|Selective anti-leukaemic activity of low-dose histone deacetylase inhibitor ITF2357 on AML1/ETO-positive cells. |
Barbetti, V; Gozzini, A; Rovida, E; Morandi, A; Spinelli, E; Fossati, G; Mascagni, P; Lübbert, M; Dello Sbarba, P; Santini, V
We analysed the in vitro effects of a new hydroxamate derivative, ITF2357, on AML cells. ITF2357 potently induced histone acetylation. ITF2357 0.1 microM blocked proliferation and induced apoptosis in AML1/ETO-positive Kasumi-1 cells, while AML1/ETO-negative HL60, THP1 and NB4 cell lines were sensitive only to 1 microM ITF2357. Apoptosis was induced by 0.1 microM ITF2357 in AML1/ETO-positive primary blasts and U937-A/E cells induced to express AML1/ETO, but not in U937-A/E cells non-expressing AML1/ETO. In Kasumi-1 cells 0.1 microM ITF2357 induced AML1/ETO degradation through a caspase-dependent mechanism. ITF2357 0.1 microM also determined DNMT1 efflux from, and p300 influx to, the nucleus. Moreover, 0.1 microM ITF2357 determined local H4 acetylation and release of DNMT1, HDAC1 and AML1/ETO, paralleled by recruitment of p300 to the IL-3 gene promoter. ITF2357 treatment, however, did not induce re-expression of IL-3 gene. Accordingly, the methylation level of IL-3 promoter, as well as of several other genes, was unmodified. In conclusion, ITF2357 emerged as an anti-leukaemic agent very potent on AML cells, and on AML1/ETO-positive cells in particular. More relevantly, clearly emerged from our results that ITF2357 could be an ideal agent to treat AML subtypes presenting AML1/ETO fusion protein which determine HDAC involvement in leukaemogenesis.
|DNA methylation and chromatin - unraveling the tangled web. |
Robertson, Keith D
Oncogene, 21: 5361-79 (2002)
Methylation of cytosines within the CpG dinucleotide by DNA methyltransferases is involved in regulating transcription and chromatin structure, controlling the spread of parasitic elements, maintaining genome stability in the face of vast amounts of repetitive DNA, and X chromosome inactivation. Cellular DNA methylation is highly compartmentalized over the mammalian genome and this compartmentalization is essential for embryonic development. When the complicated mechanisms that control which DNA sequences become methylated go awry, a number of inherited genetic diseases and cancer may result. Much new information has recently come to light regarding how cellular DNA methylation patterns may be established during development and maintained in somatic cells. Emerging evidence indicates that various chromatin states such as histone modifications (acetylation and methylation) and nucleosome positioning (modulated by ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling machines) determine DNA methylation patterning. Additionally, various regulatory factors interacting with the DNA methyltransferases may direct them to specific DNA sequences, regulate their enzymatic activity, and allow their use as transcriptional repressors. Continued studies of the connections between DNA methylation and chromatin structure and the DNA methyltransferase-associated proteins, will likely reveal that many, if not all, epigenetic modifications of the genome are directly connected. Such studies should also yield new insights into treating diseases involving aberrant DNA methylation.
|Targeted mutation of the DNA methyltransferase gene results in embryonic lethality. |
Li, E, et al.
Cell, 69: 915-26 (1992)
Gene targeting in embryonic stem (ES) cells has been used to mutate the murine DNA methyltransferase gene. ES cell lines homozygous for the mutation were generated by consecutive targeting of both wild-type alleles; the mutant cells were viable and showed no obvious abnormalities with respect to growth rate or morphology, and had only trace levels of DNA methyltransferase activity. A quantitative end-labeling assay showed that the level of m5C in the DNA of homozygous mutant cells was about one-third that of wild-type cells, and Southern blot analysis after cleavage of the DNA with a methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease revealed substantial demethylation of endogenous retroviral DNA. The mutation was introduced into the germline of mice and found to cause a recessive lethal phenotype. Homozygous embryos were stunted, delayed in development, and did not survive past mid-gestation. The DNA of homozygous embryos showed a reduction of the level of m5C similar to that of homozygous ES cells. These results indicate that while a 3-fold reduction in levels of genomic m5C has no detectable effect on the viability or proliferation of ES cells in culture, a similar reduction of DNA methylation in embryos causes abnormal development and embryonic lethality.