Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R, B, Dr, Sh, F, Xn||ICC, IF, IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified mouse monoclonal IgG2b in buffer containing 20 mM sodium phosphate, 250 mM NaCl, pH. 7.6, with 0.1% sodium azide as a preservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 6 months at 2-8°C in undiluted aliquots from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Huntingtin is required for ER-to-Golgi transport and for secretory vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane.|
Brandstaetter, H; Kruppa, AJ; Buss, F
Disease models & mechanisms 7 1335-40 2014
Huntingtin is a large membrane-associated scaffolding protein that associates with endocytic and exocytic vesicles and modulates their trafficking along cytoskeletal tracks. Although the progression of Huntington's disease is linked to toxic accumulation of mutant huntingtin protein, loss of wild-type huntingtin function might also contribute to neuronal cell death, but its precise function is not well understood. Therefore, we investigated the molecular role of huntingtin in exocytosis and observed that huntingtin knockdown in HeLa cells causes a delay in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport and a reduction in the number of cargo vesicles leaving the trans-Golgi network. In addition, we found that huntingtin is required for secretory vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane. Similar defects in the early exocytic pathway were observed in primary fibroblasts from homozygous Htt(140Q/140Q) knock-in mice, which have the expansion inserted into the mouse huntingtin gene so lack wild-type huntingtin expression. Interestingly, heterozygous fibroblasts from a Huntington's disease patient with a 180Q expansion displayed no obvious defects in the early secretory pathway. Thus, our results highlight the requirement for wild-type huntingtin at distinct steps along the secretory pathway.
|Transgenic expression of constitutively active RAC1 disrupts mouse rod morphogenesis.|
Song, H; Bush, RA; Vijayasarathy, C; Fariss, RN; Kjellstrom, S; Sieving, PA
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 55 2659-68 2014
Dominant-active RAC1 rescues photoreceptor structure in Drosophila rhodopsin-null mutants, indicating an important role in morphogenesis. This report assesses the morphogenetic effect of activated RAC1 during mammalian rod photoreceptor development using transgenic mice that express constitutively active (CA) RAC1.Transgenic mice were generated by expressing CA RAC1 under control of the Rhodopsin promoter, and morphological features of the photoreceptors were evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. Function was evaluated by electroretinography. Potential protein partners of CA RAC1 were identified by co-immunoprecipitation of retinal extracts.Constitutively active RAC1 expression in differentiating rods disrupted outer retinal lamination as early as postnatal day (P)6, and many photoreceptor cell nuclei were displaced apically into the presumptive subretinal space. These photoreceptors did not develop normal inner and outer segments and had abnormal placement of synaptic elements. Some photoreceptor nuclei were also mislocalized into the inner nuclear layer. Extensive photoreceptor degeneration was subsequently observed in the adult animal. Constitutively active RAC1 formed a complex with the polarity protein PAR6 and with microtubule motor dynein in mouse retina. The normal localization of the PAR6 complex was disrupted in CA RAC1-expressing rod photoreceptors.Constitutively active RAC1 had a profound negative effect on mouse rod cell viability and development. Rod photoreceptors in the CA RAC1 retina exhibited a defect in polarity and migration. Constitutively active RAC1 disrupted rod morphogenesis and gave a phenotype resembling that found in the Crumbs mutant. PAR6 and dynein are two potential downstream effectors that may be involved in CA RAC1-mediated defective mouse photoreceptor morphogenesis.
|Motor-driven marginal band coiling promotes cell shape change during platelet activation.|
Diagouraga, B; Grichine, A; Fertin, A; Wang, J; Khochbin, S; Sadoul, K
The Journal of cell biology 204 177-85 2014
Platelets float in the blood as discoid particles. Their shape is maintained by microtubules organized in a ring structure, the so-called marginal band (MB), in the periphery of resting platelets. Platelets are activated after vessel injury and undergo a major shape change known as disc to sphere transition. It has been suggested that actomyosin tension induces the contraction of the MB to a smaller ring. In this paper, we show that antagonistic microtubule motors keep the MB in its resting state. During platelet activation, dynein slides microtubules apart, leading to MB extension rather than contraction. The MB then starts to coil, thereby inducing the spherical shape of activating platelets. Newly polymerizing microtubules within the coiled MB will then take a new path to form the smaller microtubule ring, in concerted action with actomyosin tension. These results present a new view of the platelet activation mechanism and reveal principal mechanistic features underlying cellular shape changes.
|Subunit composition of the human cytoplasmic dynein-2 complex.|
Asante, D; Stevenson, NL; Stephens, DJ
Journal of cell science 127 4774-87 2014
Cytoplasmic dynein-2 is the motor for retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT), and mutations in dynein-2 are known to cause skeletal ciliopathies. Here, we define for the first time the composition of the human cytoplasmic dynein-2 complex. We show that the proteins encoded by the ciliopathy genes WDR34 and WDR60 are bona fide dynein-2 intermediate chains and are both required for dynein-2 function. In addition, we identify TCTEX1D2 as a unique dynein-2 light chain that is itself required for cilia function. We define several subunits common to both dynein-1 and dynein-2, including TCTEX-1 (also known as DYNLT1) and TCTEX-3 (also known as DYNLT3), roadblock-1 (also known as DYNLRB1) and roadblock-2 (also known as DYNLRB2), and LC8-1 and LC8-2 light chains (DYNLL1 and DYNLL2, respectively). We also find that NudCD3 associates with dynein-2 as it does with dynein-1. By contrast, the common dynein-1 regulators dynactin, LIS1 (also known as PAFAH1B1) and BICD2 are not found in association with dynein-2. These data explain why mutations in either WDR34 or WDR60 cause disease, as well as identifying TCTEX1D2 as a candidate ciliopathy gene.
|Nigrostriatal dynein changes in A53T alpha-synuclein transgenic mice.|
Liu, Y; Yuan, YH; Sun, JD; Li, J; Li, ZP; Chen, NH
F1000Research 3 68 2014
The accumulation of misfolded a-synuclein is mechanistically linked to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) and other alpha-synucleinopathies. However, how alpha-synuclein causes neurodegeneration is unresolved. Several studies have supported the involvement of dynein, the major motor for retrograde axonal transport in alpha-synuclein-dependent neurodegeneration, especially in the nigrostriatal system. Therefore, we examined the nigrostriatal dyneins in transgenic mice that overexpress human A53T alpha-synuclein and recapitulate key features of a PD-like neuronal synucleinopathy. Age-matched nontransgenic littermates were used as controls. The results demonstrated that the protein level of dynein was decreased in the striatum, whereas it was elevated in the substantia nigra. Double immunostaining results revealed that the reduction in dynein level was associated with aggregation of A53T a-synuclein in the striatum. Furthermore, we performed a quantitative analysis of motor behaviors in A53T alpha-synuclein transgenic mice and controls using a modified open field test. We demonstrated that the protein level of dynein in the striatum was significantly correlated with the motor behaviors. Together, our data indicate that dynein changes in the nigrostriatal system of A53T alpha-synuclein transgenic mice may contribute to their severe movement disorder.
|The calcium-dependent ribonuclease XendoU promotes ER network formation through local RNA degradation.|
Schwarz, DS; Blower, MD
The Journal of cell biology 207 41-57 2014
How cells shape and remodel organelles in response to cellular signals is a poorly understood process. Using Xenopus laevis egg extract, we found that increases in cytosolic calcium lead to the activation of an endogenous ribonuclease, XendoU. A fraction of XendoU localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is required for nuclear envelope assembly and ER network formation in a catalysis-dependent manner. Using a purified vesicle fusion assay, we show that XendoU functions on the surface of ER membranes to promote RNA cleavage and ribonucleoprotein (RNP) removal. Additionally, RNA removal from the surface of vesicles by RNase treatment leads to increased ER network formation. Using human tissue culture cells, we found that hEndoU localizes to the ER, where it promotes the formation of ER tubules in a catalysis-dependent manner. Together, these results demonstrate that calcium-activated removal of RNA from membranes by XendoU promotes and refines ER remodeling and the formation of tubular ER.
|Establishing a novel knock-in mouse line for studying neuronal cytoplasmic dynein under normal and pathologic conditions.|
Zhang, J; Twelvetrees, AE; Lazarus, JE; Blasier, KR; Yao, X; Inamdar, NA; Holzbaur, EL; Pfister, KK; Xiang, X
Cytoskeleton (Hoboken, N.J.) 70 215-27 2013
Cytoplasmic dynein plays important roles in mitosis and the intracellular transport of organelles, proteins, and mRNAs. Dynein function is particularly critical for survival of neurons, as mutations in dynein are linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Dynein function is also implicated in neuronal regeneration, driving the active transport of signaling molecules following injury of peripheral neurons. To enhance our understanding of dynein function and regulation in neurons, we established a novel knock-in mouse line in which the neuron-specific cytoplasmic dynein 1 intermediate chain 1 (IC-1) is tagged with both GFP and a 3xFLAG tag at its C-terminus. The fusion gene is under the control of IC-1's endogenous promoter and is integrated at the endogenous locus of the IC-1-encoding gene Dync1i1. The IC-1-GFP-3xFLAG fusion protein is incorporated into the endogenous dynein complex, and movements of GFP-labeled dynein expressed at endogenous levels can be observed in cultured neurons for the first time. The knock-in mouse line also allows isolation and analysis of dynein-bound proteins specifically from neurons. Using this mouse line we have found proteins, including 14-3-3 zeta, which physically interact with dynein upon injury of the brain cortex. Thus, we have created a useful tool for studying dynein function in the central nervous system under normal and pathologic conditions.
|Requirement for protein kinase A in the phosphorylation of the TGFβ receptor-interacting protein km23-1 as a component of TGFβ downstream effects.|
Jin, Q; Zhong, Y; Mulder, KM
Experimental cell research 319 897-907 2013
km23-1 was previously identified as a TGFβ-receptor interacting protein that was phosphorylated on serines after TGFβ stimulation. In the current report, we examined the role of km23-1 phosphorylation in the downstream effects of TGFβ/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. Using phosphorylation site prediction software, we found that km23-1 has two potential PKA consensus phosphorylation sites. In vitro kinase assays further demonstrated that PKA directly phosphorylates km23-1 on serine 73 (S73). Moreover, our results show that the PKA-specific inhibitor H89 diminishes phosphorylation of km23-1 on S73 after TGFβ stimulation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TGFβ induction of PKA activity results in phosphorylation of km23-1 on S73. In order to assess the mechanisms underlying PKA phosphorylation of km23-1 on S73 (S73-km23-1) after TGFβ stimulation, immunoprecipitation (IP)/blot analyses were performed, which demonstrate that TGFβ regulates complex formation between the PKA regulatory subunit RIβ and km23-1 in vivo. In addition, an S73A mutant of km23-1 (S73A-km23-1), which could not be phosphorylated by PKA, inhibited TGFβ induction of the km23-1-dynein complex and transcriptional activation of the activin-responsive element (ARE). Furthermore, our results show that km23-1 is required for cAMP-responsive element (CRE) transcriptional activation by TGFβ, with S73-km23-1 being required for the CRE-dependent TGFβ stimulation of fibronectin (FN) transcription. Collectively, our results demonstrate for the first time that TGFβ/PKA phosphorylation of km23-1 on S73 is required for ARE- and CRE-mediated downstream events that include FN induction.
|Dynein interacts with the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM180) to tether dynamic microtubules and maintain synaptic density in cortical neurons.|
Perlson, E; Hendricks, AG; Lazarus, JE; Ben-Yaakov, K; Gradus, T; Tokito, M; Holzbaur, EL
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 27812-24 2013
Cytoplasmic dynein is well characterized as an organelle motor, but dynein also acts to tether and stabilize dynamic microtubule plus-ends in vitro. Here we identify a novel and direct interaction between dynein and the 180-kDa isoform of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). Optical trapping experiments indicate that dynein bound to beads via the NCAM180 interaction domain can tether projecting microtubule plus-ends. Live cell assays indicate that the NCAM180-dependent recruitment of dynein to the cortex leads to the selective stabilization of microtubules projecting to NCAM180 patches at the cell periphery. The dynein-NCAM180 interaction also enhances cell-cell adhesion in heterologous cell assays. Dynein and NCAM180 co-precipitate from mouse brain extract and from synaptosomal fractions, consistent with an endogenous interaction in neurons. Thus, we examined microtubule dynamics and synaptic density in primary cortical neurons. We find that depletion of NCAM, inhibition of the dynein-NCAM180 interaction, or dampening of microtubule dynamics with low dose nocodazole all result in significantly decreased in synaptic density. Based on these observations, we propose a working model for the role of dynein at the synapse, in which the anchoring of the motor to the cortex via binding to an adhesion molecule mediates the tethering of dynamic microtubule plus-ends to potentiate synaptic stabilization.
|Dlic1 deficiency impairs ciliogenesis of photoreceptors by destabilizing dynein.|
Kong, S; Du, X; Du, X; Peng, C; Wu, Y; Li, H; Jin, X; Hou, L; Deng, K; Xu, T; Tao, W
Cell research 23 835-50 2013
Cytoplasmic dynein 1 is fundamentally important for transporting a variety of essential cargoes along microtubules within eukaryotic cells. However, in mammals, few mutants are available for studying the effects of defects in dynein-controlled processes in the context of the whole organism. Here, we deleted mouse Dlic1 gene encoding DLIC1, a subunit of the dynein complex. Dlic1(-/-) mice are viable, but display severe photoreceptor degeneration. Ablation of Dlic1 results in ectopic accumulation of outer segment (OS) proteins, and impairs OS growth and ciliogenesis of photoreceptors by interfering with Rab11-vesicle trafficking and blocking efficient OS protein transport from Golgi to the basal body. Our studies show that Dlic1 deficiency partially blocks vesicle export from endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but seems not to affect vesicle transport from the ER to Golgi. Further mechanistic study reveals that lack of Dlic1 destabilizes dynein subunits and alters the normal subcellular distribution of dynein in photoreceptors, probably due to the impaired transport function of dynein. Our results demonstrate that Dlic1 plays important roles in ciliogenesis and protein transport to the OS, and is required for photoreceptor development and survival. The Dlic1(-/-) mice also provide a new mouse model to study human retinal degeneration.
|Anti-Dynein, 74 kDa Intermediate chains, cytoplasmic, clone 74.1 - Data Sheet|