|Central noradrenergic lesioning using anti-DBH-saporin: anatomical findings. |
Wrenn, C C, et al.
Brain Res., 740: 175-84 (1996)
The ability to create lesions of discrete neuronal populations is an important strategy for clarifying the function of these populations. The power of this approach is critically dependent upon the selectivity of the experimental lesioning technique. Anti-neuronal immunotoxins offer an efficient way to produce highly specific neural lesions. Two previous immunotoxins have been shown to be effective in both the CNS and PNS. They are OX7-saporin, which is targeted at Thy1, and 192-saporin, which is targeted at the low affinity neurotrophin receptor, p75NTR. In the present study, we sought to determine if an immunotoxin targeted at the neurotransmitter synthesizing enzyme, dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), could selectively destroy central noradrenergic neurons after intraventricular administration. This immunotoxin, which consists of a monoclonal antibody to DBH coupled by a disulfide bond to saporin (a ribosome inactivating protein), has been shown to be selectively toxic to peripheral noradrenergic sympathetic neurons in rats after systemic injection. In the present study, immunohistochemical and Cresyl violet staining showed that the noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus are destroyed bilaterally after intraventricular (i.c.v.) injection of 5, 10, and 20 micrograms of anti-DBH-saporin (alpha-DBH-sap) into rats. Complete bilateral lesioning of the A5 and A7 cell groups occurred at the two higher doses. Lesions of the A1/C1 and A2/C2/C3 cell groups were incomplete at all three doses. Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area and serotonergic neurons of the raphé, all monoaminergic neurons that do not express DBH, survived all alpha-DBH-sap doses. The cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain, which are selectively killed by i.c.v. injection of 192-saporin, and cerebellar Purkinje cells which are killed by OX7-saporin, were not killed by alpha-DBH-sap. These results show that alpha-DBH-sap efficiently and selectively destroys CNS noradrenergic neurons after i.c.v. injection. The preferential destruction of locus coeruleus, A5, and A7 over A1/C1 and A2/C2/C3 may be due to more efficient access of the immunotoxin to these neurons and their terminals after i.c.v. injection.
|Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin-induced sympathectomy in adult rats. |
Picklo, M J, et al.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 275: 1003-10 (1995)
Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin (DHIT) is an antibody-targeted noradrenergic lesioning tool comprised of a monoclonal antibody against the noradrenergic enzyme, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, conjugated to saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein. Noradrenergic-neuron specificity and completeness and functionality of sympathectomy were assessed. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 28.5, 85.7, 142 or 285 micrograms/kg DHIT i.v. Three days after injection, a 6% to 73% decrease in the neurons was found in the superior cervical ganglia of the animals. No loss of sensory, nodose and dorsal root ganglia, neurons was observed at the highest dose of DHIT. In contrast, the immunotoxin, 192-saporin (142 micrograms/kg), lesioned all three ganglia. To assess the sympathectomy, 2 wk after treatment (285 micrograms/kg), rats were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg) and cannulated in the femoral artery and vein. DHIT-treated animals' basal systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower than controls. Basal plasma norepinephrine levels were 41% lower in DHIT-treated animals than controls. Tyramine-stimulated release of norepinephrine in DHIT-treated rats was 27% of controls. Plasma epinephrine levels of DHIT animals were not reduced. DHIT-treated animals exhibited a 2-fold hypersensitivity to the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine. We conclude that DHIT selectively delivered saporin to noradrenergic neurons resulting in destruction of these neurons. Anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin administration produces a rapid, irreversible sympathectomy.
|Soluble and membrane-bound forms of dopamine beta-hydroxylase are encoded by the same mRNA. |
Lewis, E J and Asnani, L P
J. Biol. Chem., 267: 494-500 (1992)
A full length cDNA clone for bovine dopamine beta-hydroxylase was expressed in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells by stable transformation of this cell line with a plasmid expression vector. The recombinant protein exhibited dopamine beta-hydroxylase enzyme activity and was found in both the soluble and membrane fractions of the secretory vesicle. Immunoprecipitation of cell extracts from recombinant cell lines with dopamine beta-hydroxylase antisera followed by fractionation on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed two subunits, which migrated to relative molecular masses of 76 and 78 kDa. The recombinant protein co-fractionated with neurotransmitter when subcellular structures were separated by sucrose gradient density centrifugation, suggesting that the protein was routed to the secretory vesicles. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunoreactivity in those sucrose gradient fractions presumed to contain secretory vesicles was resistant to treatment with trypsin unless the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 was also present to disrupt membrane structure. The 76- and 78-kDa isoform were each found in both the membrane and soluble fractions of the secretory vesicle. Treatment of cultured cells with nerve growth factor or 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cyclic AMP alters the relative distribution of the subunits such that the 76-kDa form predominates. The subcellular distribution of a dopamine beta-hydroxylase cDNA clone lacking the first 16 nucleotide residues was also determined. The predicted amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by this cDNA would be deleted of the first 13 residues of the signal sequence, which were reported to be present in the membrane-bound form, but not the soluble form, of native dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Taljanidisz, J., Stewart, L., Smith, A. J., and Klinman, J. P. (1989) Biochemistry 28, 10054-10061). Immunoprecipitable dopamine beta-hydroxylase derived from expression of the deleted cDNA was found in both the membrane-bound and soluble fractions of the secretory vesicle. These experiments demonstrate that the membrane-bound and soluble forms of dopamine beta-hydroxylase are derived from one primary translation product, which is also sufficient to produce enzyme activity. In addition, the amino-terminal amino acids encoding residues 1-13, which compose the hydrophilic region of the signal sequence, are not necessary for the biogenesis of membrane-bound dopamine beta-hydroxylase.