Key Specifications Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|B, Gp, H, R, Rb, Fe||IHC, FUNC, RIA, WB||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Dopamine β Hydroxylase Antibody|
|Presentation||Rabbit Serum. Lyophilized, no preservatives. Reconstitute with 50 μL of sterile distilled water. Centrifuge to remove any insoluble material.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 µL|
References | 13 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Human iPSC neurons display activity-dependent neurotransmitter secretion: aberrant catecholamine levels in schizophrenia neurons. |
Hook, V; Brennand, KJ; Kim, Y; Toneff, T; Funkelstein, L; Lee, KC; Ziegler, M; Gage, FH
Stem cell reports 3 531-8 2014
This study investigated human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) -derived neurons for their ability to secrete neurotransmitters in an activity-dependent manner, the fundamental property required for chemical neurotransmission. Cultured hiPSC neurons showed KCl stimulation of activity-dependent secretion of catecholamines--dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and epinephrine (Epi)--and the peptide neurotransmitters dynorphin and enkephlain. hiPSC neurons express the biosynthetic enzymes for catecholamines and neuropeptides. Because altered neurotransmission contributes to schizophrenia (SZ), we compared SZ to control cultures of hiPSC neurons and found that SZ cases showed elevated levels of secreted DA, NE, and Epi. Consistent with increased catecholamines, the SZ neuronal cultures showed a higher percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons, the first enzymatic step for catecholamine biosynthesis. These findings show that hiPSC neurons possess the fundamental property of activity-dependent neurotransmitter secretion and can be advantageously utilized to examine regulation of neurotransmitter release related to brain disorders.
|Differential postpartum sensitivity to the anxiety-modulating effects of offspring contact is associated with innate anxiety and brainstem levels of dopamine beta-hydroxylase in female laboratory rats. |
Ragan, CM; Lonstein, JS
Neuroscience 256 433-44 2014
In female mammals, the postpartum period involves dramatic shifts in many socioemotional behaviors. This includes a suppression of anxiety-related behaviors that requires recent physical contact with offspring. Factors contributing to differences among females in their susceptibility to the anxiety-modulating effect of offspring contact are unknown, but could include their innate anxiety and brain monoaminergic activity. Anxiety behavior was assessed in a large group of nulliparous female rats and the least-anxious and most-anxious tertiles were mated. Anxiety was assessed again postpartum after females were permitted or prevented from contacting their offspring 4 h before testing. Levels of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH, norepinephrine synthesizing enzyme) and tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2, serotonin synthesizing enzyme) were measured in the brainstem and dorsal raphe, respectively. It was found that anxiety-related behavior in the two groups did not differ when dams were permitted contact with offspring before testing. Removal of the offspring before testing, however, differentially affected anxiety based on dams' innate anxiety. Specifically, dams reverted back to their pre-mating levels of anxiety such that offspring removal slightly increased anxiety in the most-anxious females but greatly lowered anxiety in the least-anxious females. This reduction in anxiety in the least-anxious females after litter removal was associated with lower brainstem DBH. There was no relationship between females' anxiety and dorsal raphe TPH2. Thus, a primary effect of recent contact with offspring on anxiety-related behavior in postpartum rats is to shift females away from their innate anxiety to a more moderate level of responding. This effect is particularly true for females with the lowest anxiety, may be mediated by central noradrenergic systems, and has implications for their ability to attend to their offspring.
|Wnts enhance neurotrophin-induced neuronal differentiation in adult bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells via canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways. |
Tsai, HL; Deng, WP; Lai, WF; Chiu, WT; Yang, CB; Tsai, YH; Hwang, SM; Renshaw, PF
PloS one 9 e104937 2014
Wnts were previously shown to regulate the neurogenesis of neural stem or progenitor cells. Here, we explored the underlying molecular mechanisms through which Wnt signaling regulates neurotrophins (NTs) in the NT-induced neuronal differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). NTs can increase the expression of Wnt1 and Wnt7a in hMSCs. However, only Wnt7a enables the expression of synapsin-1, a synaptic marker in mature neurons, to be induced and triggers the formation of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons. Human recombinant (hr)Wnt7a and general neuron makers were positively correlated in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, the expression of synaptic markers and neurites was induced by Wnt7a and lithium, a glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitor, in the NT-induced hMSCs via the canonical/β-catenin pathway, but was inhibited by Wnt inhibitors and frizzled-5 (Frz5) blocking antibodies. In addition, hrWnt7a triggered the formation of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons via the non-canonical/c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, and the formation of these neurons was inhibited by a JNK inhibitor and Frz9 blocking antibodies. In conclusion, hrWnt7a enhances the synthesis of synapse and facilitates neuronal differentiation in hMSCS through various Frz receptors. These mechanisms may be employed widely in the transdifferentiation of other adult stem cells.
|Sensory and autonomic neurons project both to the smooth retractor penis and to the striated bulbospongiosus muscles. Neurochemical features of the sympathetic subset. |
Maddalena Botti,Ferdinando Gazza,Luisa Ragionieri,Luisa Bo Minelli,Rino Panu
Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007) 295 2012
Aim of the present study was to verify, by means of double retrograde neuronal tracers technique, the hypothesis that a subpopulation of sensory and autonomic neurons send collateral axons to both smooth and striated genital muscles. We also wanted to define the neurochemical content of the eventually retrogradelly double labeled (RDL) neurons in the sympathetic trunk ganglia (STG). We used six intact pigs and we injected the tracer Diamidino Yellow (DY) in the smooth left retractor penis muscle (RPM) and the tracer Fast Blue (FB) in the striated left bulbospongiosus muscle (BSM). Rare (2 ± 0.6) RDL neurons were found in the ipsilateral S2 spinal ganglion (SG), 220 ± 42 in the ipsilateral STGs, from L3 to S3, 19 ± 15 in the contralateral S1-S2 ones and 22 ± 5 in the bilateral caudal mesenteric ganglia (CMG). The RDL neurons of the STG were IR for TH (85 ± 13%), DβH (69 ± 17%), NPY (69 ± 23%), nNOS (60 ± 11%), LENK (54 ± 19%), VIP (53±26%), SOM (40 ± 8%), CGRP (34 ± 12%), SP (31 ± 16%), and VAChT (28 ± 3%). Our research highlights the presence of sensory and sympathetic neurons with qualitatively different neurochemical content sending axons both to the smooth RPM and to the striated BSM of the pig. These RDL neurons are likely to project to the smooth vasal musculature to create the ideal physiological conditions in which these muscles can optimize the erectile function. Anat Rec, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
|Synaptic connections of the neurokinin 1 receptor-like immunoreactive neurons in the rat medullary dorsal horn. |
Qi, J; Zhang, H; Guo, J; Yang, L; Wang, W; Chen, T; Li, H; Wu, SX; Li, YQ
PloS one 6 e23275 2011
The synaptic connections between neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor-like immunoreactive (LI) neurons and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-, glycine (Gly)-, serotonin (5-HT)- or dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH, a specific marker for norepinephrinergic neuronal structures)-LI axon terminals in the rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH) were examined under electron microscope by using a pre-embedding immunohistochemical double-staining technique. NK1 receptor-LI neurons were observed principally in laminae I and III, only a few of them were found in lamina II of the MDH. GABA-, Gly-, 5-HT-, or DBH-LI axon terminals were densely encountered in laminae I and II, and sparsely in lamina III of the MDH. Some of these GABA-, Gly-, 5-HT-, or DBH-LI axon terminals were observed to make principally symmetric synapses with NK1 receptor-LI neuronal cell bodies and dendritic processes in laminae I, II and III of the MDH. The present results suggest that neurons expressing NK1 receptor within the MDH might be modulated by GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory intrinsic neurons located in the MDH and 5-HT- or norepinephrine (NE)-containing descending fibers originated from structures in the brainstem.Full Text Article
|Participation of brainstem monoaminergic nuclei in behavioral depression. |
Yan Lin,Yasmeen Sarfraz,Ashley Jensen,Adrian J Dunn,Eric A Stone
Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior 100 2011
Several lines of research have now suggested the controversial hypothesis that the central noradrenergic system acts to exacerbate depression as opposed to having an antidepressant function. If correct, lesions of this system should increase resistance to depression, which has been partially but weakly supported by previous studies. The present study reexamined this question using two more recent methods to lesion noradrenergic neurons in mice: intraventricular (ivt) administration of either the noradrenergic neurotoxin, DSP4, or of a dopamine-β-hydroxylase-saporin immunotoxin (DBH-SAP ITX) prepared for mice. Both agents given 2 weeks prior were found to significantly increase resistance to depressive behavior in several tests including acute and repeated forced swims, tail suspension and endotoxin-induced anhedonia. Both agents also increased locomotor activity in the open field. Cell counts of brainstem monoaminergic neurons, however, showed that both methods produced only partial lesions of the locus coeruleus and also affected the dorsal raphe or ventral tegmental area. Both the cell damage and the antidepressant and hyperactive effects of ivt DSP4 were prevented by a prior i.p. injection of the NE uptake blocker, reboxetine. The results are seen to be consistent with recent pharmacological experiments showing that noradrenergic and serotonergic systems function to inhibit active behavior. Comparison with previous studies utilizing more complete and selective LC lesions suggest that mouse strain, lesion size or involvement of multiple neuronal systems are critical variables in the behavioral and affective effects of monoaminergic lesions and that antidepressant effects and hyperactivity may be more likely to occur if lesions are partial and/or involve multiple monoaminergic systems.
