Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, Mk, R||ICC, IHC, WB||R||Culture Supernatant||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
References | 117 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Morphological evidence for dopamine interactions with pallidal neurons in primates. |
Eid, L; Parent, M
Frontiers in neuroanatomy 9 111 2015
The external (GPe) and internal (GPi) segments of the primate globus pallidus receive dopamine (DA) axonal projections arising mainly from the substantia nigra pars compacta and this innervation is here described based on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical observations gathered in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). At the light microscopic level, unbiased stereological quantification of TH positive (+) axon varicosities reveals a similar density of innervation in the GPe (0.19 ± 0.02 × 10(6) axon varicosities/mm(3) of tissue) and GPi (0.17 ± 0.01 × 10(6)), but regional variations occur in the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes in both GPe and GPi and along the mediolateral plane in the GPe. Estimation of the neuronal population in the GPe (3.47 ± 0.15 × 10(3) neurons/mm(3)) and GPi (2.69 ± 0.18 × 10(6)) yields a mean ratio of, respectively, 28 ± 3 and 68 ± 15 TH+ axon varicosities/pallidal neuron. At the electron microscopic level, TH+ axon varicosities in the GPe appear significantly smaller than those in the GPi and very few TH+ axon varicosities are engaged in synaptic contacts in the GPe (17 ± 3%) and the GPi (15 ± 4%) compared to their unlabeled counterparts (77 ± 6 and 50 ± 12%, respectively). Genuine synaptic contacts made by TH+ axon varicosities in the GPe and GPi are of the symmetrical and asymmetrical type. Such synaptic contacts together with the presence of numerous synaptic vesicles in all TH+ axon varicosities observed in the GPe and GPi support the functionality of the DA pallidal innervation. By virtue of its predominantly volumic mode of action, DA appears to exert a key modulatory effect upon pallidal neurons in concert with the more direct GABAergic inhibitory and glutamatergic excitatory actions of the striatum and subthalamic nucleus. We argue that the DA pallidal innervation plays a major role in the functional organization of the primate basal ganglia under both normal and pathological conditions.
|Rare autism-associated variants implicate syntaxin 1 (STX1 R26Q) phosphorylation and the dopamine transporter (hDAT R51W) in dopamine neurotransmission and behaviors. |
Cartier, E; Hamilton, PJ; Belovich, AN; Shekar, A; Campbell, NG; Saunders, C; Andreassen, TF; Gether, U; Veenstra-Vanderweele, J; Sutcliffe, JS; Ulery-Reynolds, PG; Erreger, K; Matthies, HJ; Galli, A
EBioMedicine 2 135-146 2015
Syntaxin 1 (STX1) is a presynaptic plasma membrane protein that coordinates synaptic vesicle fusion. STX1 also regulates the function of neurotransmitter transporters, including the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT). The DAT is a membrane protein that controls DA homeostasis through the high-affinity re-uptake of synaptically released DA.We adopt newly developed animal models and state-of-the-art biophysical techniques to determine the contribution of the identified gene variants to impairments in DA neurotransmission observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).Here, we characterize two independent autism-associated variants in the genes that encode STX1 and the DAT. We demonstrate that each variant dramatically alters DAT function. We identify molecular mechanisms that converge to inhibit reverse transport of DA and DA-associated behaviors. These mechanisms involve decreased phosphorylation of STX1 at Ser14 mediated by casein kinase 2 as well as a reduction in STX1/DAT interaction. These findings point to STX1/DAT interactions and STX1 phosphorylation as key regulators of DA homeostasis.We determine the molecular identity and the impact of these variants with the intent of defining DA dysfunction and associated behaviors as possible complications of ASD.
|Parkin cooperates with GDNF/RET signaling to prevent dopaminergic neuron degeneration. |
Meka, DP; Müller-Rischart, AK; Nidadavolu, P; Mohammadi, B; Motori, E; Ponna, SK; Aboutalebi, H; Bassal, M; Annamneedi, A; Finckh, B; Miesbauer, M; Rotermund, N; Lohr, C; Tatzelt, J; Winklhofer, KF; Kramer, ER
The Journal of clinical investigation 125 1873-85 2015
Parkin and the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptor RET have both been independently linked to the dopaminergic neuron degeneration that underlies Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we demonstrate that there is genetic crosstalk between parkin and the receptor tyrosine kinase RET in two different mouse models of PD. Mice lacking both parkin and RET exhibited accelerated dopaminergic cell and axonal loss compared with parkin-deficient animals, which showed none, and RET-deficient mice, in which we found moderate degeneration. Transgenic expression of parkin protected the dopaminergic systems of aged RET-deficient mice. Downregulation of either parkin or RET in neuronal cells impaired mitochondrial function and morphology. Parkin expression restored mitochondrial function in GDNF/RET-deficient cells, while GDNF stimulation rescued mitochondrial defects in parkin-deficient cells. In both cases, improved mitochondrial function was the result of activation of the prosurvival NF-κB pathway, which was mediated by RET through the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. Taken together, these observations indicate that parkin and the RET signaling cascade converge to control mitochondrial integrity and thereby properly maintain substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons and their innervation in the striatum. The demonstration of crosstalk between parkin and RET highlights the interplay in the protein network that is altered in PD and suggests potential therapeutic targets and strategies to treat PD.
|Activin A protects midbrain neurons in the 6-hydroxydopamine mouse model of Parkinson's disease. |
Stayte, S; Rentsch, P; Li, KM; Vissel, B
PloS one 10 e0124325 2015
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and a subsequent loss of dopamine (DA) within the striatum. Despite advances in the development of pharmacological therapies that are effective at alleviating the symptoms of PD, the search for therapeutic treatments that halt or slow the underlying nigral degeneration remains a particular challenge. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily, has been shown to play a role in the neuroprotection of midbrain neurons against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in vitro, suggesting that activin A may offer similar neuroprotective effects in in vivo models of PD. Using robust stereological methods, we found that intrastriatal injections of 6-OHDA results in a significant loss of both TH positive and NeuN positive populations in the SNpc at 1, 2, and 3 weeks post-lesioning in drug naïve mice. Exogenous application of activin A for 7 days, beginning the day prior to 6-OHDA administration, resulted in a significant survival of both dopaminergic and total neuron numbers in the SNpc against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity. However, we found no corresponding protection of striatal DA or dopamine transporter (DAT) expression levels in animals receiving activin A compared to vehicle controls. These results provide the first evidence that activin A exerts potent neuroprotection in a mouse model of PD, however this neuroprotection may be localized to the midbrain.
|Are striatal tyrosine hydroxylase interneurons dopaminergic? |
Xenias, HS; Ibáñez-Sandoval, O; Koós, T; Tepper, JM
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 6584-99 2015
Striatal GABAergic interneurons that express the gene for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) have been identified previously by several methods. Although generally assumed to be dopaminergic, possibly serving as a compensatory source of dopamine (DA) in Parkinson's disease, this assumption has never been tested directly. In TH-Cre mice whose nigrostriatal pathway had been eliminated unilaterally with 6-hydroxydopamine, we injected a Cre-dependent virus coding for channelrhodopsin-2 and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein unilaterally into the unlesioned midbrain or bilaterally into the striatum. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in striatal slices revealed that both optical and electrical stimulation readily elicited DA release in control striata but not from contralateral striata when nigrostriatal neurons were transduced. In contrast, neither optical nor electrical stimulation could elicit striatal DA release in either the control or lesioned striata when the virus was injected directly into the striatum transducing only striatal TH interneurons. This demonstrates that striatal TH interneurons do not release DA. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry in enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-TH mice revealed colocalization of DA, l-amino acid decarboxylase, the DA transporter, and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 with EGFP in midbrain dopaminergic neurons but not in any of the striatal EGFP-TH interneurons. Optogenetic activation of striatal EGFP-TH interneurons produced strong GABAergic inhibition in all spiny neurons tested. These results indicate that striatal TH interneurons are not dopaminergic but rather are a type of GABAergic interneuron that expresses TH but none of the other enzymes or transporters necessary to operate as dopaminergic neurons and exert widespread GABAergic inhibition onto direct and indirect spiny neurons.
|Comprehensive functional characterization of murine infantile Batten disease including Parkinson-like behavior and dopaminergic markers. |
Dearborn, JT; Harmon, SK; Fowler, SC; O'Malley, KL; Taylor, GT; Sands, MS; Wozniak, DF
Scientific reports 5 12752 2015
Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL, Infantile Batten disease) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency in palmitoyl protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1). The PPT1-deficient mouse (Cln1(-/-)) is a useful phenocopy of human INCL. Cln1(-/-) mice display retinal dysfunction, seizures, motor deficits, and die at ~8 months of age. However, little is known about the cognitive and behavioral functions of Cln1(-/-) mice during disease progression. In the present study, younger (~1-2 months of age) Cln1(-/-) mice showed minor deficits in motor/sensorimotor functions while older (~5-6 months of age) Cln1(-/-) mice exhibited more severe impairments, including decreased locomotor activity, inferior cued water maze performance, decreased running wheel ability, and altered auditory cue conditioning. Unexpectedly, certain cognitive functions such as some learning and memory capabilities seemed intact in older Cln1(-/-) mice. Younger and older Cln1(-/-) mice presented with walking initiation defects, gait abnormalities, and slowed movements, which are analogous to some symptoms reported in INCL and parkinsonism. However, there was no evidence of alterations in dopaminergic markers in Cln1(-/-) mice. Results from this study demonstrate quantifiable changes in behavioral functions during progression of murine INCL and suggest that Parkinson-like motor/sensorimotor deficits in Cln1(-/-) mice are not mediated by dopamine deficiency.
|Genetic variation in COMT activity impacts learning and dopamine release capacity in the striatum. |
Simpson, EH; Morud, J; Winiger, V; Biezonski, D; Zhu, JP; Bach, ME; Malleret, G; Polan, HJ; Ng-Evans, S; Phillips, PE; Kellendonk, C; Kandel, ER
Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.) 21 205-14 2014
A common genetic polymorphism that results in increased activity of the dopamine regulating enzyme COMT (the COMT Val(158) allele) has been found to associate with poorer cognitive performance and increased susceptibility to develop psychiatric disorders. It is generally assumed that this increase in COMT activity influences cognitive function and psychiatric disease risk by increasing dopamine turnover in cortical synapses, though this cannot be directly measured in humans. Here we explore a novel transgenic mouse model of increased COMT activity, equivalent to the relative increase in activity observed with the human COMT Val(158) allele. By performing an extensive battery of behavioral tests, we found that COMT overexpressing mice (COMT-OE mice) exhibit cognitive deficits selectively in the domains that are affected by the COMT Val(158) allele, stimulus-response learning and working memory, functionally validating our model of increased COMT activity. Although we detected no changes in the level of markers for dopamine synthesis and dopamine transport, we found that COMT-OE mice display an increase in dopamine release capacity in the striatum. This result suggests that increased COMT activity may not only affect dopamine signaling by enhancing synaptic clearance in the cortex, but may also cause changes in presynaptic dopamine function in the striatum. These changes may underlie the behavioral deficits observed in the mice and might also play a role in the cognitive deficits and increased psychiatric disease risk associated with genetic variation in COMT activity in humans.
|Recombineering strategies for developing next generation BAC transgenic tools for optogenetics and beyond. |
Ting, JT; Feng, G
Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience 8 111 2014
The development and application of diverse BAC transgenic rodent lines has enabled rapid progress for precise molecular targeting of genetically-defined cell types in the mammalian central nervous system. These transgenic tools have played a central role in the optogenetic revolution in neuroscience. Indeed, an overwhelming proportion of studies in this field have made use of BAC transgenic Cre driver lines to achieve targeted expression of optogenetic probes in the brain. In addition, several BAC transgenic mouse lines have been established for direct cell-type specific expression of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). While the benefits of these new tools largely outweigh any accompanying challenges, many available BAC transgenic lines may suffer from confounds due in part to increased gene dosage of one or more "extra" genes contained within the large BAC DNA sequences. Here we discuss this under-appreciated issue and propose strategies for developing the next generation of BAC transgenic lines that are devoid of extra genes. Furthermore, we provide evidence that these strategies are simple, reproducible, and do not disrupt the intended cell-type specific transgene expression patterns for several distinct BAC clones. These strategies may be widely implemented for improved BAC transgenesis across diverse disciplines.
|Axonal targeting of the serotonin transporter in cultured rat dorsal raphe neurons is specified by SEC24C-dependent export from the endoplasmic reticulum. |
Montgomery, TR; Steinkellner, T; Sucic, S; Koban, F; Schüchner, S; Ogris, E; Sitte, HH; Freissmuth, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 6344-51 2014
Export of the serotonin transporter (SERT) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is mediated by the SEC24C isoform of the coatomer protein-II complex. SERT must enter the axonal compartment and reach the presynaptic specialization to perform its function, i.e., the inward transport of serotonin. Refilling of vesicles is contingent on the operation of an efficient relay between SERT and the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2). Here, we visualized the distribution of both endogenously expressed SERT and heterologously expressed variants of human SERT in dissociated rat dorsal raphe neurons to examine the role of SEC24C-dependent ER export in axonal targeting of SERT. We conclude that axonal delivery of SERT is contingent on recruitment of SEC24C in the ER. This conclusion is based on the following observations. (1) Both endogenous and heterologously expressed SERT were delivered to the extensive axonal arborizations and accumulated in bouton-like structures. (2) In contrast, SERT-(607)RI(608)-AA, in which the binding site of SEC24C is disrupted, remained confined to the microtubule-associated protein 2-positive somatodendritic compartment. (3) The overexpression of dominant-negative SEC24C-D(796)V/D(797)N (but not of the corresponding SEC24D mutant) redirected both endogenous SERT and heterologously expressed yellow fluorescent protein-SERT from axons to the somatodendritic region. (4) SERT-K(610)Y, which harbors a mutation converting it into an SEC24D client, was rerouted from the axonal to the somatodendritic compartment by dominant-negative SEC24D. In contrast, axonal targeting of the VMAT2 was disrupted by neither dominant-negative SEC24C nor dominant-negative SEC24D. This suggests that SERT and VMAT2 reach the presynaptic specialization by independent routes.
|Progranulin gene delivery protects dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. |
Van Kampen, JM; Baranowski, D; Kay, DG
PloS one 9 e97032 2014
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity and akinesia/bradykinesia resulting from the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. To date, only symptomatic treatment is available for PD patients, with no effective means of slowing or stopping the progression of the disease. Progranulin (PGRN) is a 593 amino acid multifunction protein that is widely distributed throughout the CNS, localized primarily in neurons and microglia. PGRN has been demonstrated to be a potent regulator of neuroinflammation and also acts as an autocrine neurotrophic factor, important for long-term neuronal survival. Thus, enhancing PGRN expression may strengthen the cells resistance to disease. In the present study, we have used the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD to investigate the possible use of PGRN gene delivery as a therapy for the prevention or treatment of PD. Viral vector delivery of the PGRN gene was an effective means of elevating PGRN expression in nigrostriatal neurons. When PGRN expression was elevated in the SNC, nigrostriatal neurons were protected from MPTP toxicity in mice, along with a preservation of striatal dopamine content and turnover. Further, protection of nigrostriatal neurons by PGRN gene therapy was accompanied by reductions in markers of MPTP-induced inflammation and apoptosis as well as a complete preservation of locomotor function. We conclude that PGRN gene therapy may have beneficial effects in the treatment of PD.
|Missense dopamine transporter mutations associate with adult parkinsonism and ADHD. |
Hansen, FH; Skjørringe, T; Yasmeen, S; Arends, NV; Sahai, MA; Erreger, K; Andreassen, TF; Holy, M; Hamilton, PJ; Neergheen, V; Karlsborg, M; Newman, AH; Pope, S; Heales, SJ; Friberg, L; Law, I; Pinborg, LH; Sitte, HH; Loland, C; Shi, L; Weinstein, H; Galli, A; Hjermind, LE; Møller, LB; Gether, U
The Journal of clinical investigation 124 3107-20 2014
Parkinsonism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are widespread brain disorders that involve disturbances of dopaminergic signaling. The sodium-coupled dopamine transporter (DAT) controls dopamine homeostasis, but its contribution to disease remains poorly understood. Here, we analyzed a cohort of patients with atypical movement disorder and identified 2 DAT coding variants, DAT-Ile312Phe and a presumed de novo mutant DAT-Asp421Asn, in an adult male with early-onset parkinsonism and ADHD. According to DAT single-photon emission computed tomography (DAT-SPECT) scans and a fluoro-deoxy-glucose-PET/MRI (FDG-PET/MRI) scan, the patient suffered from progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration. In heterologous cells, both DAT variants exhibited markedly reduced dopamine uptake capacity but preserved membrane targeting, consistent with impaired catalytic activity. Computational simulations and uptake experiments suggested that the disrupted function of the DAT-Asp421Asn mutant is the result of compromised sodium binding, in agreement with Asp421 coordinating sodium at the second sodium site. For DAT-Asp421Asn, substrate efflux experiments revealed a constitutive, anomalous efflux of dopamine, and electrophysiological analyses identified a large cation leak that might further perturb dopaminergic neurotransmission. Our results link specific DAT missense mutations to neurodegenerative early-onset parkinsonism. Moreover, the neuropsychiatric comorbidity provides additional support for the idea that DAT missense mutations are an ADHD risk factor and suggests that complex DAT genotype and phenotype correlations contribute to different dopaminergic pathologies.
|An-jun-ning, a traditional herbal formula, attenuates spontaneous withdrawal symptoms via modulation of the dopamine system in morphine-dependent rats. |
Gao, JL; Tu, SA; Liu, J; Zhang, JM; Huang, Y; Han, M; Liang, JH
BMC complementary and alternative medicine 14 308 2014
The dopamine system, which is involved in drug dependence, can be damaged by opioid abuse. However, current clinical medicines cannot reverse these damages in the brain, which are believed to be a key reason for the high relapse rate after abstinence treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effects of An-jun-ning (AJN), a commercial traditional Chinese medicine formula used for the treatment of opioid addiction, on the dopamine system in morphine-dependent rats and to explore the possible mechanism underlying its therapeutic effects.The morphine dependence model was obtained through injections of morphine at increasing doses for 8 days. The AJN pre-treatment group was administered AJN 30 min before each morphine administration, and the AJN post-treatment groups were treated with AJN for 10 days after withdrawal. Spontaneous withdrawal symptoms (wet dog shakes, and episodes of writhing) were observed after withdrawal. Autoradiography study and/or immunohistochemical staining were used to examine the levels of dopamine transporter (DAT), dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH).(1) Pre-treatment with AJN attenuates wet dog shakes and episodes of writhing to approximately 50% or less of those observed in the morphine group (p less than 0.01). (2) AJN post-treatment dose-dependently reduced the number of wet dog shakes (p less than 0.01), and the episodes of writhing (p less than 0.01). (3) Pre-treatment with AJN effectively interdicted the morphine-induced decreases in the levels of DAT, D2R, and TH in the striatum (p less than 0.01) such that they remained at nearly normal levels. (4) Post-treatment with AJN restored DAT and D2R to the normal levels (p less than 0.01) and the level of TH to 87% of normal in the striatum.AJN can effectively alleviate opioid withdrawal symptoms and preserve or restore the DAT, D2R, and TH levels in the striatum. The mechanism underlying the effect of AJN on withdrawal symptoms may be related to the modulation of the dopamine system by AJN. These results suggest that AJN may help to prevent relapse in opioid dependence treatment.
|Alteration of daily and circadian rhythms following dopamine depletion in MPTP treated non-human primates. |
Fifel, K; Vezoli, J; Dzahini, K; Claustrat, B; Leviel, V; Kennedy, H; Procyk, E; Dkhissi-Benyahya, O; Gronfier, C; Cooper, HM
PloS one 9 e86240 2014
Disturbances of the daily sleep/wake cycle are common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the impact of dopamine (DA) depletion on circadian rhythms in PD patients or non-human primate (NHP) models of the disorder have not been investigated. We evaluated alterations of circadian rhythms in NHP following MPTP lesion of the dopaminergic nigro-striatal system. DA degeneration was assessed by in vivo PET ([(11)C]-PE2I) and post-mortem TH and DAT quantification. In a light∶dark cycle, control and MPTP-treated NHP both exhibit rest-wake locomotor rhythms, although DA-depleted NHP show reduced amplitude, decreased stability and increased fragmentation. In all animals, 6-sulphatoxymelatonin peaks at night and cortisol in early morning. When the circadian system is challenged by exposure to constant light, controls retain locomotor rest-wake and hormonal rhythms that free-run with stable phase relationships whereas in the DA-depleted NHP, locomotor rhythms are severely disturbed or completely abolished. The amplitude and phase relations of hormonal rhythms nevertheless remain unaltered. Use of a light-dark masking paradigm shows that expression of daily rest-wake activity in MPTP monkeys requires the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of light and darkness. These results suggest that following DA lesion, the central clock in the SCN remains intact but, in the absence of environmental timing cues, is unable to drive downstream rhythmic processes of striatal clock gene and dopaminergic functions that control locomotor output. These findings suggest that the circadian component of the sleep-wake disturbances in PD is more profoundly affected than previously assumed.
|Oxidation and nitration in dopaminergic areas of the prefrontal cortex from patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. |
Kim, HK; Andreazza, AC; Yeung, PY; Isaacs-Trepanier, C; Young, LT
Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN 39 276-85 2014
Increased oxidative stress is strongly implicated in bipolar disorder (BD), where protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to DNA have been consistently reported. High levels of dopamine (DA) in mania are also well-recognized in patients with BD, and DA produces reactive oxygen species and electron-deficient quinones that can oxidize proteins when it is metabolized.Using immunohistochemistry and acceptor photobleaching Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), we examined oxidation and nitration of areas immunoreactive for the DA transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the postmortem prefrontal cortex from patients with BD, schizophrenia and major depression as well as nonpsychiatric controls.We found increased oxidation of DAT-immunoreactive regions in patients with BD (F3,48 = 6.76, p = 0.001; Dunnett post hoc test p = 0.001) and decreased nitration of TH-immunoreactive regions in both patients with BD (F3,45 = 3.10, p = 0.036; Dunnett post hoc test p = 0.011) and schizophrenia (p = 0.027). On the other hand, we found increased global levels of oxidation in patients with BD (F3,44 = 6.74, p = 0.001; Dunnett post hoc test p = 0.001) and schizophrenia (p = 0.020), although nitration levels did not differ between the groups (F3,46 = 1.75; p = 0.17).Limitations of this study include the use of postmortem brain sections, which may have been affected by factors such as postmortem interval and antemortem agonal states, although demographic factors and postmortem interval were accounted for in our statistical analysis.These findings suggest alterations in levels of protein oxidation and nitration in DA-rich regions of the prefrontal cortex in patients with BD and schizophrenia, but more markedly in those with BD.
|Transcription factors Foxa1 and Foxa2 are required for adult dopamine neurons maintenance. |
Domanskyi, A; Alter, H; Vogt, MA; Gass, P; Vinnikov, IA
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 8 275 2014
The proteins Foxa1 and Foxa2 belong to the forkhead family of transcription factors and are involved in the development of several tissues, including liver, pancreas, lung, prostate, and the neural system. Both Foxa1 and Foxa2 are also crucial for the specification and differentiation of dopamine (DA) neurons during embryonic development, while about 30% of mice with an embryonic deletion of a single allele of the Foxa2 gene exhibit an age-related asymmetric loss of DA neurons and develop locomotor symptoms resembling Parkinson's disease (PD). Notably, both Foxa1 and Foxa2 factors continue to be expressed in the adult dopamine system. To directly assess their functions selectively in adult DA neurons, we induced genetic deletions of Foxa1/2 transcription factors in mice using a tamoxifen inducible tissue-specific CreERT2 recombinase expressed under control of the dopamine transporter (DAT) promoter (DATCreERT2). The conditional DA neurons-specific ablation of both genes, but not of Foxa2 alone, in early adulthood, caused a decline of striatal dopamine and its metabolites, along with locomotor deficits. At early pre-symptomatic stages, we observed a decline in aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A1 (Aldh1a1) protein expression in DA neurons. Further analyses revealed a decline of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and a complete loss of DAT expression in these neurons. These molecular changes ultimately led to a reduction of DA neuron numbers in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of aged cFoxa1/2 (-/-) mice, resembling the progressive course of PD in humans. Altogether, in this study, we address the molecular, cellular, and functional role of both Foxa1 and Foxa2 factors in the maintenance of the adult dopamine system which may help to find better approaches for PD treatment.
|2-isoxazol-3-phenyltropane derivatives of cocaine: molecular and atypical system effects at the dopamine transporter. |
Hiranita, T; Wilkinson, DS; Hong, WC; Zou, MF; Kopajtic, TA; Soto, PL; Lupica, CR; Newman, AH; Katz, JL
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 349 297-309 2014
The present study examined RTI-371 [3β-(4-methylphenyl)-2β-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-isoxazol-5-yl]tropane], a phenyltropane cocaine analog with effects distinct from cocaine, and assessed potential mechanisms for those effects by comparison with its constitutional isomer, RTI-336 [3β-(4-chlorophenyl)-2β-[3-(4-methylphenyl)-isoxazol-5-yl]tropane]. In mice, RTI-371 was less effective than cocaine and RTI-336 in stimulating locomotion, and incompletely substituted (∼60% maximum at 5 minutes or 1 hour after injection) in a cocaine (10 mg/kg i.p.)/saline discrimination procedure; RTI-336 completely substituted. In contrast to RTI-336, RTI-371 was not self-administered, and its pretreatment (1.0-10 mg/kg i.p.) dose-dependently decreased maximal cocaine self-administration more potently than food-maintained responding. RTI-336 pretreatment dose-dependently left-shifted the cocaine self-administration dose-effect curve. Both RTI-336 and RTI-371 displaced [(3)H]WIN35,428 [[(3)H](-)-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)-tropan-2β-carboxylic acid methyl ester tartrate] binding to striatal dopamine transporters (DATs) with Ki values of 10.8 and 7.81 nM, respectively, and had lower affinities at serotonin or norepinephrine transporters, or muscarinic and σ receptors. The relative low affinity at these sites suggests the DAT as the primary target of RTI-371 with minimal contributions from these other targets. In biochemical assays probing the outward-facing DAT conformation, both RTI-371 and RTI-336 had effects similar to cocaine, suggesting little contribution of DAT conformation to the unique pharmacology of RTI-371. The locomotor-stimulant effects of RTI-371 (3.0-30 mg/kg i.p.) were comparable in wild-type and knockout cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) mice, indicating that previously reported CB1 allosteric effects do not decrease cocaine-like effects of RTI-371. DAT occupancy in vivo was most rapid with cocaine and least with RTI-371. The slow apparent association rate may allow compensatory actions that in turn dampen cocaine-like stimulation, and give RTI-371 its unique pharmacologic profile.
|SLC6A3 coding variant Ala559Val found in two autism probands alters dopamine transporter function and trafficking. |
Bowton, E; Saunders, C; Reddy, IA; Campbell, NG; Hamilton, PJ; Henry, LK; Coon, H; Sakrikar, D; Veenstra-VanderWeele, JM; Blakely, RD; Sutcliffe, J; Matthies, HJ; Erreger, K; Galli, A
Translational psychiatry 4 e464 2014
Emerging evidence associates dysfunction in the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) with the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The human DAT (hDAT; SLC6A3) rare variant with an Ala to Val substitution at amino acid 559 (hDAT A559V) was previously reported in individuals with bipolar disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have demonstrated that this variant is hyper-phosphorylated at the amino (N)-terminal serine (Ser) residues and promotes an anomalous DA efflux phenotype. Here, we report the novel identification of hDAT A559V in two unrelated ASD subjects and provide the first mechanistic description of its impaired trafficking phenotype. DAT surface expression is dynamically regulated by DAT substrates including the psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH), which causes hDAT trafficking away from the plasma membrane. The integrity of DAT trafficking directly impacts DA transport capacity and therefore dopaminergic neurotransmission. Here, we show that hDAT A559V is resistant to AMPH-induced cell surface redistribution. This unique trafficking phenotype is conferred by altered protein kinase C β (PKCβ) activity. Cells expressing hDAT A559V exhibit constitutively elevated PKCβ activity, inhibition of which restores the AMPH-induced hDAT A559V membrane redistribution. Mechanistically, we link the inability of hDAT A559V to traffic in response to AMPH to the phosphorylation of the five most distal DAT N-terminal Ser. Mutation of these N-terminal Ser to Ala restores AMPH-induced trafficking. Furthermore, hDAT A559V has a diminished ability to transport AMPH, and therefore lacks AMPH-induced DA efflux. Pharmacological inhibition of PKCβ or Ser to Ala substitution in the hDAT A559V background restores AMPH-induced DA efflux while promoting intracellular AMPH accumulation. Although hDAT A559V is a rare variant, it has been found in multiple probands with neuropsychiatric disorders associated with imbalances in DA neurotransmission, including ADHD, bipolar disorder, and now ASD. These findings provide valuable insight into a new cellular phenotype (altered hDAT trafficking) supporting dysregulated DA function in these disorders. They also provide a novel potential target (PKCβ) for therapeutic interventions in individuals with ASD.
|Characterization of A11 neurons projecting to the spinal cord of mice. |
Koblinger, K; Füzesi, T; Ejdrygiewicz, J; Krajacic, A; Bains, JS; Whelan, PJ
PloS one 9 e109636 2014
The hypothalamic A11 region has been identified in several species including rats, mice, cats, monkeys, zebrafish, and humans as the primary source of descending dopamine (DA) to the spinal cord. It has been implicated in the control of pain, modulation of the spinal locomotor network, restless leg syndrome, and cataplexy, yet the A11 cell group remains an understudied dopaminergic (DAergic) nucleus within the brain. It is unclear whether A11 neurons in the mouse contain the full complement of enzymes consistent with traditional DA neuronal phenotypes. Given the abundance of mouse genetic models and tools available to interrogate specific neural circuits and behavior, it is critical first to fully understand the phenotype of A11 cells. We provide evidence that, in addition to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) that synthesizes L-DOPA, neurons within the A11 region of the mouse contain aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), the enzyme that converts L-DOPA to dopamine. Furthermore, we show that the A11 neurons contain vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), which is necessary for packaging DA into vesicles. On the contrary, A11 neurons in the mouse lack the dopamine transporter (DAT). In conclusion, our data suggest that A11 neurons are DAergic. The lack of DAT, and therefore the lack of a DA reuptake mechanism, points to a longer time of action compared to typical DA neurons.
|Glial reactivity in resistance to methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. |
Friend, DM; Keefe, KA
Journal of neurochemistry 125 566-74 2013
Neurotoxic regimens of methamphetamine (METH) result in reactive microglia and astrocytes in striatum. Prior data indicate that rats with partial dopamine (DA) loss resulting from prior exposure to METH are resistant to further decreases in striatal DA when re-exposed to METH 30 days later. Such resistant animals also do not show an activated microglia phenotype, suggesting a relation between microglial activation and METH-induced neurotoxicity. To date, the astrocyte response in such resistance has not been examined. Thus, this study examined glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and CD11b protein expression in striata of animals administered saline or a neurotoxic regimen of METH on post-natal days 60 and/or 90 (Saline:Saline, Saline:METH, METH:Saline, METH:METH). Consistent with previous work, animals experiencing acute toxicity (Saline:METH) showed both activated microglia and astocytes, whereas those resistant to the acute toxicity (METH:METH) did not show activated microglia. Interestingly, GFAP expression remained elevated in rats exposed to METH at PND60 (METH:Saline), and was not elevated further in resistant rats treated for the second time with METH (METH:METH). These data suggest that astrocytes remain reactive up to 30 days post-METH exposure. In addition, these data indicate that astrocyte reactivity does not reflect acute, METH-induced DA terminal toxicity, whereas microglial reactivity does.
|Flotillins regulate membrane mobility of the dopamine transporter but are not required for its protein kinase C dependent endocytosis. |
Sorkina, T; Caltagarone, J; Sorkin, A
Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 14 709-24 2013
Flotillins were proposed to mediate clathrin-independent endocytosis, and recently, flotillin-1 was implicated in the protein kinase C (PKC)-triggered endocytosis of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Since endocytosis of DAT was previously shown to be clathrin-mediated, we re-examined the role of clathrin coat proteins and flotillin in DAT endocytosis using DAT tagged with the hemagglutinin epitope (HA) in the extracellular loop and a quantitative HA antibody uptake assay. Depletion of flotillin-1, flotillin-2 or both flotillins together by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) did not inhibit PKC-dependent internalization and degradation of HA-DAT. In contrast, siRNAs to clathrin heavy chain and μ2 subunit of clathrin adaptor complex AP-2 as well as a dynamin inhibitor Dyngo-4A significantly decreased PKC-dependent endocytosis of HA-DAT. Similarly, endocytosis and degradation of DAT that is not epitope-tagged were highly sensitive to the clathrin siRNAs and dynamin inhibition but were not affected by flotillin knockdown. Very little co-localization of DAT with flotillins was observed in cells ectopically expressing DAT and in cultured mouse dopaminergic neurons. Depletion of flotillins increased diffusion rates of HA-DAT in the plasma membrane, suggesting that flotillin-organized microdomains may regulate the lateral mobility of DAT. We propose that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the major pathway of PKC-dependent internalization of DAT, and that flotillins may modulate functional association of DAT with plasma membrane rafts rather than mediate DAT endocytosis.
|Protein kinase Cβ is a modulator of the dopamine D2 autoreceptor-activated trafficking of the dopamine transporter. |
Chen, R; Daining, CP; Sun, H; Fraser, R; Stokes, SL; Leitges, M; Gnegy, ME
Journal of neurochemistry 125 663-72 2013
The strength and duration of extracellular dopamine concentrations are regulated by the presynaptic dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine D2 autoreceptors (D2autoRs). There is a functional interaction between these two proteins. Activation of D2autoRs increases DAT trafficking to the surface whereas disruption of this interaction compromises activities of both proteins and alters dopaminergic transmission. Previously we reported that DAT expression and activity are subject to modulation by protein kinase Cβ (PKCβ). Here, we further demonstrate that PKCβ is integral for the interaction between DAT and D2autoR. Inhibition or absence of PKCβ abolished the communication between DAT and D2autoR. In mouse striatal synaptosomes and transfected N2A cells, the D2autoR-stimulated membrane insertion of DAT was abolished by PKCβ inhibition. Moreover, D2autoR-stimulated DAT trafficking is mediated by a PKCβ-extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling cascade where PKCβ is upstream of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. The increased surface DAT expression upon D2autoR activation resulted from enhanced DAT recycling as opposed to reduced internalization. Further, PKCβ promoted accelerated DAT recycling. Our study demonstrates that PKCβ critically regulates D2autoR-activated DAT trafficking and dopaminergic signaling. PKCβ is a potential drug target for correcting abnormal extracellular dopamine levels in diseases such as drug addiction and schizophrenia.
|Inhibition of dopamine transporter activity by G protein βγ subunits. |
Garcia-Olivares, J; Torres-Salazar, D; Owens, WA; Baust, T; Siderovski, DP; Amara, SG; Zhu, J; Daws, LC; Torres, GE
PloS one 8 e59788 2013
Uptake through the Dopamine Transporter (DAT) is the primary mechanism of terminating dopamine signaling within the brain, thus playing an essential role in neuronal homeostasis. Deregulation of DAT function has been linked to several neurological and psychiatric disorders including ADHD, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and drug addiction. Over the last 15 years, several studies have revealed a plethora of mechanisms influencing the activity and cellular distribution of DAT; suggesting that fine-tuning of dopamine homeostasis occurs via an elaborate interplay of multiple pathways. Here, we show for the first time that the βγ subunits of G proteins regulate DAT activity. In heterologous cells and brain tissue, a physical association between Gβγ subunits and DAT was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, in vitro pull-down assays using purified proteins established that this association occurs via a direct interaction between the intracellular carboxy-terminus of DAT and Gβγ. Functional assays performed in the presence of the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog GTP-γ-S, Gβγ subunit overexpression, or the Gβγ activator mSIRK all resulted in rapid inhibition of DAT activity in heterologous systems. Gβγ activation by mSIRK also inhibited dopamine uptake in brain synaptosomes and dopamine clearance from mouse striatum as measured by high-speed chronoamperometry in vivo. Gβγ subunits are intracellular signaling molecules that regulate a multitude of physiological processes through interactions with enzymes and ion channels. Our findings add neurotransmitter transporters to the growing list of molecules regulated by G-proteins and suggest a novel role for Gβγ signaling in the control of dopamine homeostasis.
|Age-dependent effects of A53T alpha-synuclein on behavior and dopaminergic function. |
Oaks, AW; Frankfurt, M; Finkelstein, DI; Sidhu, A
PloS one 8 e60378 2013
Expression of A53T mutant human alpha-synuclein under the mouse prion promoter is among the most successful transgenic models of Parkinson's disease. Accumulation of A53T alpha-synuclein causes adult mice to develop severe motor impairment resulting in early death at 8-12 months of age. In younger, pre-symptomatic animals, altered motor activity and anxiety-like behaviors have also been reported. These behavioral changes, which precede severe neuropathology, may stem from non-pathological functions of alpha-synuclein, including modulation of monoamine neurotransmission. Our analysis over the adult life-span of motor activity, anxiety-like, and depressive-like behaviors identifies perturbations both before and after the onset of disease. Young A53T mice had increased distribution of the dopamine transporter (DAT) to the membrane that was associated with increased striatal re-uptake function. DAT function decreased with aging, and was associated with neurochemical alterations that included increased expression of beta-synuclein and gamma synuclein. Prior to normalization of dopamine uptake, transient activation of Tau kinases and hyperphosphorylation of Tau in the striatum were also observed. Aged A53T mice had reduced neuron counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta, yet striatal medium spiny neuron dendritic spine density was largely maintained. These findings highlight the involvement of the synuclein family of proteins and phosphorylation of Tau in the response to dopaminergic dysfunction of the nigrostriatal pathway.
|Evaluating the role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-containing striatal interneurons in methamphetamine-induced dopamine neurotoxicity. |
Fricks-Gleason, AN; Keefe, KA
Neurotoxicity research 24 288-97 2013
Production of nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in methamphetamine (METH)-induced dopamine (DA) neurotoxicity. The source of this NO has not been clearly delineated, but recent evidence suggests that it arises from activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which is selectively expressed in a subpopulation of striatal interneurons. Our objective was to determine whether inhibiting activation of nNOS-containing interneurons in the striatum blocks METH-induced neurotoxicity. These interneurons selectively express the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor, which is activated by substance P. One particular toxin, a conjugate of substance P to the ribosome-inactivating protein saporin (SSP-SAP), selectively destroys neurons expressing the NK-1 receptor. Thus, we examined the extent to which depletion of the nNOS-containing interneurons alters production of NO and attenuates METH-induced neurotoxicity. The SSP-SAP lesions resulted in significant loss of nNOS-containing interneurons throughout striatum. Surprisingly, this marked deletion did not confer resistance to METH-induced DA neurotoxicity, even in areas devoid of nNOS-positive cells. Furthermore, these lesions did not attenuate NO production, even in areas lacking nNOS. These data suggest that nNOS-containing interneurons either are not necessary for METH-induced DA neurotoxicity or produce NO that can diffuse extensively through striatal tissue and thereby still mediate neurotoxicity.
|Serine 129 phosphorylation of membrane-associated α-synuclein modulates dopamine transporter function in a G protein-coupled receptor kinase-dependent manner. |
Hara, S; Arawaka, S; Sato, H; Machiya, Y; Cui, C; Sasaki, A; Koyama, S; Kato, T
Molecular biology of the cell 24 1649-60, S1-3 2013
Most α-synuclein (α-syn) deposited in Lewy bodies, the pathological hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD), is phosphorylated at Ser-129. However, the physiological and pathological roles of this modification are unclear. Here we investigate the effects of Ser-129 phosphorylation on dopamine (DA) uptake in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells expressing α-syn. Subcellular fractionation of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-treated cells shows that G protein-coupled receptor kinase 3 (GRK3), GRK5, GRK6, and casein kinase 2 (CK2) contribute to Ser-129 phosphorylation of membrane-associated α-syn, whereas cytosolic α-syn is phosphorylated exclusively by CK2. Expression of wild-type α-syn increases DA uptake, and this effect is diminished by introducing the S129A mutation into α-syn. However, wild-type and S129A α-syn equally increase the cell surface expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) in SH-SY5Y cells and nonneuronal HEK293 cells. In addition, siRNA-mediated knockdown of GRK5 or GRK6 significantly attenuates DA uptake without altering DAT cell surface expression, whereas knockdown of CK2 has no effect on uptake. Taken together, our results demonstrate that membrane-associated α-syn enhances DA uptake capacity of DAT by GRKs-mediated Ser-129 phosphorylation, suggesting that α-syn modulates intracellular DA levels with no functional redundancy in Ser-129 phosphorylation between GRKs and CK2.
|Pharmacological evaluation of SN79, a sigma (σ) receptor ligand, against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in vivo. |
Kaushal, N; Seminerio, MJ; Robson, MJ; McCurdy, CR; Matsumoto, RR
European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 23 960-71 2013
Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug of abuse, causing hyperthermia and neurotoxicity at high doses. Currently, there is no clinically proven pharmacotherapy to treat these effects of methamphetamine, necessitating identification of potential novel therapeutic targets. Earlier studies showed that methamphetamine binds to sigma (σ) receptors in the brain at physiologically relevant concentrations, where it "acts in part as an agonist." SN79 (6-acetyl-3-(4-(4-(4-florophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)benzo[d]oxazol-2(3H)-one) was synthesized as a putative σ receptor antagonist with nanomolar affinity and selectivity for σ receptors over 57 other binding sites. SN79 pretreatment afforded protection against methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia and striatal dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity in male, Swiss Webster mice (measured as depletions in striatal dopamine and serotonin levels, and reductions in striatal dopamine and serotonin transporter expression levels). In contrast, di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG), a well established σ receptor agonist, increased the lethal effects of methamphetamine, although it did not further exacerbate methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. Together, the data implicate σ receptors in the direct modulation of some effects of methamphetamine such as lethality, while having a modulatory role which can mitigate other methamphetamine-induced effects such as hyperthermia and neurotoxicity.
|A C-terminal PDZ domain-binding sequence is required for striatal distribution of the dopamine transporter. |
Rickhag, M; Hansen, FH; Sørensen, G; Strandfelt, KN; Andresen, B; Gotfryd, K; Madsen, KL; Vestergaard-Klewe, I; Ammendrup-Johnsen, I; Eriksen, J; Newman, AH; Füchtbauer, EM; Gomeza, J; Woldbye, DP; Wörtwein, G; Gether, U
Nature communications 4 1580 2013
The dopamine transporter mediates reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. The cellular mechanisms controlling dopamine transporter levels in striatal nerve terminals remain poorly understood. The dopamine transporters contain a C-terminal PDZ (PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1) domain-binding sequence believed to bind synaptic scaffolding proteins, but its functional significance is uncertain. Here we demonstrate that two different dopamine transporter knock-in mice with disrupted PDZ-binding motifs (dopamine transporter-AAA and dopamine transporter+Ala) are characterized by dramatic loss of dopamine transporter expression in the striatum, causing hyperlocomotion and attenuated response to amphetamine. In cultured dopaminergic neurons and striatal slices from dopamine transporter-AAA mice, we find markedly reduced dopamine transporter surface levels and evidence for enhanced constitutive internalization. In dopamine transporter-AAA neurons, but not in wild-type neurons, surface levels are rescued in part by expression of a dominant-negative dynamin mutation (K44A). Our findings suggest that PDZ-domain interactions are critical for synaptic distribution of dopamine transporter in vivo and thereby for proper maintenance of dopamine homoeostasis.
