|Inhibition of tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium current in dorsal root ganglia neurons mediated by D1/D5 dopamine receptors. |
Galbavy, W; Safaie, E; Rebecchi, MJ; Puopolo, M
Dopaminergic fibers originating from area A11 of the hypothalamus project to different levels of the spinal cord and represent the major source of dopamine. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of catecholamines, is expressed in 8-10% of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, suggesting that dopamine may be released in the dorsal root ganglia. Dopamine has been shown to modulate calcium current in DRG neurons, but the effects of dopamine on sodium current and on the firing properties of small DRG neurons are poorly understood.The effects of dopamine and dopamine receptor agonists were tested on the tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium current recorded from acutely dissociated small (diameter ≤ 25 μm) DRG neurons. Dopamine (20 μM) and SKF 81297 (10 μM) caused inhibition of TTX-R sodium current in small DRG neurons by 23% and 37%, respectively. In contrast, quinpirole (20 μM) had no effects on the TTX-R sodium current. Inhibition by SKF 81297 of the TTX-R sodium current was not affected when the protein kinase A (PKA) activity was blocked with the PKA inhibitory peptide (6-22), but was greatly reduced when the protein kinase C (PKC) activity was blocked with the PKC inhibitory peptide (19-36), suggesting that activation of D1/D5 dopamine receptors is linked to PKC activity. Expression of D1and D5 dopamine receptors in small DRG neurons, but not D2 dopamine receptors, was confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. In current clamp experiments, the number of action potentials elicited in small DRG neurons by current injection was reduced by ~ 30% by SKF 81297.We conclude that activation of D1/D5 dopamine receptors inhibits TTX-R sodium current in unmyelinated nociceptive neurons and dampens their intrinsic excitability by reducing the number of action potentials in response to stimulus. Increasing or decreasing levels of dopamine in the dorsal root ganglia may serve to adjust the sensitivity of nociceptors to noxious stimuli.
|Dopamine-induced plasticity, phospholipase D (PLD) activity and cocaine-cue behavior depend on PLD-linked metabotropic glutamate receptors in amygdala. |
Krishnan, B; Genzer, KM; Pollandt, SW; Liu, J; Gallagher, JP; Shinnick-Gallagher, P
Cocaine-cue associations induce synaptic plasticity with long lasting molecular and cellular changes in the amygdala, a site crucial for cue-associated memory mechanisms. The underlying neuroadaptations can include marked alterations in signaling via dopamine (DA) receptors (DRs) and metabotropic glutamate (Glu) receptors (mGluRs). Previously, we reported that DR antagonists blocked forms of synaptic plasticity in amygdala slices of Sprague-Dawley rats withdrawn from repeated cocaine administration. In the present study, we investigated synaptic plasticity induced by exogenous DA and its dependence on mGluR signaling and a potential role for phospholipase D (PLD) as a downstream element linked to mGluR and DR signaling. Utilizing a modified conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm as a functional behavioral measure, we studied the neurophysiological effects after two-weeks to the last cocaine conditioning. We recorded, electrophysiologically, a DR-induced synaptic potentiation in the basolateral to lateral capsula central amygdala (BLA-lcCeA) synaptic pathway that was blocked by antagonists of group I mGluRs, particularly, the PLD-linked mGluR. In addition, we observed 2-2.5 fold increase in PLD expression and 3.7-fold increase in basal PLD enzyme activity. The enhanced PLD activity could be further stimulated (9.3 fold) by a DA D1-like (D1/5R) receptor agonist, and decreased to control levels by mGluR1 and PLD-linked mGluR antagonists. Diminished CPP was observed by infusion of a PLD-linked mGluR antagonist, PCCG-13, in the amygdala 15 minutes prior to testing, two weeks after the last cocaine injection. These results imply a functional interaction between D1/5Rs, group I mGluRs via PLD in the amygdala synaptic plasticity associated with cocaine-cues.
|Immunoblot and immunohistochemical comparison of murine monoclonal antibodies specific for the rat D1a and D1b dopamine receptor subtypes. |
Luedtke, R R, et al.
J. Neuroimmunol., 101: 170-87 (1999)
The two D1-like dopamine receptor subtypes, D1a and D1b, are structurally similar and pharmacologically indistinguishable using currently available ligands. To differentiate between the D1-like dopamine receptor subtypes, murine monoclonal antibodies to the rat Dla and the rat D1b dopamine receptor have been prepared. Rat D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors expressed in Sf9 cells were used to verify the immunospecificity of the monoclonal anti-(D1a dopamine receptor) and anti-(D1b dopamine receptor) antibodies using immunoblot and immunohistochemical techniques. These two antibodies were used to compare the temporal dynamics of D1-like dopamine receptors expressed in Sf9 cells following infection with recombinant baculovirus and to monitor the partial purification of detergent solubilized receptors following ion exchange chromatography. Immunoreactivity of the anti-(D1a receptor) antibody was observed in the striatum and cortical regions of the rat brain using immunoblot techniques. No reactivity on immunoblots was observed for the anti-(D1b receptor) antibody using rat brain tissue, probably due to the low levels of receptor expression. For immunohistochemical studies using rat brain slices, the anti-(D1a receptor) antibody heterogeneously labeled cells and punctate processes within the striatal neuropil while labeling in the adjacent cerebral cortex was weak. Anti-(D1b receptor) antibody immunoreactivity was weak in the .striatum and generally limited to sparse perikarya in the dorsal region. However, immunoreactivity was observed in numerous cells within the vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal band and in the ventral pallidum. Immunoreactivity of the anti-(D1b receptor) antibody was also observed in layer V pyramidal neurons of the frontal sensorimotor cortex.