|Neuroanatomical study of the A11 diencephalospinal pathway in the non-human primate. |
Barraud, Q; Obeid, I; Aubert, I; Barrière, G; Contamin, H; McGuire, S; Ravenscroft, P; Porras, G; Tison, F; Bezard, E; Ghorayeb, I
PloS one 5 e13306 2010
The A11 diencephalospinal pathway is crucial for sensorimotor integration and pain control at the spinal cord level. When disrupted, it is thought to be involved in numerous painful conditions such as restless legs syndrome and migraine. Its anatomical organization, however, remains largely unknown in the non-human primate (NHP). We therefore characterized the anatomy of this pathway in the NHP.In situ hybridization of spinal dopamine receptors showed that D1 receptor mRNA is absent while D2 and D5 receptor mRNAs are mainly expressed in the dorsal horn and D3 receptor mRNA in both the dorsal and ventral horns. Unilateral injections of the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG) into the cervical spinal enlargement labeled A11 hypothalamic neurons quasi-exclusively among dopamine areas. Detailed immunohistochemical analysis suggested that these FG-labeled A11 neurons are tyrosine hydroxylase-positive but dopa-decarboxylase and dopamine transporter-negative, suggestive of a L-DOPAergic nucleus. Stereological cell count of A11 neurons revealed that this group is composed by 4002±501 neurons per side. A 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxication with subsequent development of a parkinsonian syndrome produced a 50% neuronal cell loss in the A11 group.The diencephalic A11 area could be the major source of L-DOPA in the NHP spinal cord, where it may play a role in the modulation of sensorimotor integration through D2 and D3 receptors either directly or indirectly via dopamine formation in spinal dopa-decarboxylase-positives cells.Full Text Article
|Xeno-free defined conditions for culture of human embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells and dopaminergic neurons derived from them. |
Andrzej Swistowski,Jun Peng,Yi Han,Anna Maria Swistowska,Mahendra S Rao,Xianmin Zeng
PloS one 4 2009
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) may provide an invaluable resource for regenerative medicine. To move hESCs towards the clinic it is important that cells with therapeutic potential be reproducibly generated under completely defined conditions.Full Text Article
|Effects of saporin-induced lesions of three arousal populations on daily levels of sleep and wake. |
Blanco-Centurion, C; Gerashchenko, D; Shiromani, PJ
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 14041-8 2007
The hypocretin (HCRT) neurons are located only in the perifornical area of the lateral hypothalamus and heavily innervate the cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain (BF), histamine neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), and the noradrenergic locus ceruleus (LC) neurons, three neuronal populations that have traditionally been implicated in regulating arousal. Based on the innervation, HCRT neurons may regulate arousal by driving these downstream arousal neurons. Here, we directly test this hypothesis by a simultaneous triple lesion of these neurons using three saporin-conjugated neurotoxins. Three weeks after lesion, the daily levels of wake were not changed in rats with double or triple lesions, although rats with triple lesions were asleep more during the light-to-dark transition period. The double- and triple-lesioned rats also had more stable sleep architecture compared with nonlesioned saline rats. These results suggest that the cholinergic BF, TMN, and LC neurons jointly modulate arousal at a specific circadian time, but they are not essential links in the circuitry responsible for daily levels of wake, as traditionally hypothesized.