|Differential targeting of the dopamine transporter to recycling or degradative pathways during amphetamine- or PKC-regulated endocytosis in dopamine neurons. |
Hong, WC; Amara, SG
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 27 2995-3007 2013
The dopamine transporter (DAT) clears the extracellular dopamine released during neurotransmission and is a major target for both therapeutic and addictive psychostimulant amphetamines. Amphetamine exposure or activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by the phorbol ester PMA has been shown to down-regulate cell surface DAT. However, in dopamine neurons, the trafficking itinerary and fate of internalized DAT has not been elucidated. By monitoring surface-labeled DAT in transfected dopamine neurons from embryonic rat mesencephalic cultures, we find distinct sorting and fates of internalized DAT after amphetamine or PMA treatment. Although both drugs promote DAT internalization above constitutive endocytosis in dopamine neurons, PMA induces ubiquitination of DAT and leads to accumulation of DAT on LAMP1-positive endosomes. In contrast, after amphetamine exposure DAT is sorted to recycling endosomes positive for Rab11 and the transferrin receptor. Furthermore, quantitative assessment of DAT recycling using an antibody-feeding assay reveals that significantly less DAT returns to the surface of dopamine neurons after internalization by PMA, compared with vehicle or amphetamine treatment. These results demonstrate that, in neurons, the DAT is sorted differentially to recycling and degradative pathways after psychostimulant exposure or PKC activation, which may allow for either the transient or sustained inhibition of DAT during dopamine neurotransmission.
|High correlation between in vivo [123I]β-CIT SPECT/CT imaging and post-mortem immunohistochemical findings in the evaluation of lesions induced by 6-OHDA in rats. |
Bäck, S; Raki, M; Tuominen, RK; Raasmaja, A; Bergström, K; Männistö, PT
EJNMMI research 3 46 2013
6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is widely used in pre-clinical animal studies to induce degeneration of midbrain dopamine neurons to create animal models of Parkinson's disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential of combined single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) for the detection of differences in 6-OHDA-induced partial lesions in a dose- and time-dependent manner using the dopamine transporter (DAT) ligand 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-[123I]iodophenyl)tropane ([123I]β-CIT).Rats were unilaterally lesioned with intrastriatal injections of 8 or 2 × 10 μg 6-OHDA. At 2 or 4 weeks post-lesion, 40 to 50 MBq [123I]β-CIT was administered intravenously and rats were imaged with small-animal SPECT/CT under isoflurane anesthesia. The striatum was delineated and mean striatal activity in the lesioned side was compared to the intact side. After the [123I]β-CIT SPECT/CT scan, the rats were tested for amphetamine-induced rotation asymmetry, and their brains were immunohistochemically stained for DAT and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The fiber density of DAT- and TH-stained striata was estimated, and TH-immunoreactive cells in the rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) were stereologically counted.The striatal uptake of [123I]β-CIT differed significantly between the lesion groups and the results were highly correlated to both striatal DAT- and TH-immunoreactive fiber densities and to TH-immunoreactive cell numbers in the rat SNpc. No clear progression of the lesion could be seen.[123I]β-CIT SPECT/CT is a valuable tool in predicting the condition of the rat midbrain dopaminergic pathway in the unilateral partial 6-OHDA lesion model of Parkinson's disease and it offers many advantages, allowing repeated non-invasive analysis of living animals.
|Membrane-permeable C-terminal dopamine transporter peptides attenuate amphetamine-evoked dopamine release. |
Rickhag, M; Owens, WA; Winkler, MT; Strandfelt, KN; Rathje, M; Sørensen, G; Andresen, B; Madsen, KL; Jørgensen, TN; Wörtwein, G; Woldbye, DP; Sitte, H; Daws, LC; Gether, U
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 27534-44 2013
The dopamine transporter (DAT) is responsible for sequestration of extracellular dopamine (DA). The psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) is a DAT substrate, which is actively transported into the nerve terminal, eliciting vesicular depletion and reversal of DA transport via DAT. Here, we investigate the role of the DAT C terminus in AMPH-evoked DA efflux using cell-permeant dominant-negative peptides. A peptide, which corresponded to the last 24 C-terminal residues of DAT (TAT-C24 DAT) and thereby contained the Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) binding domain and the PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ)-binding sequence of DAT, was made membrane-permeable by fusing it to the cell membrane transduction domain of the HIV-1 Tat protein (TAT-C24WT). The ability of TAT-C24WT but not a scrambled peptide (TAT-C24Scr) to block the CaMKIIα-DAT interaction was supported by co-immunoprecipitation experiments in heterologous cells. In heterologous cells, we also found that TAT-C24WT, but not TAT-C24Scr, decreased AMPH-evoked 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium efflux. Moreover, chronoamperometric recordings in striatum revealed diminished AMPH-evoked DA efflux in mice preinjected with TAT-C24WT. Both in heterologous cells and in striatum, the peptide did not further inhibit efflux upon KN-93-mediated inhibition of CaMKIIα activity, consistent with a dominant-negative action preventing binding of CaMKIIα to the DAT C terminus. This was further supported by the ability of a peptide with perturbed PDZ-binding sequence, but preserved CaMKIIα binding (TAT-C24AAA), to diminish AMPH-evoked DA efflux in vivo to the same extent as TAT-C24WT. Finally, AMPH-induced locomotor hyperactivity was attenuated following systemic administration of TAT-C24WT but not TAT-C24Scr. Summarized, our findings substantiate that DAT C-terminal protein-protein interactions are critical for AMPH-evoked DA efflux and suggest that it may be possible to target protein-protein interactions to modulate transporter function and interfere with psychostimulant effects.
|Foxa1 and foxa2 are required for the maintenance of dopaminergic properties in ventral midbrain neurons at late embryonic stages. |
Stott, SR; Metzakopian, E; Lin, W; Kaestner, KH; Hen, R; Ang, SL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 8022-34 2013
The maintained expression of transcription factors throughout the development of mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons suggests multiple roles at various stages in development. Two members of the forkhead/winged helix transcription factor family, Foxa1 and Foxa2, have been recently shown to have an important influence in the early development of mDA neurons. Here we present data demonstrating that these genes are also involved in the later maintenance of the mDA system. We conditionally removed both genes in postmitotic mDA neurons using the dopamine transporter-cre mouse. Deletion of both Foxa1 and Foxa2 resulted in a significant reduction in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive mDA neurons. The decrease was predominantly observed in the substantia nigra region of the mDA system, which led to a loss of TH+ fibers innervating the striatum. Further analysis demonstrated that the reduction in the number of TH+ cells in the mutant mice was not due to apoptosis or cell-fate change. Using reporter mouse lines, we found that the mDA neurons were still present in the ventral midbrain, but that they had lost much of their dopaminergic phenotype. The majority of these neurons remained in the ventral mesencephalon until at least 18 months of age. Chromatin immunoprecipitation suggested that the loss of the mDA phenotype is due to a reduction in the binding of the nuclear orphan receptor, Nurr-1 to the promoter region of TH. These results extend previous findings and demonstrate a later role for Foxa genes in regulating the maintenance of dopaminergic phenotype in mDA neurons.
|Mutation of tyrosine 470 of human dopamine transporter is critical for HIV-1 Tat-induced inhibition of dopamine transport and transporter conformational transitions. |
Midde, NM; Huang, X; Gomez, AM; Booze, RM; Zhan, CG; Zhu, J
Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology 8 975-87 2013
HIV-1 Tat protein plays a crucial role in perturbations of the dopamine (DA) system. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Tat decreases DA uptake, and allosterically modulates DA transporter (DAT) function. In the present study, we have found that Tat interacts directly with DAT, leading to inhibition of DAT function. Through computational modeling and simulations, a potential recognition binding site of human DAT (hDAT) for Tat was predicted. Mutation of tyrosine470 (Y470H) attenuated Tat-induced inhibition of DA transport, implicating the functional relevance of this residue for Tat binding to hDAT. Y470H reduced the maximal velocity of [³H]DA uptake without changes in the K(m) and IC₅₀ values for DA inhibition of DA uptake but increased DA uptake potency for cocaine and GBR12909, suggesting that this residue does not overlap with the binding sites in hDAT for substrate but is critical for these inhibitors. Furthermore, Y470H also led to transporter conformational transitions by affecting zinc modulation of DA uptake and WIN35,428 binding as well as enhancing basal DA efflux. Collectively, these findings demonstrate Tyr470 as a functional recognition residue in hDAT for Tat-induced inhibition of DA transport and transporter conformational transitions. The consequence of mutation at this residue is to block the functional binding of Tat to hDAT without affecting physiological DA transport.
|Chronic overload of SEPT4, a parkin substrate that aggregates in Parkinson's disease, causes behavioral alterations but not neurodegeneration in mice. |
Ageta-Ishihara, N; Yamakado, H; Morita, T; Hattori, S; Takao, K; Miyakawa, T; Takahashi, R; Kinoshita, M
Molecular brain 6 35 2013
In autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinsonism (PARK2), the pathogenetic process from the loss of function of a ubiquitin ligase parkin to the death of dopamine neurons remains unclear. A dominant hypothesis attributes the neurotoxicity to accumulated substrates that are exempt from parkin-mediated degradation. Parkin substrates include two septins; SEPT4/CDCrel-2 which coaggregates with α-synuclein as Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease, and its closest homolog SEPT5/CDCrel-1/PNUTL1 whose overload with viral vector can rapidly eliminate dopamine neurons in rats. However, chronic effects of pan-neural overload of septins have never been examined in mammals. To address this, we established a line of transgenic mice that express the largest gene product SEPT4(54kDa) via the prion promoter in the entire brain.Histological examination and biochemical quantification of SEPT4-associated proteins including α-synuclein and the dopamine transporter in the nigrostriatal dopamine neurons found no significant difference between Sept4(Tg/+) and wild-type littermates. Thus, the hypothetical pathogenicity by the chronic overload of SEPT4 alone, if any, is insufficient to trigger neurodegenerative process in the mouse brain. Intriguingly, however, a systematic battery of behavioral tests revealed unexpected abnormalities in Sept4(Tg/+) mice that include consistent attenuation of voluntary activities in distinct behavioral paradigms and altered social behaviors.Together, these data indicate that septin dysregulations commonly found in postmortem human brains with Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders may be responsible for a subset of behavioral abnormalities in the patients.
|Methamphetamine increases locomotion and dopamine transporter activity in dopamine d5 receptor-deficient mice. |
Hayashizaki, S; Hirai, S; Ito, Y; Honda, Y; Arime, Y; Sora, I; Okado, H; Kodama, T; Takada, M
PloS one 8 e75975 2013
Dopamine regulates the psychomotor stimulant activities of amphetamine-like substances in the brain. The effects of dopamine are mediated through five known dopamine receptor subtypes in mammals. The functional relevance of D5 dopamine receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood. To determine the functional relevance of D5 dopamine receptors, we created D5 dopamine receptor-deficient mice and then used these mice to assess the roles of D5 dopamine receptors in the behavioral response to methamphetamine. Interestingly, D5 dopamine receptor-deficient mice displayed increased ambulation in response to methamphetamine. Furthermore, dopamine transporter threonine phosphorylation levels, which regulate amphetamine-induced dopamine release, were elevated in D5 dopamine receptor-deficient mice. The increase in methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity was eliminated by pretreatment with the dopamine transporter blocker GBR12909. Taken together, these results suggest that dopamine transporter activity and threonine phosphorylation levels are regulated by D5 dopamine receptors.
|Dopamine transporter endocytic trafficking in striatal dopaminergic neurons: differential dependence on dynamin and the actin cytoskeleton. |
Gabriel, LR; Wu, S; Kearney, P; Bellvé, KD; Standley, C; Fogarty, KE; Melikian, HE
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 17836-46 2013
Dopaminergic signaling profoundly impacts rewarding behaviors, movement, and executive function. The presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) recaptures released DA, thereby limiting synaptic DA availability and maintaining dopaminergic tone. DAT constitutively internalizes and PKC activation rapidly accelerates DAT endocytosis, resulting in DAT surface loss. Longstanding evidence supports PKC-stimulated DAT trafficking in heterologous expression studies. However, PKC-stimulated DAT internalization is not readily observed in cultured dopaminergic neurons. Moreover, conflicting reports implicate both classic and nonclassic endocytic mechanisms mediating DAT trafficking. Prior DAT trafficking studies relied primarily upon chronic gene disruption and dominant-negative protein expression, or were performed in cell lines and cultured neurons, yielding results difficult to translate to adult dopaminergic neurons. Here, we use newly described dynamin inhibitors to test whether constitutive and PKC-stimulated DAT internalization are dynamin-dependent in adult dopaminergic neurons. Ex vivo biotinylation studies in mouse striatal slices demonstrate that acute PKC activation drives native DAT surface loss, and that surface DAT surprisingly partitions between endocytic-willing and endocytic-resistant populations. Acute dynamin inhibition reveals that constitutive DAT internalization is dynamin-independent, whereas PKC-stimulated DAT internalization is dynamin-dependent. Moreover, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy experiments demonstrate that constitutive DAT internalization occurs equivalently from lipid raft and nonraft microdomains, whereas PKC-stimulated DAT internalization arises exclusively from lipid rafts. Finally, DAT endocytic recycling relies on a dynamin-dependent mechanism that acts in concert with the actin cytoskeleton. These studies are the first comprehensive investigation of native DAT trafficking in ex vivo adult neurons, and reveal that DAT surface dynamics are governed by complex multimodal mechanisms.
|Locomotor hyperactivity in 14-3-3ζ KO mice is associated with dopamine transporter dysfunction. |
Ramshaw, H; Xu, X; Jaehne, EJ; McCarthy, P; Greenberg, Z; Saleh, E; McClure, B; Woodcock, J; Kabbara, S; Wiszniak, S; Wang, TY; Parish, C; van den Buuse, M; Baune, BT; Lopez, A; Schwarz, Q
Translational psychiatry 3 e327 2013
Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission requires a complex series of enzymatic reactions that are tightly linked to catecholamine exocytosis and receptor interactions on pre- and postsynaptic neurons. Regulation of dopaminergic signalling is primarily achieved through reuptake of extracellular DA by the DA transporter (DAT) on presynaptic neurons. Aberrant regulation of DA signalling, and in particular hyperactivation, has been proposed as a key insult in the presentation of schizophrenia and related neuropsychiatric disorders. We recently identified 14-3-3ζ as an essential component of neurodevelopment and a central risk factor in the schizophrenia protein interaction network. Our analysis of 14-3-3ζ-deficient mice now shows that baseline hyperactivity of knockout (KO) mice is rescued by the antipsychotic drug clozapine. 14-3-3ζ KO mice displayed enhanced locomotor hyperactivity induced by the DA releaser amphetamine. Consistent with 14-3-3ζ having a role in DA signalling, we found increased levels of DA in the striatum of 14-3-3ζ KO mice. Although 14-3-3ζ is proposed to modulate activity of the rate-limiting DA biosynthesis enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), we were unable to identify any differences in total TH levels, TH localization or TH activation in 14-3-3ζ KO mice. Rather, our analysis identified significantly reduced levels of DAT in the absence of notable differences in RNA or protein levels of DA receptors D1-D5. Providing insight into the mechanisms by which 14-3-3ζ controls DAT stability, we found a physical association between 14-3-3ζ and DAT by co-immunoprecipitation. Taken together, our results identify a novel role for 14-3-3ζ in DA neurotransmission and provide support to the hyperdopaminergic basis of pathologies associated with schizophrenia and related disorders.
|Transport of biogenic amine neurotransmitters at the mouse blood-retina and blood-brain barriers by uptake1 and uptake2. |
André, P; Saubaméa, B; Cochois-Guégan, V; Marie-Claire, C; Cattelotte, J; Smirnova, M; Schinkel, AH; Scherrmann, JM; Cisternino, S
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 32 1989-2001 2012
Uptake1 and uptake2 transporters are involved in the extracellular clearance of biogenic amine neurotransmitters at synaptic clefts. We looked for them at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-retina barriers (BRB), where they could be involved in regulating the neurotransmitter concentration and modulate/terminate receptor-mediated effects within the neurovascular unit (NVU). Uptake2 (Oct1-3/Slc22a1-3, Pmat/Slc29a4) and Mate1/Slc47a1 transporters are also involved in the transport of xenobiotics. We used in situ carotid perfusion of prototypic substrates like [(3)H]-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ([(3)H]-MPP(+)), [(3)H]-histamine, [(3)H]-serotonin, and [(3)H]-dopamine, changes in ionic composition and genetic deletion of Oct1-3 carriers to detect uptake1 and uptake2 at the BBB and BRB. We showed that uptake1 and uptake2 are involved in the transport of [(3)H]-dopamine and [(3)H]-MPP(+) at the blood luminal BRB, but not at the BBB. These functional studies, together with quantitative RT-PCR and confocal imaging, suggest that the mouse BBB lacks uptake1 (Net/Slc6a2, Dat/Slc6a3, Sert/Slc6a4), uptake2, and Mate1 on both the luminal and abluminal sides. However, we found evidence for functional Net and Oct1 transporters at the luminal BRB. These heterogeneous transport properties of the brain and retina NVUs suggest that the BBB helps protect the brain against biogenic amine neurotransmitters in the plasma while the BRB has more of a metabolic/endocrine role.
|Comparison of the D2 receptor regulation and neurotoxicant susceptibility of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in wild-type and CB1/CB2 receptor knockout mice. |
Simkins, TJ; Janis, KL; McClure, AK; Behrouz, B; Pappas, SS; Lehner, A; Kaminski, NE; Goudreau, JL; Lookingland, KJ; Kaplan, BL
Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology 7 533-8 2012
Motor dysfunctions of Parkinson Disease (PD) are due to the progressive loss of midbrain nigrostriatal dopamine (NSDA) neurons. Evidence suggests a role for cannabinoid receptors in the neurodegeneration of these neurons following neurotoxicant-induced injury. This work evaluates NSDA neurons in CB1/CB2 knockout (KO) mice and tests the hypothesis that CB1/CB2 KO mice are more susceptible to neurotoxicant exposure. NSDA neuronal indices were assessed using unbiased stereological cell counting, high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection or mass spectrometry, and Western blot. Results reveal that CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor signaling is not necessary for the maintenance of a normally functioning NSDA neuronal system. Mice lacking CB1 and CB2 receptors were found to be equally susceptible to the neurotoxicant 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). These studies support the use of CB1/CB2 KO mice for investigating the cannabinoid receptor-mediated regulation of the NSDA neuronal system in models of PD.
|Disease-specific phenotypes in dopamine neurons from human iPS-based models of genetic and sporadic Parkinson's disease. |
Sánchez-Danés, A; Richaud-Patin, Y; Carballo-Carbajal, I; Jiménez-Delgado, S; Caig, C; Mora, S; Di Guglielmo, C; Ezquerra, M; Patel, B; Giralt, A; Canals, JM; Memo, M; Alberch, J; López-Barneo, J; Vila, M; Cuervo, AM; Tolosa, E; Consiglio, A; Raya, A
EMBO molecular medicine 4 380-95 2012
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) offer an unprecedented opportunity to model human disease in relevant cell types, but it is unclear whether they could successfully model age-related diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we generated iPSC lines from seven patients with idiopathic PD (ID-PD), four patients with familial PD associated to the G2019S mutation in the Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene (LRRK2-PD) and four age- and sex-matched healthy individuals (Ctrl). Over long-time culture, dopaminergic neurons (DAn) differentiated from either ID-PD- or LRRK2-PD-iPSC showed morphological alterations, including reduced numbers of neurites and neurite arborization, as well as accumulation of autophagic vacuoles, which were not evident in DAn differentiated from Ctrl-iPSC. Further induction of autophagy and/or inhibition of lysosomal proteolysis greatly exacerbated the DAn morphological alterations, indicating autophagic compromise in DAn from ID-PD- and LRRK2-PD-iPSC, which we demonstrate occurs at the level of autophagosome clearance. Our study provides an iPSC-based in vitro model that captures the patients' genetic complexity and allows investigation of the pathogenesis of both sporadic and familial PD cases in a disease-relevant cell type.
|Magnolol Protects against MPTP/MPP(+)-Induced Toxicity via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress in In Vivo and In Vitro Models of Parkinson's Disease. |
Muroyama, A; Fujita, A; Lv, C; Kobayashi, S; Fukuyama, Y; Mitsumoto, Y
Parkinson's disease 2012 985157 2012
The aim of this study is to investigate the role of magnolol in preventing 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-) induced neurodegeneration in mice and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-(MPP(+)-) induced cytotoxicity to human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and to examine the possible mechanisms. Magnolol (30 mg/kg) was orally administered to C57BL/6N mice once a day for 4 or 5 days either before or after MPTP treatment. Western blot analysis revealed that MPTP injections substantially decreased protein levels of dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels in the striatum. Both treatments with magnolol significantly attenuated MPTP-induced decrease in DAT and TH protein levels in the striatum. However, these treatments did not affect MPTP-induced increase in GFAP levels. Moreover, oral administration of magnolol almost completely prevented MPTP-induced lipid peroxidation in the striatum. In human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, magnolol significantly attenuated MPP(+)-induced cytotoxicity and the production of reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that magnolol has protective effects via an antioxidative mechanism in both in vivo and in vitro models of Parkinson's disease.
|Lack or inhibition of dopaminergic stimulation induces a development increase of striatal tyrosine hydroxylase-positive interneurons. |
Busceti, CL; Bucci, D; Molinaro, G; Di Pietro, P; Zangrandi, L; Gradini, R; Moratalla, R; Battaglia, G; Bruno, V; Nicoletti, F; Fornai, F
PloS one 7 e44025 2012
We examined the role of endogenous dopamine (DA) in regulating the number of intrinsic tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH(+)) striatal neurons using mice at postnatal day (PND) 4 to 8, a period that corresponds to the developmental peak in the number of these neurons. We adopted the strategy of depleting endogenous DA by a 2-day treatment with α-methyl-p-tyrosine (αMpT, 150 mg/kg, i.p.). This treatment markedly increased the number of striatal TH(+) neurons, assessed by stereological counting, and the increase was highly correlated to the extent of DA loss. Interestingly, TH(+) neurons were found closer to the clusters of DA fibers after DA depletion, indicating that the concentration gradient of extracellular DA critically regulates the distribution of striatal TH(+) neurons. A single i.p. injection of the D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.1 mg/kg), the D2/D3 receptor antagonist, raclopride (0.1 mg/kg), or the D4 receptor antagonist, L-745,870 (5 mg/kg) in mice at PND4 also increased the number of TH(+) neurons after 4 days. Treatment with the D1-like receptor agonist SKF38393 (10 mg/kg) or with the D2-like receptor agonist, quinpirole (1 mg/kg) did not change the number of TH(+) neurons. At least the effects of SCH23390 were prevented by a combined treatment with SKF38393. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that striatal TH(+) neurons expressed D2 and D4 receptors, but not D1 receptors. Moreover, treatment with the α4β2 receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) (3.2 mg/kg) also increased the number of TH(+) neurons. The evidence that DHβE mimicked the action of SCH23390 in increasing the number of TH(+) neurons supports the hypothesis that activation of D1 receptors controls the number of striatal TH(+) neurons by enhancing the release of acetylcholine. These data demonstrate for the first time that endogenous DA negatively regulates the number of striatal TH(+) neurons by direct and indirect mechanisms mediated by multiple DA receptor subtypes.
|Accumulation of α-synuclein triggered by presynaptic dysfunction. |
Nakata, Y; Yasuda, T; Fukaya, M; Yamamori, S; Itakura, M; Nihira, T; Hayakawa, H; Kawanami, A; Kataoka, M; Nagai, M; Sakagami, H; Takahashi, M; Mizuno, Y; Mochizuki, H
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 17186-96 2012
Pathological examination of dementia with Lewy bodies patients identified the presence of abnormal α-synuclein (αSyn) aggregates in the presynaptic terminals. αSyn is involved in the regulation of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex. Importantly, αSyn-transgenic mouse and postmortem examination of patients with Parkinson's disease have demonstrated the abnormal distribution of SNARE protein in presynaptic terminals. In this study, we investigated the effects of SNARE dysfunction on endogenous αSyn using Snap25(S187A/S187A) mutant mice. These mice have homozygous knock-in gene encoding unphosphorylatable S187A-substituted synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25). The mice displayed a significant age-dependent change in the distribution of αSyn and its Ser(129)-phosphorylated form in abnormally hypertrophied glutamatergic nerve terminals in the striatum. Electron-microscopic analysis revealed the abnormally condensed synaptic vesicles with concomitant mislocalization of αSyn protein to the periactive zone in the glutamatergic nerve terminals. However, the Snap25(S187A/S187A) mutant mouse harbored no abnormalities in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Our present results suggest that SNARE dysfunction is the initial trigger of mislocalization and accumulation of αSyn, and probably is an important pathomechanism of α-synucleinopathies.
|Glutamate corelease promotes growth and survival of midbrain dopamine neurons. |
Fortin, GM; Bourque, MJ; Mendez, JA; Leo, D; Nordenankar, K; Birgner, C; Arvidsson, E; Rymar, VV; Bérubé-Carrière, N; Claveau, AM; Descarries, L; Sadikot, AF; Wallén-Mackenzie, Å; Trudeau, LÉ
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 17477-91 2012
Recent studies have proposed that glutamate corelease by mesostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons regulates behavioral activation by psychostimulants. How and when glutamate release by DA neurons might play this role remains unclear. Considering evidence for early expression of the type 2 vesicular glutamate transporter in mesencephalic DA neurons, we hypothesized that this cophenotype is particularly important during development. Using a conditional gene knock-out approach to selectively disrupt the Vglut2 gene in mouse DA neurons, we obtained in vitro and in vivo evidence for reduced growth and survival of mesencephalic DA neurons, associated with a decrease in the density of DA innervation in the nucleus accumbens, reduced activity-dependent DA release, and impaired motor behavior. These findings provide strong evidence for a functional role of the glutamatergic cophenotype in the development of mesencephalic DA neurons, opening new perspectives into the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders involving the mesostriatal DA system.
|CDNF protects the nigrostriatal dopamine system and promotes recovery after MPTP treatment in mice. |
Airavaara, M; Harvey, BK; Voutilainen, MH; Shen, H; Chou, J; Lindholm, P; Lindahl, M; Tuominen, RK; Saarma, M; Hoffer, B; Wang, Y
Cell transplantation 21 1213-23 2012
Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) is a recently discovered protein, which belongs to the evolutionarily conserved CDNF/MANF family of neurotrophic factors. The degeneration of dopamine neurons following 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment is well characterized, and efficacy in this model is considered a standard criterion for development of parkinsonian therapies. MPTP is a neurotoxin, which produces parkinsonian symptoms in humans and in C57/Bl6 mice. To date, there are no reports about the effects of CDNF on dopamine neuron survival or function in the MPTP rodent model, a critical gap. Therefore, we studied whether CDNF has neuroprotective and neurorestorative properties for the nigrostriatal dopamine system after MPTP injections in C57/Bl6 mice. We found that bilateral striatal CDNF injections, given 20 h before MPTP, improved horizontal and vertical motor behavior. CDNF pretreatment increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in the striatum and in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr), as well as the number of TH-positive cells in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Posttreatment with CDNF, given 1 week after MPTP injections, increased horizontal and vertical motor behavior of mice, as well as dopamine fiber densities in the striatum and the number of TH-positive cells in SNpc. CDNF did not alter any of the analyzed dopaminergic biomarkers or locomotor behavior in MPTP-untreated animals. We conclude that striatal CDNF administration is both neuroprotective and neurorestorative for the TH-positive cells in the nigrostriatal dopamine system in the MPTP model, which supports the development of CDNF-based treatment for Parkinson's disease.
|Caffeine regulates frontocorticostriatal dopamine transporter density and improves attention and cognitive deficits in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. |
Pandolfo, Pablo, et al.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, (2012) 2012
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) likely involves dopaminergic dysfunction in the frontal cortex and striatum, resulting in cognitive and motor abnormalities. Since both adenosine and dopamine modulation systems are tightly intertwined, we tested if caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) attenuated the behavioral and neurochemical changes in adolescent spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, a validated ADHD animal model) compared to their control strain (Wistar Kyoto rats, WKY). SHR were hyperactive and had poorer performance in the attentional set-shifting and Y-maze paradigms and also displayed increased dopamine transporter (DAT) density and increased dopamine uptake in frontocortical and striatal terminals compared with WKY rats. Chronic caffeine treatment was devoid of effects in WKY rats while it improved memory and attention deficits and also normalized dopaminergic function in SHR. Additionally, we provide the first direct demonstration for the presence of adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)R) in frontocortical nerve terminals, whose density was increased in SHR. These findings underscore the potential for caffeine treatment to normalize frontocortical dopaminergic function and to abrogate attention and cognitive changes characteristic of ADHD.
|Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (αCaMKII) controls the activity of the dopamine transporter: implications for Angelman syndrome. |
Thomas Steinkellner,Jae-Won Yang,Therese R Montgomery,Wei-Qiang Chen,Marie-Therese Winkler,Sonja Sucic,Gert Lubec,Michael Freissmuth,Ype Elgersma,Harald H Sitte,Oliver Kudlacek
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 2012
The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a crucial regulator of dopaminergic neurotransmission, controlling the length and brevity of dopaminergic signaling. DAT is also the primary target of psychostimulant drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines. Conversely, methylphenidate and amphetamine are both used clinically in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. The action of amphetamines, which induce transport reversal, relies primarily on the ionic composition of the intra- and extracellular milieus. Recent findings suggest that DAT interacting proteins may also play a significant role in the modulation of reverse dopamine transport. The pharmacological inhibition of the serine/threonine kinase αCaMKII attenuates amphetamine-triggered DAT-mediated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) efflux. More importantly, αCaMKII has also been shown to bind DAT in vitro and is therefore believed to be an important player within the DAT interactome. Herein, we show that αCaMKII co-immunoprecipitates with DAT in mouse striatal synaptosomes. Mice, which lack αCaMKII or which express a permanently self-inhibited αCaMKII (αCaMKII(T305D)), exhibit significantly reduced amphetamine-triggered DAT-mediated MPP(+) efflux. Additionally, we investigated mice that mimic a neurogenetic disease known as Angelman syndrome. These mice possess reduced αCaMKII activity. Angelman syndrome mice demonstrated an impaired DAT efflux function, which was comparable with that of the αCaMKII mutant mice, indicating that DAT-mediated dopaminergic signaling is affected in Angelman syndrome.
|Neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor antagonism attenuates cocaine-induced effects in mice. |
Gunnar Sørensen,Morten Jensen,Pia Weikop,Ditte Dencker,Søren H Christiansen,Claus Juul Loland,Cecilie Hee Bengtsen,Jørgen Holm Petersen,Anders Fink-Jensen,Gitta Wörtwein,David P D Woldbye
Psychopharmacology 222 2012
Several studies suggest a role for neuropeptide Y (NPY) in addiction to drugs of abuse, including cocaine. However, the NPY receptors mediating addiction-related effects remain to be determined.
|Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-derived coding variation in the dopamine transporter disrupts microdomain targeting and trafficking regulation. |
Sakrikar, D; Mazei-Robison, MS; Mergy, MA; Richtand, NW; Han, Q; Hamilton, PJ; Bowton, E; Galli, A; Veenstra-Vanderweele, J; Gill, M; Blakely, RD
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 5385-97 2012
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed disorder of school-age children. Although genetic and brain-imaging studies suggest a contribution of altered dopamine (DA) signaling in ADHD, evidence of signaling perturbations contributing to risk is largely circumstantial. The presynaptic, cocaine- and amphetamine (AMPH)-sensitive DA transporter (DAT) constrains DA availability at presynaptic and postsynaptic receptors following vesicular release and is targeted by the most commonly prescribed ADHD therapeutics. Using polymorphism discovery approaches with an ADHD cohort, we identified a hDAT (human DAT) coding variant, R615C, located in the distal C terminus of the transporter, a region previously implicated in constitutive and regulated transporter trafficking. Here, we demonstrate that, whereas wild-type DAT proteins traffic in a highly regulated manner, DAT 615C proteins recycle constitutively and demonstrate insensitivity to the endocytic effects of AMPH and PKC (protein kinase C) activation. The disrupted regulation of DAT 615C parallels a redistribution of the transporter variant away from GM1 ganglioside- and flotillin1-enriched membranes, and is accompanied by altered CaMKII (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) and flotillin-1 interactions. Using C-terminal peptides derived from wild-type DAT and the R615C variant, we establish that the DAT 615C C terminus can act dominantly to preclude AMPH regulation of wild-type DAT. Mutagenesis of DAT C-terminal sequences suggests that phosphorylation of T613 may be important in sorting DAT between constitutive and regulated pathways. Together, our studies support a coupling of DAT microdomain localization with transporter regulation and provide evidence of perturbed DAT activity and DA signaling as a risk determinant for ADHD.
|Dopaminergic drug-induced modulation of the expression of the dopamine transporter in peripheral blood lymphocytes in Parkinson's disease. |
Fanciulli A, Misasi R, Campanelli D, Buttarelli FR, Pontieri FR.
Pharmacological reports : PR 63 1056-60 2011
The modulation of expression of the dopamine transporter by dopaminergic drugs was investigated by flow cytometry in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients suffering Parkinson's disease. An 8-week in vivo exposure to pramipexole (0.7 mg free base, 3 times a day) or ropinirole (12 mg, once daily), but not levodopa/carbidopa (100/25 mg, 3 times a day), significantly reduced the mean fluorescence intensity of the dopamine transporter in peripheral blood lymphocytes. These results demonstrate that levodopa differs from dopamine agonists in its regulation of dopamine transporter expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes.
|Midbrain dopamine neurons associated with reward processing innervate the neurogenic subventricular zone. |
Lennington, JB; Pope, S; Goodheart, AE; Drozdowicz, L; Daniels, SB; Salamone, JD; Conover, JC
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 13078-87 2011
Coordinated regulation of the adult neurogenic subventricular zone (SVZ) is accomplished by a myriad of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The neurotransmitter dopamine is one regulatory molecule implicated in SVZ function. Nigrostriatal and ventral tegmental area (VTA) midbrain dopamine neurons innervate regions adjacent to the SVZ, and dopamine synapses are found on SVZ cells. Cell division within the SVZ is decreased in humans with Parkinson's disease and in animal models of Parkinson's disease following exposure to toxins that selectively remove nigrostriatal neurons, suggesting that dopamine is critical for SVZ function and nigrostriatal neurons are the main suppliers of SVZ dopamine. However, when we examined the aphakia mouse, which is deficient in nigrostriatal neurons, we found no detrimental effect to SVZ proliferation or organization. Instead, dopamine innervation of the SVZ tracked to neurons at the ventrolateral boundary of the VTA. This same dopaminergic neuron population also innervated the SVZ of control mice. Characterization of these neurons revealed expression of proteins indicative of VTA neurons. Furthermore, exposure to the neurotoxin MPTP depleted neurons in the ventrolateral VTA and resulted in decreased SVZ proliferation. Together, these results reveal that dopamine signaling in the SVZ originates from a population of midbrain neurons more typically associated with motivational and reward processing.
|CM156, a high affinity sigma ligand, attenuates the stimulant and neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine in mice. |
Kaushal, N; Seminerio, MJ; Shaikh, J; Medina, MA; Mesangeau, C; Wilson, LL; McCurdy, CR; Matsumoto, RR
Neuropharmacology 61 992-1000 2011
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug of abuse. Low and high dose administration of METH leads to locomotor stimulation, and dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity, respectively. The behavioral stimulant and neurotoxic effects of METH can contribute to addiction and other neuropsychiatric disorders, thus necessitating the identification of potential pharmacotherapeutics against these effects produced by METH. METH binds to σ receptors at physiologically relevant concentrations. Also, σ receptors are present on and can modulate dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. Therefore, σ receptors provide a viable target for the development of pharmacotherapeutics against the adverse effects of METH. In the present study, CM156, a σ receptor ligand with high affinity and selectivity for σ receptors over 80 other non-σ binding sites, was evaluated against METH-induced stimulant, hyperthermic, and neurotoxic effects. Pretreatment of male, Swiss Webster mice with CM156 dose dependently attenuated the locomotor stimulation, hyperthermia, striatal dopamine and serotonin depletions, and striatal dopamine and serotonin transporter reductions produced by METH, without significant effects of CM156 on its own. These results demonstrate the ability of a highly selective σ ligand to mitigate the effects of METH.
|Effects of intrastriatal GDNF on the response of dopamine neurons to 6-hydroxydopamine: time course of protection and neurorestoration. |
Ann D Cohen,Michael J Zigmond,Amanda D Smith
Brain research 1370 2011
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) protects dopamine (DA) neurons from 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) toxicity. We have now explored this protection over 8 weeks following toxin administration. Infusion of Fluoro-Gold (FG) into the striatum was followed 1 week later by GDNF (9?g) or its vehicle. Six hours later, animals received 6-OHDA (4 ?g) into the same site. 6-OHDA caused a loss of cells in the substantia nigra that expressed both FG and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and striatal terminals expressing TH, the high affinity dopamine transporter (DAT), and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) as assessed 2-8 weeks later. Loss of FG(+) cells, and striatal DA was completely blocked by GDNF by 2 weeks. In contrast, GDNF only slightly attenuated the loss of TH, DAT, or VMAT2 in the striatum at 2 weeks, but had restored these markers by 4-8 weeks. Thus, GDNF prevents DA cell death and loss of striatal DA content, but several weeks are required to fully restore the dopaminergic phenotype. These results provide insight into the mechanism of GDNF protection of DA neurons, and may help avoid incorrect interpretations of temporary phenotypic changes.
|LRRK2 protein levels are determined by kinase function and are crucial for kidney and lung homeostasis in mice. |
Herzig, MC; Kolly, C; Persohn, E; Theil, D; Schweizer, T; Hafner, T; Stemmelen, C; Troxler, TJ; Schmid, P; Danner, S; Schnell, CR; Mueller, M; Kinzel, B; Grevot, A; Bolognani, F; Stirn, M; Kuhn, RR; Kaupmann, K; van der Putten, PH; Rovelli, G; Shimshek, DR
Human molecular genetics 20 4209-23 2011
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause late-onset Parkinson's disease (PD), but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the normal function of this large multidomain protein remain speculative. To address the role of this protein in vivo, we generated three different LRRK2 mutant mouse lines. Mice completely lacking the LRRK2 protein (knock-out, KO) showed an early-onset (age 6 weeks) marked increase in number and size of secondary lysosomes in kidney proximal tubule cells and lamellar bodies in lung type II cells. Mice expressing a LRRK2 kinase-dead (KD) mutant from the endogenous locus displayed similar early-onset pathophysiological changes in kidney but not lung. KD mutants had dramatically reduced full-length LRRK2 protein levels in the kidney and this genetic effect was mimicked pharmacologically in wild-type mice treated with a LRRK2-selective kinase inhibitor. Knock-in (KI) mice expressing the G2019S PD-associated mutation that increases LRRK2 kinase activity showed none of the LRRK2 protein level and histopathological changes observed in KD and KO mice. The autophagy marker LC3 remained unchanged but kidney mTOR and TCS2 protein levels decreased in KD and increased in KO and KI mice. Unexpectedly, KO and KI mice suffered from diastolic hypertension opposed to normal blood pressure in KD mice. Our findings demonstrate a role for LRRK2 in kidney and lung physiology and further show that LRRK2 kinase function affects LRRK2 protein steady-state levels thereby altering putative scaffold/GTPase activity. These novel aspects of peripheral LRRK2 biology critically impact ongoing attempts to develop LRRK2 selective kinase inhibitors as therapeutics for PD.
|Behavioral, neurochemical, and electrophysiological changes in an early spontaneous mouse model of nigrostriatal degeneration. |
Sgadò P, Viaggi C, Pinna A, Marrone C, Vaglini F, Pontis S, Mercuri NB, Morelli M, Corsini GU
Neurotoxicity research 20 170-81. Epub 2010 Nov 23. 2011
In idiopathic Parkinson\'s disease, clinical symptoms do not emerge until consistent neurodegeneration has occurred. The late appearance of symptoms implies the existence of a relatively long preclinical period during which several disease-induced neurochemical changes take place to mask the existence of the disease and delay its clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to examine the neurochemical, neurophysiological, and behavioral changes induced by the loss of nigrostriatal innervation in the En1+/-;En2-/- mouse, in the 10 months following degeneration, compared to En2 null mutant mice. Behavioral analysis (Pole-test, Beam-walking test, and Inverted grid test) and field potential recordings in the striatum indicated that loss of ~70% of nigrostriatal neurons produced no significant functional effects until 8 months of age, when En1+/-;En2-/- animals started to show frank motor deficits and electrophysiological alterations in corticostriatal plasticity. Similarly, alterations in dopamine homeostasis, dopamine turnover, and dopamine innervation were observed in aged animals compared to young En1+/-;En2-/- mice. These data suggests that in En1+/-;En2-/- mice nigrostriatal degeneration in the substantia nigra is functionally compensated.
|L-DOPA reverses motor deficits associated with normal aging in mice. |
Erika Allen,Kirsten M Carlson,Michael J Zigmond,Jane E Cavanaugh
Neuroscience letters 489 2011
We wished to determine whether L-DOPA, a common treatment for the motor deficits in Parkinson's disease, could also reverse the motor deficits that occur during aging. We assessed motor performance in young (2-3 months) and old (20-21 months) male C57BL/6 mice using the challenge beam and cylinder tests. Prior to testing, mice were treated with L-DOPA or vehicle. Following testing, striatal tissue was analyzed for phenotypic markers of dopamine neurons: dopamine, dopamine transporter, and tyrosine hydroxylase. Although the dopaminergic markers were unchanged with age or L-DOPA treatment, L-DOPA reversed the motor deficits in the old animals such that their motor coordination was that of a young mice. These findings suggest that some of the locomotor deficits that accompany normal aging are responsive to L-DOPA treatment and may be due to subtle alterations in dopaminergic signaling.
|Loss of striatal dopaminergic terminals during the early stage in response to MPTP injection in C57BL/6 mice. |
Akiko Muroyama,Shota Kobayashi,Yasuhide Mitsumoto
Neuroscience research 69 2011
The molecular mechanisms underlying MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-induced dopaminergic (DAergic) neuronal death in vivo are still not fully understood. To investigate the selective DAergic neurotoxicity, we have developed an immunological technique to isolate DAergic synaptosomes from mouse striatal tissues using an antibody against 20 amino acid residues in the extracellular second loop of dopamine transporter (DAT). The DAT protein level in the isolated DAergic synaptosomes was markedly decreased at 16 h after a single injection of 30 mg/kg MPTP, but not in striatal homogenate and crude synaptosomes fraction. GBR-12909, a dopamine uptake inhibitor, completely reversed the MPTP-induced decrease of DAT protein in the DAergic synaptosomes. These results suggest that the isolated DAergic synaptosomes can be useful to identify mechanisms of loss of the nerve terminals.
|Parkinson\'s disease-like neuromuscular defects occur in prenyl diphosphate synthase subunit 2 (Pdss2) mutant mice. |
Ziegler CG, Peng M, Falk MJ, Polyak E, Tsika E, Ischiropoulos H, Bakalar D, Blendy JA, Gasser DL
The Pdss2 gene product is needed for the isoprenylation of benzoquinone to generate coenzyme Q (CoQ). A fatal kidney disease occurs in mice that are homozygous for a missense mutation in Pdss2, which can be recapitulated in conditional Pdss2 knockouts targeted to glomerular podocytes. We now report that homozygous missense mutants also demonstrate significant neuromuscular deficits, as validated by behavioral and coordination assays, and these deficits are recapitulated in conditional Pdss2 knockouts targeted to dopaminergic neurons. Both conditional knockout and missense mutant mice demonstrate deficiencies in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra, implicating a pathology similar to sporadic Parkinson\'s disease (PD).Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
|Decreased reuptake of dopamine in the dorsal striatum in the absence of alpha-synuclein. |
Chadchankar H, Ihalainen J, Tanila H, Yavich L
Brain Res 1382 37-44. Epub 2011 Jan 26. 2011
The presynaptic protein alpha-synuclein (α-syn) plays a role in dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. Mutations in this protein have been linked to pathogenesis of Parkinson\'s disease. However, the details of regulation of dopamine homeostasis by α-syn and its molecular targets are generally unknown. We investigated the effect of α-syn deletion on striatal dopaminergic homeostasis. Two α-syn deficient mouse lines, one carrying a spontaneous deletion of α-syn locus and the other a transgenic α-syn knockout, were used in the study. Stimulated and basal extracellular dopamine levels were determined in the dorsal striatum by in vivo voltammetry and in vivo microdialysis, respectively. Dopamine transporter expression was studied by immunohistochemistry. Stimulated dopamine overflow and basal extracellular dopamine levels were higher in mice lacking α-syn with a concomitant decrease in dopamine transporter expression and reuptake in the dorsal striatum. We show that α-syn deletion produces significant adaptive changes in the striatal dopaminergic system via modulation of reuptake.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Systemic administration of neuregulin-1β1 protects dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson\'s disease. |
Carlsson T, Schindler FR, Höllerhage M, Depboylu C, Arias-Carrión O, Schnurrbusch S, Rösler TW, Wozny W, Schwall GP, Groebe K, Oertel WH, Brundin P, Schrattenholz A, Höglinger GU
Journal of neurochemistry 117 1066-74. doi 2011
Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) is genetically linked to schizophrenia, a disease caused by neurodevelopmental imbalance in dopaminergic function. The Nrg1 receptor ErbB4 is abundantly expressed on midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Nrg1 has been shown to penetrate blood-brain barrier, and peripherally administered Nrg1 activates ErbB4 and leads to a persistent hyperdopaminergic state in neonatal mice. These data prompted us to study the effect of peripheral administration of Nrg1 in the context of Parkinson\'s disease, a neurodegenerative disorder affecting the dopaminergic system in the adult brain. We observed that systemic injections of the extracellular domain of Nrg1β(1) (Nrg1β(1)-ECD) increased dopamine levels in the substantia nigra and striatum of adult mice. Nrg1β(1)-ECD injections also significantly protected the mouse nigrostriatal dopaminergic system morphologically and functionally against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced toxicity in vivo. Moreover, Nrg1β(1)-ECD also protected human dopaminergic neurons in vitro against 6-hydroxydopamine. In conclusion, we have identified Nrg1β(1)-ECD as a neurotrophic factor for adult mouse and human midbrain dopaminergic neurons with peripheral administratability, warranting further investigation as therapeutic option for Parkinson\'s disease patients.© 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.
|Pten ablation in adult dopaminergic neurons is neuroprotective in Parkinson's disease models. |
Domanskyi, A; Geissler, C; Vinnikov, IA; Alter, H; Schober, A; Vogt, MA; Gass, P; Parlato, R; Schütz, G
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 25 2898-910 2011
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive age-related movement disorder that results primarily from the selective loss of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Symptoms of PD can be induced by genetic mutations or by DA neuron-specific toxins. A specific ablation of an essential factor controlling ribosomal RNA transcription, TifIa, in adult mouse DA neurons represses mTOR signaling and leads to progressive neurodegeneration and PD-like phenotype. Using an inducible Cre system in adult mice, we show here that the specific ablation of Pten in adult mouse DA neurons leads to activation of mTOR pathway and is neuroprotective in genetic (TifIa deletion) and neurotoxin-induced (MPTP or 6OHDA) mouse models of PD. Adult mice with DA neuron-specific Pten deletion exhibit elevated expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the dopamine biosynthesis pathway, associated with increased striatal dopamine content, and increased mRNA levels of Foxa2, Pitx3, En1, Nurr1, and Lmx1b-the essential factors for maintaining physiological functions of adult DA neurons. Pten deletion attenuates the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells after 6OHDA treatment, restores striatal dopamine in TifIa-knockout and MPTP-treated mice, and rescues locomotor impairments caused by TifIa loss. Inhibition of Pten-dependent functions in adult DA neurons may represent a promising PD therapy.
|Neuroanatomical study of the A11 diencephalospinal pathway in the non-human primate. |
Barraud, Q; Obeid, I; Aubert, I; Barrière, G; Contamin, H; McGuire, S; Ravenscroft, P; Porras, G; Tison, F; Bezard, E; Ghorayeb, I
PloS one 5 e13306 2010
The A11 diencephalospinal pathway is crucial for sensorimotor integration and pain control at the spinal cord level. When disrupted, it is thought to be involved in numerous painful conditions such as restless legs syndrome and migraine. Its anatomical organization, however, remains largely unknown in the non-human primate (NHP). We therefore characterized the anatomy of this pathway in the NHP.In situ hybridization of spinal dopamine receptors showed that D1 receptor mRNA is absent while D2 and D5 receptor mRNAs are mainly expressed in the dorsal horn and D3 receptor mRNA in both the dorsal and ventral horns. Unilateral injections of the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG) into the cervical spinal enlargement labeled A11 hypothalamic neurons quasi-exclusively among dopamine areas. Detailed immunohistochemical analysis suggested that these FG-labeled A11 neurons are tyrosine hydroxylase-positive but dopa-decarboxylase and dopamine transporter-negative, suggestive of a L-DOPAergic nucleus. Stereological cell count of A11 neurons revealed that this group is composed by 4002±501 neurons per side. A 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxication with subsequent development of a parkinsonian syndrome produced a 50% neuronal cell loss in the A11 group.The diencephalic A11 area could be the major source of L-DOPA in the NHP spinal cord, where it may play a role in the modulation of sensorimotor integration through D2 and D3 receptors either directly or indirectly via dopamine formation in spinal dopa-decarboxylase-positives cells.Full Text Article
|Ethanol alters endosomal recycling of human dopamine transporters. |
Methner, DN; Mayfield, RD
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 10310-7 2010
Dynamic membrane trafficking of the monoamine dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates dopaminergic signaling. Various intrinsic and pharmacological modulators can alter this trafficking. Previously we have shown ethanol potentiates in vitro DAT function and increases surface expression. However, the mechanism underlying these changes is unclear. In the present study, we found ethanol directly regulates DAT function by altering endosomal recycling of the transporter. We defined ethanol action on transporter regulation by [(3)H]DA uptake functional analysis combined with biochemical and immunological assays in stably expressing DAT HEK-293 cells. Short-term ethanol exposure potentiated DAT function in a concentration-, but not time-dependent manner. This potentiation was accompanied by a parallel increase in DAT surface expression. Ethanol had no effect on function or surface localization of the ethanol-insensitive mutant (G130T DAT), suggesting a trafficking-dependent mechanism in mediating the ethanol sensitivity of the transporter. The ethanol-induced increase in DAT surface expression occurred without altering the overall size of DAT endosomal recycling pools. We found ethanol increased the DAT membrane insertion rate while having no effect on internalization of the transporter. Ethanol had no effect on the surface expression or trafficking of the endogenously expressing transferrin receptor, suggesting ethanol does not have a nonspecific effect on endosomal recycling. These results define a novel trafficking mechanism by which ethanol regulates DAT function.Full Text Article
|Mice expressing the A53T mutant form of human alpha-synuclein exhibit hyperactivity and reduced anxiety-like behavior. |
Dianca R Graham,Anita Sidhu
Journal of neuroscience research 88 2010
Genetic mutations associated with alpha-synuclein (alpha-Syn) are implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is primarily a movement disorder, but patients are known to experience anxiety and other mood disorders. In this study, we examined the effect of the hA53T mutation during development by analyzing the protein expression of norepinephrine (NET), serotonin (SERT), and dopamine (DAT) transporters in addition to assessing locomotor and anxiety-like behavior. We observed significant decreases in DAT expression at 8 months in transgenic animals compared with normal and younger mice. We used the elevated plus maze, open-field test, and rotarod apparatus to evaluate wild-type and hA53T hemizygous mice at 2, 8, and 12 months of age. Our results showed that 12-month-old transgenic mice spend more time in the open arms and display a greater number of open entries of the elevated plus maze compared with wild-type controls and younger mice. Open-field test results showed that 12-month-old mice travel a greater distance overall and travel more in the inner zone than either wild-type or younger mice. Rotarod testing showed that 8- and 12-month-old transgenic mice perform better than either wild-type controls or younger mice. Overall, 8-12-month-old transgenic mice showed a trend toward reduced anxiety-like behavior and increased hyperactivity. These results indicate a possible role of the A53T alpha-Syn mutation in anxiety-like and hyperactive behaviors in a PD mouse model, suggesting that these behaviors might be comorbid with this disease.Full Text Article
|Distinct region-specific alpha-synuclein oligomers in A53T transgenic mice: implications for neurodegeneration. |
Tsika E, Moysidou M, Guo J, Cushman M, Gannon P, Sandaltzopoulos R, Giasson BI, Krainc D, Ischiropoulos H, Mazzulli JR
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the 30 3409-18. 2010
Aggregation of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn), a process that generates oligomeric intermediates, is a common pathological feature of several neurodegenerative disorders. Despite the potential importance of the oligomeric alpha-syn intermediates in neuron function, their biochemical properties and pathobiological functions in vivo remain vastly unknown. Here we used two-dimensional analytical separation and an array of biochemical and cell-based assays to characterize alpha-syn oligomers that are present in the nervous system of A53T alpha-syn transgenic mice. The most prominent species identified were 53 A detergent-soluble oligomers, which preceded neurological symptom onset, and were found at equivalent amounts in regions containing alpha-syn inclusions as well as histologically unaffected regions. These oligomers were resistant to SDS, heat, and urea but were sensitive to proteinase-K digestion. Although the oligomers shared similar basic biochemical properties, those obtained from inclusion-bearing regions were prominently reactive to antibodies that recognize oxidized alpha-syn oligomers, significantly accelerated aggregation of alpha-syn in vitro, and caused primary cortical neuron degeneration. In contrast, oligomers obtained from non-inclusion-bearing regions were not toxic and delayed the in vitro formation of alpha-syn fibrils. These data indicate that specific conformations of alpha-syn oligomers are present in distinct brain regions of A53T alpha-syn transgenic mice. The contribution of these oligomers to the development of neuron dysfunction appears to be independent of their absolute quantities and basic biochemical properties but is dictated by the composition and conformation of the intermediates as well as unrecognized brain-region-specific intrinsic factors.Full Text Article
|Curcumin prevents dopaminergic neuronal death through inhibition of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway. |
Yu S, Zheng W, Xin N, Chi ZH, Wang NQ, Nie YX, Feng WY, Wang ZY
Rejuvenation Res 13 55-64. 2010
Recent studies have shown that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is involved in dopaminergic neuronal degeneration, and direct blockade of JNK by specific inhibitors may prevent or effectively slow the progression of Parkinson disease (PD). Previous studies have revealed that the natural phenolic compound curcumin can reduce inflammation and oxidation, which makes it a potential therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated whether curcumin protects against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine- (MPTP) or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridnium ion- (MPP(+)) induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in C57BL/6N mice or SH-SY5Y cells by inhibiting JNK pathways both in vivo and in vitro. Curcumin treatment significantly improved behavioral deficits, and enhanced the survival of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) in the MPTP-induced PD model mice. Most importantly, curcumin treatment significantly inhibited MPTP/MPP(+)-induced phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and c-Jun, and cleaved caspase-3. Our study suggests that the neuroprotective effect of curcumin is not related simply to its antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties, but involves other mechanisms, particularly by targeting the JNK pathways.
|Dysregulation of dopamine transporters via dopamine D2 autoreceptors triggers anomalous dopamine efflux associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. |
Bowton E, Saunders C, Erreger K, Sakrikar D, Matthies HJ, Sen N, Jessen T, Colbran RJ, Caron MG, Javitch JA, Blakely RD, Galli A
J Neurosci 30 6048-57. 2010
The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) modulates brain circuits involved in attention, reward, and motor activity. Synaptic DA homeostasis is primarily controlled via two presynaptic regulatory mechanisms, DA D(2) receptor (D(2)R)-mediated inhibition of DA synthesis and release, and DA transporter (DAT)-mediated DA clearance. D(2)Rs can physically associate with DAT and regulate DAT function, linking DA release and reuptake to a common mechanism. We have established that the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-associated human DAT coding variant Ala559Val (hDAT A559V) results in anomalous DA efflux (ADE) similar to that caused by amphetamine-like psychostimulants. Here, we show that tonic activation of D(2)R provides support for hDAT A559V-mediated ADE. We determine in hDAT A559V a pertussis toxin-sensitive, CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation mechanism that supports D(2)R-driven DA efflux. These studies identify a signaling network downstream of D(2)R activation, normally constraining DA action at synapses, that may be altered by DAT mutation to impact risk for DA-related disorders.
|Insertion of tetracysteine motifs into dopamine transporter extracellular domains. |
Navaroli DM, Melikian HE
PloS one 5 E9113 2010
The neuronal dopamine transporter (DAT) is a major determinant of extracellular dopamine (DA) levels and is the primary target for a variety of addictive and therapeutic psychoactive drugs. DAT is acutely regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activation and amphetamine exposure, both of which modulate DAT surface expression by endocytic trafficking. In order to use live imaging approaches to study DAT endocytosis, methods are needed to exclusively label the DAT surface pool. The use of membrane impermeant, sulfonated biarsenic dyes holds potential as one such approach, and requires introduction of an extracellular tetracysteine motif (tetraCys; CCPGCC) to facilitate dye binding. In the current study, we took advantage of intrinsic proline-glycine (Pro-Gly) dipeptides encoded in predicted DAT extracellular domains to introduce tetraCys motifs into DAT extracellular loops 2, 3, and 4. [(3)H]DA uptake studies, surface biotinylation and fluorescence microscopy in PC12 cells indicate that tetraCys insertion into the DAT second extracellular loop results in a functional transporter that maintains PKC-mediated downregulation. Introduction of tetraCys into extracellular loops 3 and 4 yielded DATs with severely compromised function that failed to mature and traffic to the cell surface. This is the first demonstration of successful introduction of a tetracysteine motif into a DAT extracellular domain, and may hold promise for use of biarsenic dyes in live DAT imaging studies.
|Human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat activates calpain proteases via the ryanodine receptor to enhance surface dopamine transporter levels and increase transporter-specific uptake and Vmax. |
Perry, SW; Barbieri, J; Tong, N; Polesskaya, O; Pudasaini, S; Stout, A; Lu, R; Kiebala, M; Maggirwar, SB; Gelbard, HA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 14153-64 2010
Human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurological disease (HAND) still causes significant morbidity, despite success reducing viral loads with combination antiretroviral therapy. The dopamine (DA) system is particularly vulnerable in HAND. We hypothesize that early, "reversible" DAergic synaptic dysfunction occurs long before DAergic neuron loss. As such, aging human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals may be vulnerable to other age-related neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease (PD), underscoring the need to understand shared molecular targets in HAND and PD. Previously, we reported that the neurotoxic HIV-1 transactivating factor (Tat) acutely disrupts mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis via ryanodine receptor (RyR) activation. Here, we further report that Tat disrupts DA transporter (DAT) activity and function, resulting in increased plasma membrane (PM) DAT and increased DAT V(max), without changes in K(m) or total DAT protein. Tat also increases calpain protease activity at the PM, demonstrated by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of a cleavable fluorescent calpain substrate. Tat-increased PM DAT and calpain activity are blocked by the RyR antagonists ryanodine and dantrolene, the calpain inhibitor calpastatin, and by a specific inhibitor of GSK-3β. We conclude that Tat activates RyRs via a calcium- and calpain-mediated mechanism that upregulates DAT trafficking to the PM, and is independent of DAT protein synthesis, reinforcing the feasibility of RyR and GSK-3β inhibition as clinical therapeutic approaches for HAND. Finally, we provide key translational relevance for these findings by highlighting published human data of increased DAT levels in striata of HAND patients and by demonstrating similar findings in Tat-expressing transgenic mice.
|Elevated tauopathy and alpha-synuclein pathology in postmortem Parkinson's disease brains with and without dementia. |
Wills, J; Jones, J; Haggerty, T; Duka, V; Joyce, JN; Sidhu, A
Experimental neurology 225 210-8 2010
Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease, results in abnormal accumulation of insoluble alpha-synuclein (alpha-Syn) in dopaminergic neurons. Here we examined tauopathic changes and the alpha-Syn/p-GSK-3beta/proteasome pathway in postmortem striata and inferior frontal gyri (IFG) from patients with PD and PD with dementia (PDD). In both PD and PDD, alpha-Syn levels were high, especially the insoluble form of this protein; in PDD, insoluble alpha-Syn levels were persistently higher than PD across both brain regions. Levels of p-GSK-3beta phosphorylated at Tyr 216, which hyperphosphorylates Tau to produce toxic pathological forms of p-Tau, were higher in striata of both PD and PDD compared to controls, but were unaltered in IFG. While proteasomal activity was unchanged in striatum of PD and PDD, such activity was diminished in the IFG of both PD and PDD. A decrease in 19S subunit of the proteasomes was seen in IFG of PDD, while lower levels of 20S subunits were seen in striatum and IFG of both PD and PDD patients. Parkin levels were similar in PD and PDD, suggesting lack of involvement of this protein. Most interestingly, tauopathic changes were noted only in striatum of PD and PDD, with increased hyperphosphorylation seen at Ser262 and Ser396/404; increases in Ser202 levels were seen only in PD but not in PDD striatum. We were unable to detect any tauopathy in IFG in either PD or PDD despite increased levels of alpha-Syn, and decreased proteasomal activity, and is probably due to lack of increase in p-GSK-3beta in IFG. Unlike Alzheimer's disease where tauopathy is more globally observed in diverse brain regions, our data demonstrates restricted expression of tauopathy in brains of PD and PDD, probably limited to dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal region.Full Text Article
|Membrane cholesterol modulates the outward facing conformation of the dopamine transporter and alters cocaine binding. |
Hong, WC; Amara, SG
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 32616-26 2010
Clearance of synaptically released dopamine is regulated by the plasmalemmal dopamine transporter (DAT), an integral membrane protein that resides within a complex lipid milieu. Here we demonstrate that cholesterol, a major component of the lipid bilayer, can modulate the conformation of DAT and alter cocaine binding to DAT. In striatal synaptosomes and transfected cells, DAT was in cholesterol-rich membrane fractions after mild detergent extraction. After increasing the membrane cholesterol content by treatment of water-soluble cholesterol (cholesterol mixed with methyl-β-cyclodextrin), we observed an increase in DAT binding B(max) values for cocaine analogs [(3)H]WIN35428 and [(125)I]RTI-55, but similar levels of DAT proteins on the cell surface were shown by surface biotinylation assays. Membrane cholesterol addition also markedly enhanced the accessibility of cysteine sulfhydryl moieties in DAT as probed by a membrane-impermeable maleimide-biotin conjugate. We identified cysteine 306, a juxtamembrane residue on transmembrane domain 6 (TM6) of DAT, as the intrinsic residue exhibiting enhanced reactivity. Similar effects on DAT cysteine accessibility and radioligand binding were observed with addition of zinc, a reagent known to promote the outward facing conformation of DAT. Using substituted cysteine mutants on various positions likely to be extracellular, we identified additional residues located on TM1, TM6, TM7, and TM12 of DAT that are sensitive to alterations in the membrane cholesterol content. Our findings in transfected cells and native tissues support the hypothesis that DAT adopts an outward facing conformation in a cholesterol-rich membrane environment, suggesting a novel modulatory role of the surrounding membrane lipid milieu on DAT function.Full Text Article
|Physical and functional interaction between the dopamine transporter and the synaptic vesicle protein synaptogyrin-3. |
Egaña, LA; Cuevas, RA; Baust, TB; Parra, LA; Leak, RK; Hochendoner, S; Peña, K; Quiroz, M; Hong, WC; Dorostkar, MM; Janz, R; Sitte, HH; Torres, GE
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 29 4592-604 2009
Uptake through the dopamine transporter (DAT) represents the primary mechanism used to terminate dopaminergic transmission in brain. Although it is well known that dopamine (DA) taken up by the transporter is used to replenish synaptic vesicle stores for subsequent release, the molecular details of this mechanism are not completely understood. Here, we identified the synaptic vesicle protein synaptogyrin-3 as a DAT interacting protein using the split ubiquitin system. This interaction was confirmed through coimmunoprecipitation experiments using heterologous cell lines and mouse brain. DAT and synaptogyrin-3 colocalized at presynaptic terminals from mouse striatum. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy, we show that both proteins interact in live neurons. Pull-down assays with GST (glutathione S-transferase) proteins revealed that the cytoplasmic N termini of both DAT and synaptogyrin-3 are sufficient for this interaction. Furthermore, the N terminus of DAT is capable of binding purified synaptic vesicles from brain tissue. Functional assays revealed that synaptogyrin-3 expression correlated with DAT activity in PC12 and MN9D cells, but not in the non-neuronal HEK-293 cells. These changes were not attributed to changes in transporter cell surface levels or to direct effect of the protein-protein interaction. Instead, the synaptogyrin-3 effect on DAT activity was abolished in the presence of the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) inhibitor reserpine, suggesting a dependence on the vesicular DA storage system. Finally, we provide evidence for a biochemical complex involving DAT, synaptogyrin-3, and VMAT2. Collectively, our data identify a novel interaction between DAT and synaptogyrin-3 and suggest a physical and functional link between DAT and the vesicular DA system.
|A juxtamembrane mutation in the N terminus of the dopamine transporter induces preference for an inward-facing conformation. |
Guptaroy, Bipasha, et al.
Mol. Pharmacol., 75: 514-24 (2009) 2009
The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) regulates synaptic dopamine (DA) levels and is the site of action of abused and therapeutic drugs. Here we study the effect of a threonine residue (Thr62 in hDAT) that is highly conserved within a canonical phosphorylation site (RETW) in the juxtamembrane N-terminal region of monoamine transporters. In stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293T cells, expression of T62D-hDAT was reduced compared with hDAT or T62A-hDAT. T62D-hDAT displayed dramatically reduced [(3)H]dopamine up-take but exhibited a higher basal dopamine efflux compared with hDAT or T62A-hDAT, as determined by measurements of [(3)H]dopamine efflux and amperometry. The high constitutive efflux in T62D-hDAT precluded the measurement of amphetamine-stimulated [(3)H]dopamine efflux, but when dopamine was added internally into voltage-clamped T62D-hDAT cells, amphetamine-induced efflux comparable with hDAT was detected by amperometry. In accordance with findings that Zn(2+) can rescue reduced DA uptake in mutant transporters that are predominantly inward-facing, micromolar concentrations of Zn(2+) markedly potentiated [(3)H]dopamine uptake in T62D-hDAT and permitted the measurement of amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux. These results suggest that T62D-hDAT prefers an inward-facing conformation in the transition between inward- and outward-facing conformations. For T62A-hDAT, however, the measured 50% reduction in both [(3)H]dopamine uptake and [(3)H]dopamine efflux was consistent with a slowed transition between inward- and outward-facing conformations. The mechanism underlying the important functional role of Thr62 in hDAT activity suggested by these findings is examined in a structural context using dynamic simulations of a three-dimensional molecular model of DAT.
|Protein kinase Cbeta is a critical regulator of dopamine transporter trafficking and regulates the behavioral response to amphetamine in mice. |
Chen, R; Furman, CA; Zhang, M; Kim, MN; Gereau, RW; Leitges, M; Gnegy, ME
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 328 912-20 2009
The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a key mediator of dopaminergic neurotransmission and a major target for amphetamine. We found previously that protein kinase C (PKC) beta regulates amphetamine-mediated dopamine efflux. Here, using PKCbeta wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice, we report a novel role for PKCbeta in amphetamine-induced regulation of DAT trafficking and activity. PKCbeta KO mice have less striatal surface DAT, [3H]dopamine uptake, and amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux, yet higher novelty-induced locomotor activity than WT mice. Although a short exposure (less than or =90 s) to amphetamine rapidly increases striatal surface DAT and [3H]dopamine uptake in WT mice, this treatment decreases surface DAT and [3H]dopamine uptake in KO mice. Increases in surface DAT and [3H]dopamine uptake are not evident in KO mice until a longer exposure (60 min) to amphetamine, by which time WT mice exhibit decreased surface DAT and dopamine uptake. The slowness of amphetamine-induced striatal DAT trafficking in PKCbeta KO mice was mimicked by the use of a specific PKCbeta inhibitor, LY379196, in WT mice. Furthermore, PKCbeta KO mice exhibit reduced locomotor responsiveness to amphetamine compared with WT, which could be explained by reduced surface DAT and delayed amphetamine-induced DAT trafficking in KO mice. Our results indicate that PKCbeta is crucial for proper trafficking of DAT to the surface and for functioning of DAT and amphetamine signaling, providing new insight into the role of PKCbeta as an important regulator of dopaminergic homeostasis.Full Text Article
|Dopamine and amphetamine rapidly increase dopamine transporter trafficking to the surface: live-cell imaging using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. |
Furman, CA; Chen, R; Guptaroy, B; Zhang, M; Holz, RW; Gnegy, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 29 3328-36 2009
Rapid treatment (1 min) of rat striatal synaptosomes with low-dose amphetamine increases surface expression of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Using mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells, stably transfected with green fluorescent protein-DAT, we demonstrate the real-time substrate-induced rapid trafficking of DAT to the plasma membrane using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). Both the physiological substrate, dopamine, and amphetamine began to increase surface DAT within 10 s of drug addition and steadily increased surface DAT until removal 2 min later. The substrate-induced rise in surface DAT was dose-dependent, was blocked by cocaine, and abated after drug removal. Although individual vesicle fusion was not visually detectable, exocytosis of DAT was blocked using both tetanus neurotoxin and botulinum neurotoxin C to cleave soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins. Notably, the dopamine-induced increase in surface DAT was cocaine-sensitive but D(2)-receptor independent. TIRFM data were confirmed in human DAT-N2A cells using biotinylation, and similar effects were detected in rat striatal synaptosomes. A specific inhibitor of protein kinase C-beta blocked the substrate-mediated increase in surface DAT in both DAT-N2A cells and rat striatal synaptosomes. These data demonstrate that the physiological substrate, dopamine, and amphetamine rapidly increase the trafficking of DAT to the surface by a mechanism dependent on SNARE proteins and protein kinase C-beta but independent of dopamine D(2) receptor activation. Importantly, this study suggests that the reuptake system is poised to rapidly increase its function during dopamine secretion to tightly regulate dopaminergic neurotransmission.Full Text Article
|Dopamine innervation in the thalamus: monkey versus rat. |
García-Cabezas, MA; Martínez-Sánchez, P; Sánchez-González, MA; Garzón, M; Cavada, C
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 19 424-34 2009
We recently identified the thalamic dopaminergic system in the human and macaque monkey brains, and, based on earlier reports on the paucity of dopamine in the rat thalamus, hypothesized that this dopaminergic system was particularly developed in primates. Here we test this hypothesis using immunohistochemistry against the dopamine transporter (DAT) in adult macaque and rat brains. The extent and density of DAT-immunoreactive (-ir) axons were remarkably greater in the macaque dorsal thalamus, where the mediodorsal association nucleus and the ventral motor nuclei held the densest immunolabeling. In contrast, sparse DAT immunolabeling was present in the rat dorsal thalamus; it was mainly located in the mediodorsal, paraventricular, ventral medial, and ventral lateral nuclei. The reticular nucleus, zona incerta, and lateral habenular nucleus held numerous DAT-ir axons in both species. Ultrastructural analysis in the macaque mediodorsal nucleus revealed that thalamic interneurons are a main postsynaptic target of DAT-ir axons; this suggests that the marked expansion of the dopamine innervation in the primate in comparison to the rodent thalamus may be related to the presence of a sizable interneuron population in primates. We remark that it is important to be aware of brain species differences when using animal models of human brain disease.Full Text Article
|Development of microglia in the chick embryo spinal cord: implications in the regulation of motoneuronal survival and death. |
Jordi Calderó,Núria Brunet,Dolors Ciutat,Marta Hereu,Josep E Esquerda
Journal of neuroscience research 87 2009
The role of microglia during normal development of the nervous system is still not well understood. In the present study, a chick embryo model was used to examine the development of microglia in the spinal cord and characterize their changes in response to naturally occurring and pathological death of motoneurons (MNs). The microglial response to MN axotomy and the effects of microglial activation on MN survival were also studied. We found that: 1) macrophages/microglial cells were present in the spinal cord at early developmental stages (E3) and that they were recruited after normal and induced MN apoptosis; 2) although many microglial cells were seen phagocytosing apoptotic bodies, a proportion of dying cells were devoid of engulfing microglia; 3) axotomy of mature MNs was accompanied by microglial activation in the absence of MN death; 4) excitotoxic (necrotic) MN death provoked a rapid and massive microglial recruitment with phagocytic activity; 5) lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation in vivo resulted in the death of immature, but not mature, microglia; and 6) overactivation of microglia modulated the survival of mature MNs, either by killing them or by enhancing their vulnerability to die in response to a mild injury. Taken together, these observations indicate that normal microglia do not play an active role in triggering apoptosis of developing MNs. Rather, they act as phagocytes for the removal of dying cells during the process of programmed cell death.
|Visualization of dopamine transporter trafficking in live neurons by use of fluorescent cocaine analogs. |
Jacob Eriksen, Søren G F Rasmussen, Trine Nygaard Rasmussen, Christian Bjerggaard Vaegter, Joo Hwan Cha, Mu-Fa Zou, Amy Hauck Newman, Ulrik Gether, Jacob Eriksen, Søren G F Rasmussen, Trine Nygaard Rasmussen, Christian Bjerggaard Vaegter, Joo Hwan Cha, Mu-Fa Zou, Amy Hauck Newman, Ulrik Gether
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 29 6794-808 2009
The dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft and is a target for widely abused psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. Nonetheless, little is known about the cellular distribution and trafficking of natively expressed DAT. Here we use novel fluorescently tagged cocaine analogs to visualize DAT and DAT trafficking in cultured live midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The fluorescent tags were extended from the tropane N-position of 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)tropane using an ethylamino-linker. The rhodamine-, OR Green-, or Cy3-labeled ligands had high binding affinity for DAT and enabled specific labeling of DAT in live neurons and visualization by confocal imaging. In the dopaminergic neurons, DAT was uniformly distributed in the plasma membrane of the soma, the neuronal extensions, and varicosities along these extensions. FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) experiments demonstrated bidirectional movement of DAT in the extensions and indicated that DAT is highly mobile both in the extensions and in the varicosities (immobile fraction less than approximately 30%). DAT was constitutively internalized into vesicular structures likely representing intracellular transporter pools. The internalization was blocked by lentiviral-mediated expression of dominant-negative dynamin and internalized DAT displayed partial colocalization with the early endosomal marker EGFP-Rab5 and with the transferrin receptor. DAT internalization and function was not affected by activation of protein kinase C (PKC) with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or by inhibition with staurosporine or GF109203X. These data are in contrast to findings for DAT in transfected heterologous cells and challenge the paradigm that trafficking and cellular distribution of endogenous DAT is subject to regulation by PKC.
|Rab 11 regulates constitutive dopamine transporter trafficking and function in N2A neuroblastoma cells. |
Furman CA, Lo CB, Stokes S, Esteban JA, Gnegy ME
Neuroscience letters 463 78-81 2009
Full Text Article
|Chronic, low-dose rotenone reproduces Lewy neurites found in early stages of Parkinson's disease, reduces mitochondrial movement and slowly kills differentiated SH-SY5Y neural cells. |
Borland, MK; Trimmer, PA; Rubinstein, JD; Keeney, PM; Mohanakumar, K; Liu, L; Bennett, JP
Molecular neurodegeneration 3 21 2008
Parkinson's disease, the most common adult neurodegenerative movement disorder, demonstrates a brain-wide pathology that begins pre-clinically with alpha-synuclein aggregates ("Lewy neurites") in processes of gut enteric and vagal motor neurons. Rostral progression into substantia nigra with death of dopamine neurons produces the motor impairment phenotype that yields a clinical diagnosis. The vast majority of Parkinson's disease occurs sporadically, and current models of sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD) can utilize directly infused or systemic neurotoxins.We developed a differentiation protocol for human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma that yielded non-dividing dopaminergic neural cells with long processes that we then exposed to 50 nM rotenone, a complex I inhibitor used in Parkinson's disease models. After 21 days of rotenone, ~60% of cells died. Their processes retracted and accumulated ASYN-(+) and UB-(+) aggregates that blocked organelle transport. Mitochondrial movement velocities were reduced by 8 days of rotenone and continued to decline over time. No cytoplasmic inclusions resembling Lewy bodies were observed. Gene microarray analyses showed that the majority of genes were under-expressed. qPCR analyses of 11 mtDNA-encoded and 10 nDNA-encoded mitochondrial electron transport chain RNAs' relative expressions revealed small increases in mtDNA-encoded genes and lesser regulation of nDNA-encoded ETC genes.Subacute rotenone treatment of differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells causes process retraction and partial death over several weeks, slowed mitochondrial movement in processes and appears to reproduce the Lewy neuritic changes of early Parkinson's disease pathology but does not cause Lewy body inclusions. The overall pattern of transcriptional regulation is gene under-expression with minimal regulation of ETC genes in spite of rotenone's being a complex I toxin. This rotenone-SH-SY5Y model in a differentiated human neural cell mimics changes of early Parkinson's disease and may be useful for screening therapeutics for neuroprotection in that disease stage.
|Increased amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and reward in mice overexpressing the dopamine transporter. |
Salahpour, A; Ramsey, AJ; Medvedev, IO; Kile, B; Sotnikova, TD; Holmstrand, E; Ghisi, V; Nicholls, PJ; Wong, L; Murphy, K; Sesack, SR; Wightman, RM; Gainetdinov, RR; Caron, MG
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 4405-10 2008
The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a key role in the regulation of dopaminergic signaling wherein it controls both the spatial and temporal actions of dopamine. Here we evaluated the behavioral and neurochemical consequences of increased DAT function by generating DAT transgenic mice (DAT-tg) that overexpress the transporter. These mice were generated by pronuclear injection of a bacterial artificial chromosome containing the mouse DAT locus, yielding an anatomical expression pattern of DAT-tg identical to WT. In DAT-tg mice there is a 3-fold increase in the levels of total and membrane-expressed DAT, but synaptic plasma membrane fractions of DAT-tg mice show only a 30% increase in transporter levels. Functional studies reveal that in the DAT-tg animals there is a 50% increase in the rate of dopamine (DA) uptake resulting in extracellular levels of DA that are decreased by approximately 40%. Behaviorally, DAT-tg animals display similar locomotor stimulation when treated with DAT blockers such as GBR12909, methylphenidate, and cocaine. However, these mice demonstrate markedly increased locomotor responses to amphetamine compared with WT animals. Furthermore, compared with controls, there is a 3-fold greater increase in the amount of DA released by amphetamine in DAT-tg mice that correlates with the 3-fold increase in protein expression. Finally, DAT-tg animals show reduced operant responding for natural reward while displaying preference for amphetamine at much lower doses (0.2 and 0.5 mg/kg) than WT mice (2 mg/kg). These results suggest that overexpression of DAT leads to a marked increase in sensitivity to psychomotor and rewarding properties of amphetamine.
|DeltaFosB accumulation in ventro-medial caudate underlies the induction but not the expression of behavioral sensitization by both repeated amphetamine and stress. |
D Conversi, A Bonito-Oliva, C Orsini, V Colelli, S Cabib
The European journal of neuroscience 27 191-201 2008
Both repeated psychostimulants and stress have the ability to promote behavioral sensitization, i.e. enhanced behavioral response to drug challenge. To test whether the behavioral phenotype is also accompanied by similar neuroplastic adaptations, the present study evaluated changes in Fos and FosB/DeltaFosB transcription factors induced in the brain of C57BL/6J mice behaviorally sensitized by repeated amphetamine or repeated restraint stress. Groups of mice received repeated injections of D-amphetamine or saline in group-specific environments. Different groups of mice experienced 2 h of restraint daily for 10 consecutive days. Amphetamine- pre-treated mice, drug-challenged in the environment in which they received drug treatments (Paired), as well as repeatedly stressed mice expressed robust sensitization to the locomotor effects of amphetamine. Both stress- and amphetamine-pre-treated groups showed changes in amphetamine-induced Fos expression; however, none of these changes was shared by the two sensitizing treatments. Instead, accumulation of FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity in the ventro-medial caudate was common to both pre-treatments. These results support the hypothesis that a common neuroadaptive process involving DeltaFosB accumulation in the ventro-medial caudate underlies the induction but not the expression of behavioral sensitization by different conditions.
|Tissue plasminogen activator is not involved in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. |
Ayumi Fukakusa, Hiroyuki Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki Koike, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Kazuhiro Takuma, Kiyofumi Yamada
Journal of pharmacological sciences 106 321-4 2008
To investigate the role of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in methamphetamine (METH)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity, we compared the changes in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) levels in the striatum after repetitive treatment of METH at 4 mg/kg among wild-type, tPA-deficient (tPA-/-), and protease activated receptor-1-deficient (PAR-1-/-) mice. METH treatment caused a marked decrease in TH and DAT levels in the striatum of those mice with a similar magnitude. No difference in METH-induced abnormal behavior and hyperthermia was observed among the three types of mice. These results suggest that neither tPA nor PAR-1 is involved in METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in vivo.
|Iron deficiency alters dopamine uptake and response to L-DOPA injection in Sprague-Dawley rats. |
Laura E Bianco,Jason Wiesinger,Christopher J Earley,Byron C Jones,John L Beard
Journal of neurochemistry 106 2008
Iron deficiency (ID) disrupts brain dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) metabolism including functioning of monoamine transporters and receptors. We employed caudate microdialysis and no net flux (NNF) in post-weaning rats to determine if ID decreased the extraction fraction (E(d)). Five micromolar quinpirole, a dopamine D(2) receptor agonist, resulted in 80% decrease in extracellular DA and 45% higher E(d) in control animals. The D(2) agonist had no effect on E(d) in ID animals despite a reduction in basal DA. DAT mRNA levels were reduced by 58% with ID, while DAT protein in ventral midbrain and caudate and membrane associated DAT were also reduced by ID. Carbidopa/l-DOPA was administered to determine if elevated extracellular DA in ID was due to increased release. The DA response to l-DOPA in ID rats was 50% smaller and delayed, whereas the NE response was threefold higher. The caudate concentration of NE was also elevated in ID. Elevated dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity in ID provides a tentative explanation for the increased NE response to l-DOPA. These experiments provide new evidence that ID results in altered synthesis and functioning of DAT and perhaps suggests some compensatory changes in NE metabolism.
|Pharmacological characterization and anatomical distribution of the dopamine transporter in the mouse cerebellum. |
Foteini Delis, Ada Mitsacos, Panagiotis Giompres, Foteini Delis, Ada Mitsacos, Panagiotis Giompres, Foteini Delis, Ada Mitsacos, Panagiotis Giompres
Cerebellum (London, England) 7 242-51 2008
We studied the binding parameters, the pharmacological profile and the anatomical distribution of the dopamine transporter in the mouse cerebellum by using the specific dopamine uptake antagonist [(3)H]GBR12935 and an antidopamine transporter monoclonal antibody. Competition experiments in cerebellar and striatal membrane preparations showed that [(3)H]GBR12935 binds to a specific binding site, sensitive to dopamine and low concentrations of mazindol. The affinity of dopamine for the cerebellar binding site was one order of magnitude lower than the affinity for the striatal binding site. Saturation experiments in cerebellar membrane preparations and thin frozen sections showed that the affinity of [(3)H]GBR12935 for this binding site is similar to its affinity for the striatal dopamine transporter. Saturable binding was lobule specific and in general was higher in the molecular layer compared to the granule cell layer. The immunohistochemical signal was mostly concentrated in the Purkinje cell layer and the cerebellar nuclei. The results suggest that the cerebellar dopamine transporter is similar but not identical to the striatal dopamine transporter and that it is present in the mouse cerebellum in a lobule and lamina specific pattern.
|Age-related changes in dopamine transporters and accumulation of 3-nitrotyrosine in rhesus monkey midbrain dopamine neurons: relevance in selective neuronal vulnerability to degeneration. |
N M Kanaan, J H Kordower, T J Collier, N M Kanaan, J H Kordower, T J Collier
The European journal of neuroscience 27 3205-15 2008
Aging is the strongest risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). There is a preferential loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tier of the substantia nigra (vtSN) compared to the dorsal tier and ventral tegmental area (VTA) in PD. Examining age-related and region-specific differences in DA neurons represents a means of identifying factors potentially involved in vulnerability or resistance to degeneration. Nitrative stress is among the factors potentially underlying DA neuron degeneration. We studied the relationship between 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT; a marker of nitrative damage) and DA transporters [DA transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT)] during aging in DA subregions of rhesus monkeys. The percentage of DA neurons containing 3NT increased significantly only in the vtSN with advancing age, and the vtSN had a greater percentage of 3NT-positive neurons when compared to the VTA. The relationship between 3NT and DA transporters was determined by measuring fluorescence intensity of 3NT, DAT and VMAT staining. 3NT intensity increased with advancing age in the vtSN. Increased DAT, VMAT and DAT/VMAT ratios were associated with increased 3NT in individual DA neurons. These results suggest nitrative damage accumulates in midbrain DA neurons with advancing age, an effect exacerbated in the vulnerable vtSN. The capacity of a DA neuron to accumulate more cytosolic DA, as inferred from DA transporter expression, is related to accumulation of nitrative damage. These findings are consistent with a role for aging-related accrual of nitrative damage in the selective vulnerability of vtSN neurons to degeneration in PD.
|Syntaxin 1A interaction with the dopamine transporter promotes amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux. |
Binda, F; Dipace, C; Bowton, E; Robertson, SD; Lute, BJ; Fog, JU; Zhang, M; Sen, N; Colbran, RJ; Gnegy, ME; Gether, U; Javitch, JA; Erreger, K; Galli, A
Molecular pharmacology 74 1101-8 2008
The soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor protein syntaxin 1A (SYN1A) interacts with and regulates the function of transmembrane proteins, including ion channels and neurotransmitter transporters. Here, we define the first 33 amino acids of the N terminus of the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) as the site of direct interaction with SYN1A. Amphetamine (AMPH) increases the association of SYN1A with human DAT (hDAT) in a heterologous expression system (hDAT cells) and with native DAT in murine striatal synaptosomes. Immunoprecipitation of DAT from the biotinylated fraction shows that the AMPH-induced increase in DAT/SYN1A association occurs at the plasma membrane. In a superfusion assay of DA efflux, cells overexpressing SYN1A exhibited significantly greater AMPH-induced DA release with respect to control cells. By combining the patch-clamp technique with amperometry, we measured DA release under voltage clamp. At -60 mV, a physiological resting potential, AMPH did not induce DA efflux in hDAT cells and DA neurons. In contrast, perfusion of exogenous SYN1A (3 microM) into the cell with the whole-cell pipette enabled AMPH-induced DA efflux at -60 mV in both hDAT cells and DA neurons. It has been shown recently that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by AMPH and regulates AMPH-induced DA efflux. Here, we show that AMPH-induced association between DAT and SYN1A requires CaMKII activity and that inhibition of CaMKII blocks the ability of exogenous SYN1A to promote DA efflux. These data suggest that AMPH activation of CaMKII supports DAT/SYN1A association, resulting in a mode of DAT capable of DA efflux.Full Text Article
|Rhesus monkey trace amine-associated receptor 1 signaling: enhancement by monoamine transporters and attenuation by the D2 autoreceptor in vitro. |
Xie, Zhihua, et al.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 321: 116-27 (2007) 2007
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that directly responds to endogenous monoamines as well as amphetamine-related psychostimulants, including methamphetamine. In the present study, we demonstrate TAAR1 mRNA and protein expression in rhesus monkey brain regions associated with monoaminergic systems, variable cellular distribution of TAAR1 in rhesus monkey brain, and TAAR1 coexpression with the dopamine transporter (DAT) in a subset of dopamine neurons in both rhesus monkey and mouse substantia nigra. On this basis, we evaluated rhesus monkey TAAR1 activation by different compounds and its functional relation with monoamine transporters and the dopamine D2 receptor (D2) short isoform (D2s) autoreceptor in vitro using a cAMP response element-luciferase assay. TAAR1 activation by monoamines and amphetamine-related compounds was greatly enhanced by coexpression of dopamine, norepinephrine, or serotonin transporters, and the activation enhancement was blocked by monoamine transporter inhibitors. This enhancement did not occur in control experiments in which the dopamine D1 receptor (D1) was substituted for TAAR1. Furthermore, activation of TAAR1 by dopamine was completely inhibited by D2s when coexpressed with TAAR1, and this inhibition was blocked by the D2 antagonist raclopride. Last, dopamine activation of TAAR1 could induce c-FOS-luciferase expression but only in the presence of DAT, whereas dopamine activation of D1 resulted in equivalent c-FOS expression in the presence or absence of DAT. Together, these data reveal a broad agonist spectrum for TAAR1, a functional relation of TAAR1 with monoamine transporters and D2s, and a mechanism by which D2 receptor drugs can influence brain monoaminergic function and have efficacy through affecting TAAR1 signaling.
|Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)||Mouse, Monkey||17234900|
|Local knockdown of genes in the brain using small interfering RNA: a phenotypic comparison with knockout animals. |
Ali Salahpour,Ivan O Medvedev,Jean-Martin Beaulieu,Raul R Gainetdinov,Marc G Caron
Biological psychiatry 61 2007
Recent reports have suggested effectiveness of RNA interference (RNAi) for the analysis of gene functions in the brain. This study sought to determine the efficiency of local small interfering RNA (siRNA) injections, comparing this approach with animals generated through classical gene targeting.
|Distribution of the dopamine innervation in the macaque and human thalamus. |
Miguel Angel García-Cabezas, Beatriz Rico, Miguel Angel Sánchez-González, Carmen Cavada
NeuroImage 34 965-84 2007
We recently defined the thalamic dopaminergic system in primates; it arises from numerous dopaminergic cell groups and selectively targets numerous thalamic nuclei. Given the central position of the thalamus in subcortical and cortical interplay, and the functional relevance of dopamine neuromodulation in the brain, detailing dopamine distribution in the thalamus should supply important information. To this end we performed immunohistochemistry for dopamine and the dopamine transporter in the thalamus of macaque monkeys and humans to generate maps, in the stereotaxic coronal plane, of the distribution of dopaminergic axons. The dopamine innervation of the thalamus follows the same pattern in both species and is most dense in midline limbic nuclei, the mediodorsal and lateral posterior association nuclei, and in the ventral lateral and ventral anterior motor nuclei. This distribution suggests that thalamic dopamine has a prominent role in emotion, attention, cognition and complex somatosensory and visual processing, as well as in motor control. Most thalamic dopaminergic axons are thin and varicose and target both the neuropil and small blood vessels, suggesting that, besides neuronal modulation, thalamic dopamine may have a direct influence on microcirculation. The maps provided here should be a useful reference in future experimental and neuroimaging studies aiming at clarifying the role of the thalamic dopaminergic system in health and in conditions involving brain dopamine, including Parkinson's disease, drug addiction and schizophrenia.
|D2 receptors regulate dopamine transporter function via an extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2-dependent and phosphoinositide 3 kinase-independent mechanism. |
Bolan, EA; Kivell, B; Jaligam, V; Oz, M; Jayanthi, LD; Han, Y; Sen, N; Urizar, E; Gomes, I; Devi, LA; Ramamoorthy, S; Javitch, JA; Zapata, A; Shippenberg, TS
Molecular pharmacology 71 1222-32 2007
The dopamine transporter (DAT) terminates dopamine (DA) neurotransmission by reuptake of DA into presynaptic neurons. Regulation of DA uptake by D(2) dopamine receptors (D(2)R) has been reported. The high affinity of DA and other DAT substrates for the D(2)R, however, has complicated investigation of the intracellular mechanisms mediating this effect. The present studies used the fluorescent DAT substrate, 4-[4-(diethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+)) with live cell imaging techniques to identify the role of two D(2)R-linked signaling pathways, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) in mediating D(2)R regulation of DAT. Addition of the D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist quinpirole (0.1-10 muM) to human embryonic kidney cells coexpressing human DAT and D(2) receptor (short splice variant, D(2S)R) induced a rapid, concentration-dependent and pertussis toxin-sensitive increase in ASP(+) accumulation. The D(2)/D(3) agonist (S)-(+)-(4aR, 10bR)-3,4,4a, 10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-benzopyrano-[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-ol hydrochloride (PD128907) also increased ASP(+) accumulation. D(2S)R activation increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt, a major target of PI3K. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor 2-(2-amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (PD98059) prevented the quinpirole-evoked increase in ASP(+) accumulation, whereas inhibition of PI3K was without effect. Fluorescence flow cytometry and biotinylation studies revealed a rapid increase in DAT cell-surface expression in response to D(2)R stimulation. These experiments demonstrate that D(2S)R stimulation increases DAT cell surface expression and therefore enhances substrate clearance. Furthermore, they show that the increase in DAT function is ERK1/2-dependent but PI3K-independent. Our data also suggest the possibility of a direct physical interaction between DAT and D(2)R. Together, these results suggest a novel mechanism by which D(2S)R autoreceptors may regulate DAT in the central nervous system.
|GPR37 associates with the dopamine transporter to modulate dopamine uptake and behavioral responses to dopaminergic drugs. |
Daniela Marazziti, Silvia Mandillo, Chiara Di Pietro, Elisabetta Golini, Rafaele Matteoni, Glauco P Tocchini-Valentini
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 9846-51 2007
The orphan G protein-coupled receptor 37 (GPR37) is a substrate of parkin; its insoluble aggregates accumulate in brain samples of Parkinson's disease patients. We report here that GPR37 interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and modulates DAT activity. GPR37 and DAT were found colocalized in mouse striatal presynaptic membranes and in transfected cells and their interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation assays. Gpr37-null mutant mice showed enhanced DAT-mediated dopamine uptake in striatal membrane samples, with a significant increase in the number of plasma membrane DAT molecules. The null mutant mice also exhibited a decrease in cocaine-induced locomotor activity and in catalepsy induced by dopamine receptor antagonists. These results reveal the specific role of GPR37, a putative peptidergic G protein-coupled receptor, in modulating the functional expression of DAT and the behavioral responses to dopaminergic drugs.Full Text Article
|Norepinephrine loss produces more profound motor deficits than MPTP treatment in mice. |
K S Rommelfanger, G L Edwards, K G Freeman, L C Liles, G W Miller, D Weinshenker
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 13804-9 2007
Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized primarily by loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, there is a concomitant loss of norepinephrine (NE) neurons in the locus coeruleus. Dopaminergic lesions induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) are commonly used to model PD, and although MPTP effectively mimics the dopaminergic neuropathology of PD in mice, it fails to produce PD-like motor deficits. We hypothesized that MPTP is unable to recapitulate the motor abnormalities of PD either because the behavioral paradigms used to measure coordinated behavior in mice are not sensitive enough or because MPTP in the absence of NE loss is insufficient to impair motor control. We tested both possibilities by developing a battery of coordinated movement tests and examining motor deficits in dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh-/-) mice that lack NE altogether. We detected no motor abnormalities in MPTP-treated control mice, despite an 80% loss of striatal dopamine (DA) terminals. Dbh-/- mice, on the other hand, were impaired in most tests and also displayed spontaneous dyskinesias, despite their normal striatal DA content. A subset of these impairments was recapitulated in control mice with 80% NE lesions and reversed in Dbh-/- mice, either by restoration of NE or treatment with a DA agonist. MPTP did not exacerbate baseline motor deficits in Dbh-/- mice. Finally, striatal levels of phospho-ERK-1/2 and DeltaFosB/FosB, proteins which are associated with PD and dyskinesias, were elevated in Dbh-/- mice. These results suggest that loss of locus coeruleus neurons contributes to motor dysfunction in PD.Full Text Article
|Increased host neuronal survival and motor function in BMT Parkinsonian mice: involvement of immunosuppression. |
Gilmor I Keshet,Ravi J Tolwani,Angelica Trejo,Peggy Kraft,Regis Doyonnas,Carol Clayberger,James M Weimann,Helen M Blau
The Journal of comparative neurology 504 2007
We examined the potential of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) to rescue dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). A BMT from mice transgenic for green fluorescent protein (GFP(+)) given either before or after administration of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) led to the accumulation of transplanted adult GFP(+) bone-marrow-derived cells (BMDC) in the substantia nigra, where dopaminergic neurodegeneration occurs in PD. Post-BMT, mice exposed to MPTP had substantially greater numbers of endogenous tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neuronal cell bodies in the substantia nigra and increased dopamine transporter-positive projections into the striatum compared to controls. Moreover, motor function was restored to normal within 1 month post-MPTP in BMT-treated mice assayed by a rotarod behavioral test. The effect of BMT on PD was indirect, as no evidence of BMDC fusion with or transdifferentiation into dopaminergic neurons was observed. BMDC activated by BMT or associated factors could play a trophic role in rescuing damaged cells. Alternatively, the beneficial effects of BMT are due to immunosuppression reflected by a reduction in the proportion of T-cells and a reduction of T-cell proliferation in BMT mice. These findings highlight that when immunosuppression is required for transplantation studies, the amelioration of symptoms may not be due to the transplant itself. Further, they suggest that the immune system plays a role in the development of characteristics typical of PD.
|Defining the dopamine transporter proteome by convergent biochemical and in silico analyses. |
R Maiya, I Ponomarev, K D Linse, R A Harris, R D Mayfield
Genes, brain, and behavior 6 97-106 2007
Monoamine transporters play a key role in neuronal signaling by mediating reuptake of neurotransmitters from the synapse. The function of the dopamine transporter (DAT), an important member of this family of transporters, is regulated by multiple signaling mechanisms, which result in altered cell surface trafficking of DAT. Protein-protein interactions are likely critical for this mode of transporter regulation. In this study, we identified proteins associated with DAT by immunoprecipitation (IP) followed by mass spectrometry. We identified 20 proteins with diverse cellular functions that can be classified as trafficking proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, ion channels and extracellular matrix-associated proteins. DAT was found to associate with the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv2.1 and synapsin Ib, a protein involved in regulating neurotransmitter release. An in silico analysis provided evidence for common transcriptional regulation of the DAT proteome genes. In summary, this study identified a network of proteins that are primary candidates for functional regulation of the DAT, an important player in mechanisms of mental disorders and drug addiction.
|MTH1, an oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphatase, protects the dopamine neurons from oxidative damage in nucleic acids caused by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. |
Yamaguchi, H; Kajitani, K; Dan, Y; Furuichi, M; Ohno, M; Sakumi, K; Kang, D; Nakabeppu, Y
Cell death and differentiation 13 551-63 2006
We previously reported that 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) accumulates in the cytoplasm of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease and the expression of MTH1 carrying an oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphatase activity increases in these neurons, thus suggesting that oxidative damage in nucleic acids is involved in dopamine neuron loss. In the present study, we found that levels of 8-oxoG in cellular DNA and RNA increased in the mouse nigrostriatal system during the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive dopamine neuron loss induced by the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). MTH1-null mice exhibited a greater accumulation of 8-oxoG in mitochondrial DNA accompanied by a more significant decrease in TH and dopamine transporter immunoreactivities in the striatum after MPTP administration, than in wild-type mice. We thus demonstrated that MTH1 protects the dopamine neurons from oxidative damage in the nucleic acids, especially in the mitochondrial DNA of striatal nerve terminals of dopamine neurons.
|Calmodulin kinase II interacts with the dopamine transporter C terminus to regulate amphetamine-induced reverse transport. |
Fog, JU; Khoshbouei, H; Holy, M; Owens, WA; Vaegter, CB; Sen, N; Nikandrova, Y; Bowton, E; McMahon, DG; Colbran, RJ; Daws, LC; Sitte, HH; Javitch, JA; Galli, A; Gether, U
Neuron 51 417-29 2006
Efflux of dopamine through the dopamine transporter (DAT) is critical for the psychostimulatory properties of amphetamines, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we show that Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) plays a key role in this efflux. CaMKIIalpha bound to the distal C terminus of DAT and colocalized with DAT in dopaminergic neurons. CaMKIIalpha stimulated dopamine efflux via DAT in response to amphetamine in heterologous cells and in dopaminergic neurons. CaMKIIalpha phosphorylated serines in the distal N terminus of DAT in vitro, and mutation of these serines eliminated the stimulatory effects of CaMKIIalpha. A mutation of the DAT C terminus impairing CaMKIIalpha binding also impaired amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux. An in vivo role for CaMKII was supported by chronoamperometry measurements showing reduced amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux in response to the CaMKII inhibitor KN93. Our data suggest that CaMKIIalpha binding to the DAT C terminus facilitates phosphorylation of the DAT N terminus and mediates amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux.
|Functional engraftment of human ES cell-derived dopaminergic neurons enriched by coculture with telomerase-immortalized midbrain astrocytes. |
Roy, Neeta S, et al.
Nat. Med., 12: 1259-68 (2006) 2006
To direct human embryonic stem (HES) cells to a dopaminergic neuronal fate, we cocultured HES cells that were exposed to both sonic hedgehog and fibroblast growth factor 8 with telomerase-immortalized human fetal midbrain astrocytes. These astrocytes substantially potentiated dopaminergic neurogenesis by both WA09 and WA01 HES cells, biasing them to the A9 nigrostriatal phenotype. When transplanted into the neostriata of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned parkinsonian rats, the dopaminergic implants yielded a significant, substantial and long-lasting restitution of motor function. However, although rich in donor-derived tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing neurons, the grafts exhibited expanding cores of undifferentiated mitotic neuroepithelial cells, which can be tumorigenic. These results show the utility of recreating the cellular environment of the developing human midbrain while driving dopaminergic neurogenesis from HES cells, and they demonstrate the potential of the resultant cells to mediate substantial functional recovery in a model of Parkinson disease. Yet these data also mandate caution in the clinical application of HES cell-derived grafts, given their potential for phenotypic instability and undifferentiated expansion.
|Habituation to the test cage influences amphetamine-induced locomotion and Fos expression and increases FosB/DeltaFosB-like immunoreactivity in mice. |
D Conversi, A Bonito-Oliva, C Orsini, S Cabib
Neuroscience 141 597-605 2006
Pre-exposure to the testing cage (habituation or familiarization) is a common procedure aimed at reducing the interference of novelty-induced arousal and drug-independent individual differences on neural and behavioral measures. However, recent results suggest that this procedure might exert a major influence on the effects of addictive drugs. The present experiments tested the effects of repeated exposure to a test cage (1 h daily for four consecutive days) on amphetamine-induced locomotion and Fos expression as well as on FosB/DeltaFosB-like immunoreactivity in mice of the C57BL/6J and DBA/2J inbred strains that differ for the response to amphetamine, stress and novelty. Daily experiences with the test cage increased FosB/DeltaFosB-like immunoreactivity in the medial-prefrontal cortex of both strains of mice and in the caudate of mice of the C57 strain, as reported for repeated stress in the rat. Moreover, previous habituation to the test cage reduced the locomotor response to a low dose of amphetamine only in DBA mice while it reduced amphetamine-induced Fos expression in medial-prefrontal cortex, dorsal caudate and the accumbens shell of mice of the C57 strain. These results demonstrate indexes of stress-like plasticity in the brains of mice exposed to a procedure of familiarization to the testing environment. Moreover, they suggest that the procedure of daily familiarization influences the pattern of brain Fos expression induced by amphetamine. Finally, they indicate complex interactions between experience with the testing environment, genotype and drug.
|Subcellular distribution of M2 muscarinic receptors in relation to dopaminergic neurons of the rat ventral tegmental area. |
Garzón, Miguel and Pickel, Virginia M
J. Comp. Neurol., 498: 821-39 (2006) 2006
Acetylcholine can affect cognitive functions and reward, in part, through activation of muscarinic receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to evoke changes in mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic transmission. Among the known muscarinic receptor subtypes present in the VTA, the M2 receptor (M2R) is most implicated in autoregulation and also may play a heteroreceptor role in regulation of the output of the dopaminergic neurons. We sought to determine the functionally relevant sites for M2R activation in relation to VTA dopaminergic neurons by examining the electron microscopic immunolabeling of M2R and the dopamine transporter (DAT) in the VTA of rat brain. The M2R was localized to endomembranes in DAT-containing somatodendritic profiles but showed a more prominent, size-dependent plasmalemmal location in nondopaminergic dendrites. M2R also was located on the plasma membrane of morphologically heterogenous axon terminals contacting unlabeled as well as M2R- or DAT-labeled dendrites. Some of these terminals formed asymmetric synapses resembling those of cholinergic terminals in the VTA. The majority, however, formed symmetric, inhibitory-type synapses or were apposed without recognized junctions. Our results provide the first ultrastructural evidence that the M2R is expressed, but largely not available for local activation, on the plasma membrane of VTA dopaminergic neurons. Instead, the M2R in this region has a distribution suggesting more indirect regulation of mesocorticolimbic transmission through autoregulation of acetylcholine release and changes in the physiological activity or release of other, largely inhibitory transmitters. These findings could have implications for understanding the muscarinic control of cognitive and goal-directed behaviors within the VTA.
|Regulation of amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux by protein kinase C beta. |
Johnson, LA; Guptaroy, B; Lund, D; Shamban, S; Gnegy, ME
The Journal of biological chemistry 280 10914-9 2005
Evidence suggests that protein kinase C (PKC) and intracellular calcium are important for amphetamine-stimulated outward transport of dopamine in rat striatum. In this study, we examined the effect of select PKC isoforms on amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux, focusing on Ca(2+)-dependent forms of PKC. Efflux of endogenous dopamine was measured in superfused rat striatal slices; dopamine was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The non-selective classical PKC inhibitor Gö6976 inhibited amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux, whereas rottlerin, a specific inhibitor of PKC delta, had no effect. A highly specific PKC beta inhibitor, LY379196, blocked dopamine efflux that was stimulated by either amphetamine or the PKC activator, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. None of the PKC inhibitors significantly altered [3H]dopamine uptake. PKC beta(I) and PKC beta(II), but not PKC alpha or PKC gamma, were co-immunoprecipitated from rat striatal membranes with the dopamine transporter (DAT). Conversely, antisera to PKC beta(I) and PKC beta(II) but not PKC alpha or PKCg amma were able to co-immunoprecipitate DAT. Amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux was significantly enhanced in hDAT-HEK 293 cells transfected with PKC beta(II) as compared with hDAT-HEK 293 cells alone, or hDAT-HEK 293 cells transfected with PKCa lpha or PKC beta(I). These results suggest that classical PKC beta(II) is physically associated with DAT and is important in maintaining the amphetamine-stimulated outward transport of dopamine in rat striatum.
|The primate thalamus is a key target for brain dopamine. |
Sánchez-González, MA; García-Cabezas, MA; Rico, B; Cavada, C
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 25 6076-83 2005
The thalamus relays information to the cerebral cortex from subcortical centers or other cortices; in addition, it projects to the striatum and amygdala. The thalamic relay function is subject to modulation, so the flow of information to the target regions may change depending on behavioral demands. Modulation of thalamic relay by dopamine is not currently acknowledged, perhaps because dopamine innervation is reportedly scant in the rodent thalamus. We show that dopaminergic axons profusely target the human and macaque monkey thalamus using immunolabeling with three markers of the dopaminergic phenotype (tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine, and the dopamine transporter). The dopamine innervation is especially prominent in specific association, limbic, and motor thalamic nuclei, where the densities of dopaminergic axons are as high as or higher than in the cortical area with the densest dopamine innervation. We also identified the dopaminergic neurons projecting to the macaque thalamus using retrograde tract-tracing combined with immunohistochemistry. The origin of thalamic dopamine is multiple, and thus more complex, than in any other dopaminergic system defined to date: dopaminergic neurons of the hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray matter, ventral mesencephalon, and the lateral parabrachial nucleus project bilaterally to the monkey thalamus. We propose a novel dopaminergic system that targets the primate thalamus and is independent from the previously defined nigrostriatal, mesocortical, and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems. Investigating this "thalamic dopaminergic system" should further our understanding of higher brain functions and conditions such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and drug addiction.
|Long-term survival of dopamine neurons derived from parthenogenetic primate embryonic stem cells (cyno-1) after transplantation. |
Sánchez-Pernaute, Rosario, et al.
Stem Cells, 23: 914-22 (2005) 2005
Dopamine (DA) neurons can be derived from human and primate embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro. An ES cell-based replacement therapy for patients with Parkinson's disease requires that in vitro-generated neurons maintain their phenotype in vivo. Other critical issues relate to their proliferative capacity and risk of tumor formation, and the capability of migration and integration in the adult mammalian brain. Neural induction was achieved by coculture of primate parthenogenetic ES cells (Cyno-1) with stromal cells, followed by sequential exposure to midbrain patterning and differentiation factors to favor DA phenotypic specification. Differentiated ES cells were treated with mitomycin C and transplanted into adult immunosuppressed rodents and into a primate (allograft) with out immunosuppression. A small percentage of DA neurons survived in both rodent and primate hosts for the entire term of the study (4 and 7 months, respectively). Other neuronal and glial populations derived from Cyno-1 ES cells showed, in vivo, phenotypic characteristics and growth and migration patterns similar to fetal primate transplants, and a majority of cells (>80%) expressed the forebrain transcription factor brain factor 1. No teratoma formation was observed. In this study, we demonstrate long-term survival of DA neurons obtained in vitro from primate ES cells. Optimization of differentiation, cell selection, and cell transfer is required for functional studies of ES-derived DA neurons for future therapeutic applications.
|Localization of immunoreactivity for deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), the receptor for the guidance factor netrin-1, in ventral tier dopamine projection pathways in adult rodents. |
P B Osborne, G M Halliday, H M Cooper, J R Keast
Neuroscience 131 671-81 2005
DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer)-the receptor of the netrin-1 neuronal guidance factor-is expressed and is active in the central nervous system (CNS) during development, but is down-regulated during maturation. The substantia nigra contains the highest level of netrin-1 mRNA in the adult rodent brain, and corresponding mRNA for DCC has also been detected in this region but has not been localized to any particular neuron type. In this study, an antibody raised against DCC was used to determine if the protein was expressed by adult dopamine neurons, and identify their distribution and projections. Significant DCC-immunoreactivity was detected in midbrain, where it was localized to ventrally displaced A9 dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, and ventromedial A10 dopamine neurons predominantly situated in and around the interfascicular nucleus. Strong immunoreactivity was not detected in dopamine neurons found elsewhere, or in non-dopamine-containing neurons in the midbrain. Terminal fields selectively labeled with DCC antibody corresponded to known nigrostriatal projections to the dorsolateral striatal patches and dorsomedial shell of the accumbens, and were also detected in prefrontal cortex, septum, lateral habenular and ventral pallidum. The unique distribution of DCC-immunoreactivity in adult ventral midbrain dopamine neurons suggests that netrin-1/DCC signaling could function in plasticity and remodeling previously identified in dopamine projection pathways. In particular, a recent report that DCC is regulated through the ubiquitin-proteosome system via Siah/Sina proteins, is consistent with a potential involvement in genetic and sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease.
|Recognition of benztropine by the dopamine transporter (DAT) differs from that of the classical dopamine uptake inhibitors cocaine, methylphenidate, and mazindol as a function of a DAT transmembrane 1 aspartic acid residue. |
Ukairo, OT; Bondi, CD; Newman, AH; Kulkarni, SS; Kozikowski, AP; Pan, S; Surratt, CK
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 314 575-83 2005
Binding of cocaine to the dopamine transporter (DAT) protein blocks synaptic dopamine clearance, triggering the psychoactive effects associated with the drug; the discrete drug-protein interactions, however, remain poorly understood. A longstanding postulate holds that cocaine inhibits DAT-mediated dopamine transport via competition with dopamine for formation of an ionic bond with the DAT transmembrane aspartic acid residue D79. In the present study, DAT mutations of this residue were generated and assayed for translocation of radiolabeled dopamine and binding of radiolabeled DAT inhibitors under identical conditions. When feasible, dopamine uptake inhibition potency and apparent binding affinity K(i) values were determined for structurally diverse DAT inhibitors. The glutamic acid substitution mutant (D79E) displayed values indistinguishable from wild-type DAT in both assays for the charge-neutral cocaine analog 8-oxa-norcocaine, a finding not supportive of the D79 "salt bridge" ligand-docking model. In addressing whether the D79 side chain contributes to the DAT binding sites of other portions of the cocaine pharmacophore, only inhibitors with modifications of the tropane ring C-3 substituent, i.e., benztropine and its analogs, displayed a substantially altered dopamine uptake inhibition potency as a function of the D79E mutation. A single conservative amino acid substitution thus differentiated structural requirements for benztropine function relative to those for all other classical DAT inhibitors. Distinguishing the precise mechanism of action of this DAT inhibitor with relatively low abuse liability from that of cocaine may be attainable using DAT mutagenesis and other structure-function studies, opening the door to rational design of therapeutic agents for cocaine abuse.
|Endogenous activation of mGlu5 metabotropic glutamate receptors contributes to the development of nigro-striatal damage induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in mice |
Battaglia, G. et al.
J. Neurosci., 24(4):828-835 (2004) 2004
|Surface targeting of the dopamine transporter involves discrete epitopes in the distal C terminus but does not require canonical PDZ domain interactions. |
Bjerggaard, C; Fog, JU; Hastrup, H; Madsen, K; Loland, CJ; Javitch, JA; Gether, U
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 24 7024-36 2004
The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) contains a C-terminal type 2 PDZ (postsynaptic density 95/Discs large/zona occludens 1) domain-binding motif (LKV) known to interact with PDZ domain proteins such as PICK1 (protein interacting with C-kinase 1). As reported previously, we found that, after deletion of this motif, hDAT was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 and Neuro2A cells, suggesting that PDZ domain interactions might be critical for hDAT targeting. Nonetheless, substitution of LKV with SLL, the type 1 PDZ-binding sequence from the beta2-adrenergic receptor, did not disrupt plasma membrane targeting. Moreover, the addition of an alanine to the hDAT C terminus (+Ala), resulting in an LKVA termination sequence, or substitution of LKV with alanines (3xAla_618-620) prevented neither plasma membrane targeting nor targeting into sprouting neurites of differentiated N2A cells. The inability of +Ala and 3xAla_618-620 to bind PDZ domains was confirmed by lack of colocalization with PICK1 in cotransfected HEK293 cells and by the inability of corresponding C-terminal fusion proteins to pull down purified PICK1. Thus, although residues in the hDAT C terminus are indispensable for proper targeting, PDZ domain interactions are not required. By progressive substitutions with beta2-adrenergic receptor sequence, and by triple-alanine substitutions in the hDAT C terminus, we examined the importance of epitopes preceding the LKV motif. Substitution of RHW(615-617) with alanines caused retention of the transporter in the ER despite preserved ability of this mutant to bind PICK1. We propose dual roles of the hDAT C terminus: a role independent of PDZ interactions for ER export and surface targeting, and a not fully clarified role involving PDZ interactions with proteins such as PICK1.
|Expression of dopamine and vesicular monoamine transporters and differential vulnerability of mesostriatal dopaminergic neurons. |
Tomás González-Hernández, Pedro Barroso-Chinea, Ignacio De La Cruz Muros, María Del Mar Pérez-Delgado, Manuel Rodríguez
The Journal of comparative neurology 479 198-215 2004
Numerous studies suggest that the dopamine transporter (DAT), responsible for dopamine reuptake, may act as a vulnerability factor in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2), responsible for its vesicular storage, as a neuroprotective factor. However, the relevance of each on the differential vulnerability of midbrain DA cells remains unknown. Here we studied the relationship between the expression pattern (mRNA and protein) of both transporters and the differential vulnerability of midbrain DA cells in a model of PD (intracerebroventricular injection of 6-OHDA in rats) and in monkey and human midbrain. Our results revealed that the expression patterns for VMAT2 mRNA and protein and DAT mRNA are similar, with the highest levels in the rostromedial region of substantia nigra (SNrm), followed by the caudoventral region of SN (SNcv), the ventral tegmental area and pigmented parabrabraquial nucleus (VTA/PBP), and finally the linear and interfascicular nuclei (Li/IF). In contrast, the expression of DAT protein in rats, monkeys, and humans followed a caudoventrolateral-to-rostrodorsomedial decreasing gradient (SNcv > SNrm > VTA/PBP > Li/IF), matching the degeneration profile observed after intracerebroventricular injection of 6-OHDA and in PD. In addition, DAT blockade made all midbrain DA cells equally resistant to 6-OHDA. These data indicate that DAT protein levels, but not DAT mRNA levels, are closely related to the differential vulnerability of midbrain DA cells and that this relationship is unaffected by the relative levels of VMAT2. Furthermore, the difference between DAT mRNA and protein profiles suggests internuclear differences in its posttransductional regulation.
|Reduced MPTP toxicity in noradrenaline transporter knockout mice. |
Karen S Rommelfanger, David Weinshenker, Gary W Miller
Journal of neurochemistry 91 1116-24 2004
The noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC) are damaged in Parkinson's disease (PD). Neurotoxin ablation of the LC noradrenergic neurons has been shown to exacerbate the dopaminergic toxicity of MPTP, suggesting that the noradrenergic system protects dopamine neurons. We utilized mice that exhibit elevated synaptic noradrenaline (NA) by genetically deleting the noradrenaline transporter (NET), a key regulator of the noradrenergic system (NET KO mice). NET KO and wild-type littermates were administered MPTP and striatal dopamine terminal integrity was assessed by HPLC of monoamines, immmunoblotting for dopaminergic markers and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry. MPTP significantly reduced striatal dopamine in wild-type mice, but not in the NET KO mice. To confirm that the protection observed in the NET KO mice was due to the lack of NET, we treated wild-type mice with the specific NET inhibitor, nisoxetine, and then challenged them with MPTP. Nisoxetine conferred protection to the dopaminergic system. These data indicate that NA can modulate MPTP toxicity and suggest that manipulation of the noradrenergic system may have therapeutic value in PD.
|Comparative analyses of alpha-synuclein expression levels in rat brain tissues and transfected cells. |
Christophe Wersinger, Melanie Banta, Anita Sidhu
Neuroscience letters 358 95-8 2004
alpha-Synuclein may have a role in the genesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases, and overexpression of alpha-synuclein in endogenously expressing systems and transfected cell lines has been linked to its cytotoxicity. Because there is no definition of what constitutes normal or high expression levels of alpha-synuclein, the current studies were undertaken. Protein levels of alpha-synuclein, and its binding partner, the dopamine transporter (DAT), were examined and semi-quantified in different rat brain regions and compared to the amounts of alpha-synuclein expressed in Ltk(-) cells after transfection with known amounts of DNA. Of the regions tested, alpha-synuclein expression was lowest in dopamine-producing brain areas, substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area; conversely, the expression of DAT was the highest in these tissues. Areas that do not normally degenerate in PD, such as cerebellum, nucleus accumbens and thalamus, expressed the highest levels of alpha-synuclein and very low DAT. Expression of DAT and alpha-synuclein to levels similar to those observed in rat substantia nigra were obtained after transfection of Ltk(-) cells with 1-2 microg each of alpha-synuclein and DAT DNAs, indicating that such transfection conditions produce normal expression levels of these proteins.
|Exercise induces behavioral recovery and attenuates neurochemical deficits in rodent models of Parkinson's disease. |
J L Tillerson, W M Caudle, M E Reverón, G W Miller
Neuroscience 119 899-911 2003
Exercise is thought to improve motor function and emotional well-being in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is not clear if the improvements are due to neurochemical alterations within the affected nigrostriatal region or result from a more general effect of exercise on affect and motivation. In this study we show that motorized treadmill running improves the neurochemical and behavioral outcomes in two rodent models of PD: the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model and bilateral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model in aged C57bl mice. Exposure to the dopamine (DA) toxins 6-OHDA or MPTP resulted in permanent behavioral and neurochemical loss. In contrast, when lesioned animals were exposed to treadmill activity two times a day for the first 10 days post-lesion they displayed no behavioral deficits across testing days and had significant sparing of striatal DA, its metabolites, tyrosine hydroxylase, vesicular monoamine transporter, and DA transporter levels compared to lesion sedentary animals. These results demonstrate that exercise following nigrostriatal damage ameliorates related motor symptoms and neurochemical deficits in rodent models of PD.
|Grid performance test to measure behavioral impairment in the MPTP-treated-mouse model of parkinsonism. |
Jennifer L Tillerson, Gary W Miller
Journal of neuroscience methods 123 189-200 2003
Behavioral impairments in mice following administration of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) require large depletions in striatal dopamine content and are often transient. In this paper, we describe a simple and inexpensive test that measures long-term behavioral deficits in mice treated with moderate doses of MPTP. These measures are significantly correlated with the loss of striatal dopamine and immunoreactivity of the dopamine transporter, vesicular monoamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase. In addition, behavioral impairments on the measures were reversed following L-DOPA administration. Employment of this test will allow for more efficacious use of mice in PD research, as well as provide more sensitive measures of behavioral improvement following potential therapeutic or neuroprotective interventions.
|L-DOPA does not cause neurotoxicity in VMAT2 heterozygote knockout mice. |
Reveron, Maria E, et al.
Neurotoxicology, 23: 611-9 (2002) 2002
One of the most useful treatments of Parkinson's disease (PD) is dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) administration. However, L-DOPA has been suggested to be toxic to dopamine (DA) neurons and perhaps contribute to the progression of the disease. Sequestration of DA and dopaminergic neurotoxins into vesicles by the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is a key factor in preventing cellular damage. Mice with reduced expression of VMAT2 (VMAT2 heterozygote knockout mice; VMAT2 (+/-)) are more sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and methamphetamine. In this study, we subjected VMAT2 (+/-) mice to subchronic administration of L-DOPA to determine if it was toxic in this model. VMAT2 wild-type (VMAT2 (+/+)) and VMAT2 (+/-) mice were given i.p. injections of L-DOPA:carbidopa (50:5 mg/kg) three times a day for 28 days. Biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase in striatal DA levels in both groups of mice treated with L-DOPA. L-DOPA treatment significantly decreased DAT levels in VMAT2 (+/+) mice, but not in VMAT2 (+/-) mice. VMAT2 protein levels, an index of terminal integrity and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive nigral cells remained unchanged after L-DOPA treatment. These data indicate that in an animal model that displays increased susceptibility to dopaminergic injury, a subchronic administration of L-DOPA does not induce toxicity.
|Distribution and pharmacology of alpha 6-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors analyzed with mutant mice. |
Nicolas Champtiaux, Zhi-Yan Han, Alain Bessis, Francesco Mattia Rossi, Michele Zoli, Lisa Marubio, J Michael McIntosh, Jean-Pierre Changeux
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 22 1208-17 2002
The alpha6 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is expressed at very high levels in dopaminergic (DA) neurons. However, because of the lack of pharmacological tools selective for alpha6-containing nAChRs, the role of this subunit in the etiology of nicotine addiction remains unknown. To provide new tools to investigate this issue, we generated an alpha6 nAChR knock-out mouse. Homozygous null mutants (alpha6-/-) did not exhibit any gross neurological or behavioral deficits. A careful anatomic and molecular examination of alpha6-/- mouse brains demonstrated the absence of developmental alterations in these animals, especially in the visual and dopaminergic pathways, where the alpha6 subunit is normally expressed at the highest levels. On the other hand, receptor autoradiography revealed a decrease in [3H]nicotine, [3H]epibatidine, and [3H]cytisine high-affinity binding in the terminal fields of retinal ganglion cells of alpha6-/- animals, whereas high-affinity [125I]alpha-conotoxinMII (alphaCtxMII) binding completely disappeared in the brain. Moreover, inhibition of [3H]epibatidine binding on striatal membranes, using unlabeled alphaCtxMII or cytisine, revealed the absence of alphaCtxMII-sensitive and cytisine-resistant [3H]epibatidine binding sites in alpha6-/- mice, although the total amount of binding was unchanged. Because alphaCtxMII, a toxin formerly thought to be specific for alpha3beta2-containing nAChRs, is known to partially inhibit nicotine-induced dopamine release, these results support the conclusion that alpha6 rather than alpha3 is the partner of beta2 in the nicotinic modulation of DA neurons. They further show that alpha6-/- mice might be useful tools to understand the mechanisms of nicotine addiction, although some developmental compensation might occur in these mice.
|Carotid body chemoreceptors in dissociated cell culture. |
C A Nurse, I M Fearon
Microscopy research and technique 59 249-55 2002
Carotid body (CB) glomus or type 1 cells act as peripheral chemoreceptors which detect changes in arterial PO(2), PCO(2), and pH and help maintain homeostasis via the reflex control of ventilation. Over the last approximately 12 years significant progress has been made towards understanding chemotransduction mechanisms using freshly isolated or cultured type 1 cells. The latter preparation allows several powerful experimental manipulations (e.g., co-culture with sensory neurons) resulting in significant advances in our understanding of CB chemoreception. Here, we review several properties of type 1 cells after several days to weeks in culture. Typically, cultured type 1 cells grow in monolayer clusters enveloped by glial-like, type II, or sustentacular cells, which are immunopositive for the glial marker, glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP). These cells can undergo DNA synthesis, evidenced by uptake of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), and show a limited capacity for cell division. Mitosis and survival of type 1 cells can be regulated by oxygen tension and/or growth factors (e.g., bFGF, insulin). In the rat, type 1 cells are immunopositive for several monoaminergic markers, including tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT), and 5-HT. They also express cholinergic markers (e.g., vesicular acetylcholine transporter; VAChT), the highly conserved synaptic vesicle protein (SV2), and gap junctional proteins including Connexin 32 (Cx32). Moreover, in long-term culture ( approximately 2 weeks) they retain expression of O(2)-sensitive, TASK-1-like, and Ca(2+)-dependent (BK), K(+) channels as revealed by immunocytochemistry or RT-PCR analysis of mRNA extracted from type 1 clusters after removal from the culture surface.
|Detection of behavioral impairments correlated to neurochemical deficits in mice treated with moderate doses of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. |
Jennifer L Tillerson, W Michael Caudle, Maria E Reverón, Gary W Miller
Experimental neurology 178 80-90 2002
Overt behavioral symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) do not occur until over 80% of the striatal dopamine content has been lost. Diagnosis of the disorder relies on identifying clinical symptoms including akinesia, resting tremor, and rigidity. In retrospect, behavioral deficits are observed several years prior to diagnosis. Behavioral manifestations in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD, such as changes in general locomotor activity and rotorod performance, require large doses of MPTP and are often transient. We hypothesized that, as in PD, subtle behavioral changes also occur in the MPTP model. In this paper, we demonstrate that mice treated with moderate doses of the dopaminergic toxin MPTP display deficits in behavioral parameters that are significantly correlated with the loss of striatal dopamine. In addition, these behavioral measures are correlated to dopamine transporter, vesicular monoamine transporter, and tyrosine hydroxylase expression and are improved following L-DOPA administration. Detection of dopamine-modulated behavioral changes in moderately depleted MPTP mice will allow for more efficacious use of this model in PD research.
|Estrogen protects against the synergistic toxicity by HIV proteins, methamphetamine and cocaine. |
Turchan, J; Anderson, C; Hauser, KF; Sun, Q; Zhang, J; Liu, Y; Wise, PM; Kruman, I; Maragos, W; Mattson, MP; Booze, R; Nath, A
BMC neuroscience 2 3 2001
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to increase at alarming rates in drug abusers, especially in women. Drugs of abuse can cause long-lasting damage to the brain and HIV infection frequently leads to a dementing illness. To determine how these drugs interact with HIV to cause CNS damage, we used an in vitro human neuronal culture characterized for the presence of dopaminergic receptors, transporters and estrogen receptors. We determined the combined effects of dopaminergic drugs, methamphetamine, or cocaine with neurotoxic HIV proteins, gp120 and Tat.Acute exposure to these substances resulted in synergistic neurotoxic responses as measured by changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and neuronal cell death. Neurotoxicity occurred in a sub-population of neurons. Importantly, the presence of 17beta-estradiol prevented these synergistic neurotoxicities and the neuroprotective effects were partly mediated by estrogen receptors.Our observations suggest that methamphetamine and cocaine may affect the course of HIV dementia, and additionally suggest that estrogens modify the HIV-drug interactions.
|Early direct and transneuronal effects in mice with targeted expression of a toxin gene to D1 dopamine receptor neurons. |
P Padungchaichot, J Y Wong, A L Natoli, J S Massalas, D I Finkelstein, A L Lawrence, J Drago
Neuroscience 95 1025-33 2000
The neurochemical profile was examined at postnatal day 3-4 in mutant mice generated by in vivo Cre mediated activation of an attenuated diphtheria toxin gene inserted into the D1 dopamine receptor gene locus. An earlier study of this model had shown that D1 dopamine receptor, substance P and dynorphin were not expressed in the striatum. Quantitative in situ hybridization analysis showed an increase in D2 dopamine receptor and enkephalin messenger RNA expression. The nigrostriatal pathway in the mutant pups was intact with a normal number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area in addition to a normal pattern of striatal dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity. Quantitative analysis of striatal dopamine transporter density using [3H]mazindol showed a reduction of 26% suggesting a degree of transneuronal down-regulation. There was also a 49% reduction of striatal GABA receptor binding and a 36% reduction of striatal muscarinic receptor binding in mutant pups. The number of healthy striatal neuropeptide Y-containing interneurons was also substantially down-regulated in the mutant striatum. In contrast, there was an increase in the number of striatal cholinergic interneurons. Down-regulated cortical GABA receptor and muscarinic receptor binding was also observed in addition to subtle morphological changes in the neuropeptide Y-expressing population of cortical neurons. The changes reflect the early cascade of events which follows the ablation of D1 dopamine receptor-positive cells. Although extensive changes in a number of striatal and cortical neurons were demonstrated, only subtle transneuronal effects were seen in the nigrostriatal pathway.
|RAT ANTI-DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY|