Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||ELISA, IF, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-EBV EA-D-p52/50 Antibody, clone R3|
|Presentation||Purified immunoglobulin. Liquid in 0.02M PBS, 0.25M NaCl, 0.1% sodium azide.|
|Concentration||Please refer to the Certificate of Analysis for the lot-specific concentration.|
|Antibody Type||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at 2-8°C.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Cellular differentiation regulator BLIMP1 induces Epstein-Barr virus lytic reactivation in epithelial and B cells by activating transcription from both the R and Z promoters. |
Reusch, JA; Nawandar, DM; Wright, KL; Kenney, SC; Mertz, JE
Journal of virology 89 1731-43 2015
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) maintains a lifelong latent infection within a subset of its host's memory B cells, while lytic EBV replication takes place in plasma cells and differentiated epithelial cells. Therefore, cellular transcription factors, such as BLIMP1, that are key mediators of differentiation likely contribute to the EBV latent-to-lytic switch. Previous reports showed that ectopic BLIMP1 expression induces reactivation in some EBV-positive (EBV(+)) B-cell lines and transcription from Zp, with all Z(+) cells in oral hairy leukoplakia being BLIMP1(+). Here, we examined BLIMP1's role in inducing EBV lytic gene expression in numerous EBV(+) epithelial and B-cell lines and activating transcription from Rp. BLIMP1 addition was sufficient to induce reactivation in latently infected epithelial cells derived from gastric cancers, nasopharyngeal carcinomas, and normal oral keratinocytes (NOK) as well as some, but not all B-cell lines. BLIMP1 strongly induced transcription from Rp as well as Zp, with there being three or more synergistically acting BLIMP1-responsive elements (BRE) within Rp. BLIMP1's DNA-binding domain was required for reactivation, but BLIMP1 did not directly bind the nucleotide (nt) -660 Rp BRE. siRNA knockdown of BLIMP1 inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced lytic reactivation in NOK-Akata cells, cells that can be reactivated by R, but not Z. Thus, we conclude that BLIMP1 expression is both necessary and sufficient to induce EBV lytic replication in many (possibly all) EBV(+) epithelial-cell types, but in only a subset of EBV(+) B-cell types; it does so, at least in part, by strongly activating expression of both EBV immediately early genes, BZLF1 and BRLF1.This study is the first one to show that the cellular transcription factor BLIMP1, a key player in both epithelial and B-cell differentiation, induces reactivation of the oncogenic herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) out of latency into lytic replication in a variety of cancerous epithelial cell types as well as in some, but not all, B-cell types that contain this virus in a dormant state. The mechanism by which BLIMP1 does so involves strongly turning on expression of both of the immediate early genes of the virus, probably by directly acting upon the promoters as part of protein complexes or indirectly by altering the expression or activities of some cellular transcription factors and signaling pathways. The fact that EBV(+) cancers usually contain mostly undifferentiated cells may be due in part to these cells dying from lytic EBV infection when they differentiate and express wild-type BLIMP1.
|Differentiation-Dependent KLF4 Expression Promotes Lytic Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Epithelial Cells. |
Nawandar, DM; Wang, A; Makielski, K; Lee, D; Ma, S; Barlow, E; Reusch, J; Jiang, R; Wille, CK; Greenspan, D; Greenspan, JS; Mertz, JE; Hutt-Fletcher, L; Johannsen, EC; Lambert, PF; Kenney, SC
PLoS pathogens 11 e1005195 2015
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus associated with B-cell and epithelial cell malignancies. EBV lytically infects normal differentiated oral epithelial cells, where it causes a tongue lesion known as oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) in immunosuppressed patients. However, the cellular mechanism(s) that enable EBV to establish exclusively lytic infection in normal differentiated oral epithelial cells are not currently understood. Here we show that a cellular transcription factor known to promote epithelial cell differentiation, KLF4, induces differentiation-dependent lytic EBV infection by binding to and activating the two EBV immediate-early gene (BZLF1 and BRLF1) promoters. We demonstrate that latently EBV-infected, telomerase-immortalized normal oral keratinocyte (NOKs) cells undergo lytic viral reactivation confined to the more differentiated cell layers in organotypic raft culture. Furthermore, we show that endogenous KLF4 expression is required for efficient lytic viral reactivation in response to phorbol ester and sodium butyrate treatment in several different EBV-infected epithelial cell lines, and that the combination of KLF4 and another differentiation-dependent cellular transcription factor, BLIMP1, is highly synergistic for inducing lytic EBV infection. We confirm that both KLF4 and BLIMP1 are expressed in differentiated, but not undifferentiated, epithelial cells in normal tongue tissue, and show that KLF4 and BLIMP1 are both expressed in a patient-derived OHL lesion. In contrast, KLF4 protein is not detectably expressed in B cells, where EBV normally enters latent infection, although KLF4 over-expression is sufficient to induce lytic EBV reactivation in Burkitt lymphoma cells. Thus, KLF4, together with BLIMP1, plays a critical role in mediating lytic EBV reactivation in epithelial cells.
|A Herpesvirus Specific Motif of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Polymerase Is Required for the Efficient Lytic Genome Synthesis. |
Narita, Y; Sugimoto, A; Kawashima, D; Watanabe, T; Kanda, T; Kimura, H; Tsurumi, T; Murata, T
Scientific reports 5 11767 2015
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies, including Burkitt lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To overcome such disorders, understanding the molecular mechanisms of the EBV replication is important. The EBV DNA polymerase (Pol) is one of the essential factors for viral lytic DNA replication. Although it is well known that its C-terminal half, possessing DNA polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activity, is highly conserved among Family B Pols, the NH2-terminal half has yet to be characterized in detail. In this study, we show that a stretch of hydrophobic amino acids within the pre-NH2-terminal domain of EBV Pol plays important role. In addition, we could identify the most essential residue for replication in the motif. These findings will shed light on molecular mechanisms of viral DNA synthesis and will help to develop new herpesviruses treatments.
|Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1 protein regulates viral latency through effects on let-7 microRNA and dicer. |
Mansouri, S; Pan, Q; Blencowe, BJ; Claycomb, JM; Frappier, L
Journal of virology 88 11166-77 2014
The EBNA1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays multiple roles in EBV latent infection, including altering cellular pathways relevant for cancer. Here we used microRNA (miRNA) cloning coupled with high-throughput sequencing to identify the effects of EBNA1 on cellular miRNAs in two nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines. EBNA1 affected a small percentage of cellular miRNAs in both cell lines, in particular, upregulating multiple let-7 family miRNAs, including let-7a. The effects of EBNA1 on let-7a were verified by demonstrating that EBNA1 silencing in multiple EBV-positive carcinomas downregulated let-7a. Accordingly, the let-7a target, Dicer, was found to be partially downregulated by EBNA1 expression (at the mRNA and protein levels) and upregulated by EBNA1 silencing in EBV-positive cells. Reporter assays based on the Dicer 3' untranslated region with and without let-7a target sites indicated that the effects of EBNA1 on Dicer were mediated by let-7a. EBNA1 was also found to induce the expression of let-7a primary RNAs in a manner dependent on the EBNA1 transcriptional activation region, suggesting that EBNA1 induces let-7a by transactivating the expression of its primary transcripts. Consistent with previous reports that Dicer promotes EBV reactivation, we found that a let-7a mimic inhibited EBV reactivation to the lytic cycle, while a let-7 sponge increased reactivation. The results provide a mechanism by which EBNA1 could promote EBV latency by inducing let-7 miRNAs.The EBNA1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) contributes in multiple ways to the latent mode of EBV infection that leads to lifelong infection. In this study, we identify a mechanism by which EBNA1 helps to maintain EBV infection in a latent state. This involves induction of a family of microRNAs (let-7 miRNAs) that in turn decreases the level of the cellular protein Dicer. We demonstrate that let-7 miRNAs inhibit the reactivation of latent EBV, providing an explanation for our previous observation that EBNA1 promotes latency. In addition, since decreased levels of Dicer have been associated with metastatic potential, EBNA1 may increase metastases by downregulating Dicer.
|A role for the nucleosome assembly proteins TAF-Iβ and NAP1 in the activation of BZLF1 expression and Epstein-Barr virus reactivation. |
Mansouri, S; Wang, S; Frappier, L
PloS one 8 e63802 2013
The reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from latent to lytic infection begins with the expression of the viral BZLF1 gene, leading to a subsequent cascade of viral gene expression and amplification of the EBV genome. Using RNA interference, we show that nucleosome assembly proteins NAP1 and TAF-I positively contribute to EBV reactivation in epithelial cells through the induction of BZLF1 expression. In addition, overexpression of NAP1 or the β isoform of TAF-I (TAF-Iβ) in AGS cells latently infected with EBV was sufficient to induce BZLF1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments performed in AGS-EBV cells showed that TAF-I associated with the BZLF1 promoter upon lytic induction and affected local histone modifications by increasing H3K4 dimethylation and H4K8 acetylation. MLL1, the host protein known to dimethylate H3K4, was found to associate with the BZLF1 promoter upon lytic induction in a TAF-I-dependent manner, and MLL1 depletion decreased BZLF1 expression, confirming its contribution to lytic reactivation. The results indicate that TAF-Iβ promotes BZLF1 expression and subsequent lytic infection by affecting chromatin at the BZLF1 promoter.
|Functions of the Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1 protein in viral reactivation and lytic infection. |
Sivachandran, N; Wang, X; Frappier, L
Journal of virology 86 6146-58 2012
EBNA1 is the only nuclear Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) protein expressed in both latent and lytic modes of infection. While EBNA1 is known to play several important roles in latent infection, the reason for its continued expression in lytic infection is unknown. Here we identified two roles for EBNA1 in the reactivation of latent EBV to the lytic cycle in epithelial cells. First, EBNA1 depletion in latently infected cells was shown to positively contribute to spontaneous EBV reactivation, showing that EBNA1 has a role in suppressing reactivation. Second, when the lytic cycle was induced, EBNA1 depletion decreased lytic gene expression and DNA amplification, showing that it positively contributed to lytic infection. Since we have previously shown that EBNA1 disrupts promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, we investigated whether this function could account for the effects of EBNA1 on lytic infection by repeating the experiments with cells lacking PML proteins. In the absence of PML, EBNA1 did not promote lytic infection, indicating that the EBNA1-mediated PML disruption is responsible for promoting lytic infection. In keeping with this conclusion, PML silencing was found to be sufficient to induce the EBV lytic cycle. Finally, by generating cells with single PML isoforms, we showed that individual PML isoforms were sufficient to suppress EBV lytic reactivation, although PML isoform IV (PML IV) was ineffective because it was most efficiently degraded by EBNA1. Our results provide the first function for EBNA1 in lytic infection and show that EBNA1 interactions with PML IV lead to a loss of PML nuclear bodies (NBs) that promotes lytic infection.
|Epstein-Barr virus protein kinase BGLF4 is a virion tegument protein that dissociates from virions in a phosphorylation-dependent process and phosphorylates the viral immediate-early protein BZLF1. |
Asai, R; Kato, A; Kato, K; Kanamori-Koyama, M; Sugimoto, K; Sairenji, T; Nishiyama, Y; Kawaguchi, Y
Journal of virology 80 5125-34 2006
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BGLF4 is a viral protein kinase that is expressed in the lytic phase of infection and is packaged in virions. We report here that BGLF4 is a tegument protein that dissociates from the virion in a phosphorylation-dependent process. We also present evidence that BGLF4 interacts with and phosphorylates BZLF1, a key viral regulator of lytic infection. These conclusions are based on the following observations. (i) In in vitro tegument release assays, a significant fraction of BGLF4 was released from virions in the presence of physiological NaCl concentrations. (ii) Addition of physiological concentrations of ATP and MgCl(2) to virions enhanced BGLF4 release, but phosphatase treatment of virions significantly reduced BGLF4 release. (iii) A recombinant protein containing a domain of BZLF1 was specifically phosphorylated by purified recombinant BGLF4 in vitro, and BGLF4 altered BZLF1 posttranslational modification in vivo. (iv) BZLF1 was specifically coimmunoprecipitated with BGLF4 in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated B95-8 cells and in COS-1 cells transiently expressing both of these viral proteins. (v) BGLF4 and BZLF1 were colocalized in intranuclear globular structures, resembling the viral replication compartment, in Akata cells treated with anti-human immunoglobulin G. Our results suggest that BGLF4 functions not only in lytically infected cells by phosphorylating viral and cellular targets but also immediately after viral penetration like other herpesvirus tegument proteins.
|Association of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen diffuse component and virus-specified DNA polymerase activity. |
Li, J S, et al.
J. Virol., 61: 2947-9 (1987) 1987
The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) early antigen diffuse component (EA-D) and its relationship with EBV DNA polymerase in EBV genome-carrying cells are unclear, EBV-specified DNA polymerase was purified in a sequential manner from Raji cells treated with phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate and n-butyrate by phosphocellulose, DEAE-cellulose, double-stranded DNA-cellulose, and blue Sepharose column chromatography. Four polypeptides with molecular masses of 110,000, 100,000, 55,000, and 49,000 daltons were found to be associated with EBV-specified DNA polymerase activity. A monoclonal antibody which could neutralize the EBV DNA polymerase activity was prepared and found to recognize 55,000- and 49,000-dalton polypeptides. An EA-D monoclonal antibody, R3 (G. R. Pearson, V. Vorman, B. Chase, T. Sculley, M. Hummel, and E. Kieff, J. Virol. 47:183-201, 1983), was also able to recognize these same two polypeptides associated with EBV DNA polymerase activity. It was concluded that EBV EA-D polypeptides, as identified by R3 monoclonal antibody, are critical components of EBV DNA polymerase.
|Identification of polypeptide components of the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen complex with monoclonal antibodies. |
Pearson, G R, et al.
J. Virol., 47: 193-201 (1983) 1983
Three monoclonal antibodies were produced against the Epstein-Barr virus-induced early antigen complex. These antibodies were shown to be specific for the early antigen complex by the fact that they only reacted with cells supporting a permissive or abortive Epstein-Barr virus infection and their synthesis was not affected by inhibitors of viral DNA synthesis. One monoclonal antibody, designated R3, was directed against a diffuse component of the early antigen complex since it reacted by immunofluorescence with cells fixed in acetone or methanol. The other two monoclonal antibodies, designated K8 and K9, reacted with a methanol-sensitive restricted component of this complex. The appearance of the R3 antigen in P3HR-1 superinfected Raji cells occurred approximately 4 h earlier than the antigen detected by K8. By both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and radioimmunoelectrophoresis, it was determined that the R3 monoclonal antibody recognized two major polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 50,000 to 52,000, whereas K8 and K9 precipitated a protein of approximately 85,000. The R3 monoclonal antibody also immunoprecipitated an in vitro primary translation product. It was, therefore, possible to map this product to the Epstein-Barr virus DNA BamH1 M fragment. These in vitro products were slightly smaller than the in vivo proteins, suggesting that these proteins probably undergo posttranslational modification during the virus replication cycle.
|Anti-EBV EA-D-p52/50, clone R3 - Data Sheet|