|Sex and species differences in tyrosine hydroxylase-synthesizing cells of the rodent olfactory extended amygdala. |
Katharine V Northcutt, Zuoxin Wang, Joseph S Lonstein
The Journal of comparative neurology 500 103-15 2007
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA) are anatomically connected sites necessary for chemosensory regulation of social behaviors in rodents. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are a valuable model for studying the neural regulation of social behaviors because, unlike many other rodents, they are gregarious, pair bond after copulating, and are biparental. We herein describe sex and species differences in immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme for catecholamine synthesis, in the BST and MeA. Virgin male prairie voles had a large number of TH-immunoreactive cells in areas analogous to the rat principal nucleus of the BST (pBST) and the posterodorsal medial amygdala (MeAPd). Virgin female prairie voles had far fewer TH-immunoreactive cells in these sites ( approximately 17% of the number of cells as males in the pBST, approximately 35% of the number of cells in the MeAPd). A few TH-immunoreactive cells were found in the BST of male and female hamsters and meadow voles, but not in rats. The MeApd also contained a few TH-immunoreactive cells in male and female hamsters and male meadow voles, but not rats. Castration greatly reduced the number of TH-immunoreactive cells in the male prairie vole pBST and MeAPd, an effect that could be reversed with testosterone. Furthermore, treating ovariectomized females with testosterone substantially increased TH-immunoreactive cells in both sites. Therefore, a species-specific sex difference in TH expression is found in a chemosensory pathway in prairie voles. Expression of TH in these sites is influenced by circulating gonadal hormones in adults, which may be related to changes in their display of social behaviors across the reproductive cycle.
|Hypocretin/orexin overexpression induces an insomnia-like phenotype in zebrafish. |
Prober, DA; Rihel, J; Onah, AA; Sung, RJ; Schier, AF
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 26 13400-10 2006
As many as 10% of humans suffer chronic sleep disturbances, yet the genetic mechanisms that regulate sleep remain essentially unknown. It is therefore crucial to develop simple and cost-effective vertebrate models to study the genetic regulation of sleep. The best characterized mammalian sleep/wake regulator is hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt), whose loss results in the sleep disorder narcolepsy and that has also been implicated in feeding behavior, energy homeostasis, thermoregulation, reward seeking, addiction, and maternal behavior. Here we report that the expression pattern and axonal projections of embryonic and larval zebrafish Hcrt neurons are strikingly similar to those in mammals. We show that zebrafish larvae exhibit robust locomotive sleep/wake behaviors as early as the fifth day of development and that Hcrt overexpression promotes and consolidates wakefulness and inhibits rest. Similar to humans with insomnia, Hcrt-overexpressing larvae are hyperaroused and have dramatically reduced abilities to initiate and maintain rest at night. Remarkably, Hcrt function is modulated by but does not require normal circadian oscillations in locomotor activity. Our zebrafish model of Hcrt overexpression indicates that the ancestral function of Hcrt is to promote locomotion and inhibit rest and will facilitate the discovery of neural circuits, genes, and drugs that regulate Hcrt function and sleep.
|Directed differentiation of neural cells to hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons. |
Ohyama, K; Ellis, P; Kimura, S; Placzek, M
Development (Cambridge, England) 132 5185-97 2005
Hypothalamic neurons play a key role in homeostasis, yet little is known about their differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that Shh and Bmp7 from the adjacent prechordal mesoderm govern hypothalamic neural fate, their sequential action controlling hypothalamic dopaminergic neuron generation in a Six3-dependent manner. Our data suggest a temporal distinction in the requirement for the two signals. Shh acts early to specify dopaminergic neurotransmitter phenotype. Subsequently, Bmp7 acts on cells that are ventralised by Shh, establishing aspects of hypothalamic regional identity in late-differentiating/postmitotic cells. The concerted actions of Shh and Bmp7 can direct mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells to a hypothalamic dopaminergic fate ex vivo.
|Characteristics of the trigeminal depressor response in cats |
Ohshita, N. et al.
J. Neurosci. Res., 76(6):891-901 (2004) 2004
|RABBIT ANTI-DOPAMINE BETA HYDROXYLASE (DBH) POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY|