosini Kokkoli
Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids 26 2010
Islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes. Recent studies have demonstrated that human islet allografts can restore insulin independence to patients with this disease. As islet isolation and immunotherapeutic techniques improve, the demand for this cell-based therapy will dictate the need for other sources of islets. Pig islets could provide an unlimited supply for xenotransplantation and have shown promise as an alternative to human islet allografts. However, stresses imposed during islet isolation and transplantation decrease islet viability, leading to loss of graft function. In this study, we investigated the ability of a fibronectin-mimetic peptide, PR_b, which specifically binds to the alpha(5)beta(1) integrin, to re-establish lost extracellular matrix (ECM) around isolated pig islets and increase internalization of liposomes. Confocal microscopy and Western blotting were used to show the presence of the integrin alpha(5)beta(1) on the pig islets on day 0 (day of isolation) as well as on different days of islet culture. Islets cultured in medium supplemented with free PR_b for 48 h were found to have increased levels of ECM fibronectin secretion compared to islets in normal culture conditions. Using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, we found that PR_b peptide-amphiphile functionalized liposomes delivered to the pig islets internalized into the cells in a PR_b concentration dependent manner and nonfunctionalized liposomes showed minimal internalization. These studies proved that the fibronectin-mimetic peptide, PR_b, is an appropriate peptide bullet for applications involving alpha(5)beta(1) expressing pig islet cells. Fibronectin production stimulated through alpha(5)beta(1) PR_b binding may decrease apoptosis and therefore increase islet viability in culture. In addition, PR_b peptide-amphiphile functionalized liposomes may be used for targeted delivery of different agents to pig islet cells.Full Text Article
|Leptospira interrogans binds to human cell surface receptors including proteoglycans. |
Breiner, DD; Fahey, M; Salvador, R; Novakova, J; Coburn, J
Infection and immunity 77 5528-36 2009
Leptospirosis is a global public health problem, primarily in the tropical developing world. The pathogenic mechanisms of the causative agents, several members of the genus Leptospira, have been underinvestigated. The exception to this trend has been the demonstration of the binding of pathogenic leptospires to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and its components. In this work, interactions of Leptospira interrogans bacteria with mammalian cells, rather than the ECM, were examined. The bacteria bound more efficiently to the cells than to the ECM, and a portion of this cell-binding activity was attributable to attachment to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of proteoglycans (PGs). Chondroitin sulfate B PGs appeared to be the primary targets of L. interrogans attachment, while heparan sulfate PGs were much less important. Inhibition of GAG/PG-mediated attachment resulted in partial inhibition of bacterial attachment, suggesting that additional receptors for L. interrogans await identification. GAG binding may participate in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis within the host animal. In addition, because GAGs are expressed on the luminal aspects of epithelial cells in the proximal tubules of the kidneys, this activity may play a role in targeting the bacteria to this critical site. Because GAGs are shed in the urine, GAG binding may also be important for transmission to new hosts through the environment.Full Text Article
|Recombinant human uteroglobin/CC10 inhibits the adhesion and migration of primary human endothelial cells via specific and saturable binding to fibronectin. |
Giovanni Antico, Mark W Lingen, Antonella Sassano, James Melby, Richard W Welch, Stefano Fiore, Aprile L Pilon, Lucio Miele, Giovanni Antico, Mark W Lingen, Antonella Sassano, James Melby, Richard W Welch, Stefano Fiore, Aprile L Pilon, Lucio Miele
Journal of cellular physiology 207 553-61 2006
Uteroglobin (UG) or Clara Cell 10 kDa protein (CC10) is a small, stable, epithelial secretory anti-inflammatory protein. Uteroglobin has been shown to inhibit neointimal formation in vivo after balloon angioplasty through an unknown mechanism. An interaction between UG and plasma fibronectin (Fn) has been demonstrated in mice. Since Fn plays a key role in endothelial cell (EC) migration and angiogenesis, we investigated whether recombinant human UG (rhUG) affects EC migration via Fn binding. In this report, we show a saturable binding of rhUG to Fn depending on Fn conformation and that rhUG is covalently cross-linked to Fn by transglutaminase (TGase). Additionally, our study highlights that rhUG can also bind to exogenously added or self-secreted Fn on the membrane of human primary microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC), although these complexes are weakly associated with the plasmalemma. Upon the interaction with Fn in solid phase, rhUG strongly inhibits HMVEC attachment on Fn, but not on other ECM proteins. Consequently, rhUG also inhibits cell migration in a dose dependent fashion (I.C.50 = 65 nM) and hinders the "wound healing" in vitro. The small size, stability and human tolerability of rhUG suggest that rhUG in slow-release form or genetically delivered could be used in humans to modulate cell/Fn interactions in the context of tumor microenvironment or in the context of inflammation and fibrosis.
|Dynamics of adhesive rupture between fibroblasts and fibronectin: microplate manipulations and deterministic model |
Thoumine, O and Meister, J J
Eur Biophys J, 29:409-19 (2000) 2000
|RABBIT ANTI-HUMAN FIBRONECTIN POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY|